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Definition of bourgeoisOn this website you will find one or more meanings in your language for the word or expression: bourgeois. As well as definitions of Wikipedia pages and other Web pages related to the word bourgeois and, of course, synonym of bourgeois with appropriate images related to the use of this expression.
1. Concept BurguesBourgeoisie is a term of French origin (bourgeoisie). At least since the beginning of the 17TH century already was used literally in Spanish encyclopedias and in the same mercantilist sense that later immortalised by Karl Marx:
The French nobles fleeing the cities and reside in their villas, enjoying their haciendas, and gastandolas in horses and weapons, in contempt of the merchandise (mercantilism), judging by commoners who live in the cities, who they call bourgeois. Cristóbal Suárez de Figueroa, «Universal Plaza of all sciences and arts». 1615
In the 19th century, the term would be celebrated as one of the plot elements of the thesis of Karl Marx and also extensively in political economy, political philosophy, sociology and philosophy of history. It appoints the well-to-do middle class; Although their initial use and its specific use in the social sciences or the ideolexico (especially in the Marxist phraseology) has many different variations and nuances.
Bourgeois to Marxism
According to the interpretation of Marxist history (historical materialism) the bourgeoisie is identified by its role in the capitalist mode of production, which is characterized by its position in the structures of production and relations of production that establishes with other classes, especially with the proletariat. Its function is the possession of the means of production, establishing their unequal relationship with the proletariat, that do not possess these means must sell their labour force. The extraction of surplus value of this work allows for the accumulation of capital by the bourgeoisie.
2 Meaning of bourgeoisThe word bourgeois presents several references, one of the most widespread is that which refers to bourgeois is that individual belonging to the bourgeoisie in a given society.
The bourgeoisie is a term used to refer to the class average accommodated and that would be especially popular in the 19th century as a result of exaggerated use that gave it the German philosopher and creator of Marxism, Karl Marx, to designate precisely the social class that held the means of production and who was opposed to the proletariat.
For example, the proletarian, is the concept opposite to the bourgeoisie, proletarians were those individuals who work in Exchange for the perception of a wage and as such do not have the means of production.
It should be noted that the origin of the word bourgeoisie is the concept of burgos, term dating back to the middle ages, where it was used to designate those urban cities, populated by individuals who are involved in trade and crafts and which were also called burgos just.
Let us remember that at that time there was a domain of the rural areas in economic matters and the bourgeoisie broke into the social system to stay and impose more and more.
Further, when America, is discovered in the 15th century, the business is made much more intense and then this class would begin to enrich themselves and grow as a result of the active trade with the new colonies.
A few centuries later, in the 18th century, the term returns to regain presence because of the Industrial Revolution and Marxism, since to proliferate manufacturing activity controlled by rich traders generated rivalry that we mentioned, between these and the proletariat, workers who were heavily exploited by the most powerful.
As expected this economic power that the bourgeois steamship made it spouse a political participation that was denied, meanwhile, would get it during the revolution, French, when together with his workers clashed with the authority of the King.
Once achieved the long-desired presence in power instead of the working class to recognize she was submitted and thus the bourgeoisie gave way to what is known today as capitalism, the economic system in which the capital is the big driver of the economy.
And in colloquial language the word is used to account for who leans toward an existence in which send comfort and relaxation.
3. Definition of bourgeoisBourgeoisie. Term of French origin that began to be used in the middle ages to designate those urbanites who made the first trade exchange activities, such as merchants and artisans. With the term bourgeoisie is nominated people residing in the boroughs or cities, developing tasks typically urban, and differentiated from the agriculture and livestock. The term bourgeoisie is used in economics, sociology, philosophy and history.
HistoryWith the term bourgeoisie is nominated people residing in the boroughs or cities, developing tasks typically urban, and differentiated from the agriculture and livestock.
While the economy of the ancient age and Media based mostly in rural work, wouldn't recognize the existence of other activities such as the craft or trade.
In the middle ages the development of trade was emerging, and not well seen by the Church, since the end of profit remained him to that activity ethical character.
11Th centuryFrom the 11th century, people start to move field to the cities, causing a large number of middle-class population, some very rich, especially the constituted by powerful traders and bankers.
Cities emerged in places where their people, for example, where there were ports, or at the crossroads, in places originally destined to fairs or shrines, all attractive sites for travellers. The cities were money supply, and this allowed its inhabitants, permission of the feudal lords for self-governance.
14Th centuryIn the 14th century occurred a great rural crisis, the crisis of the 14th century, in the western part of the European continent, caused by poor harvests, where famine caused diseases and population decrease. Many surviving peasants, decided to try better luck in the cities, which complicated the feudal lords to get labor on their lands. The feudal offered them money in Exchange for their work, which until then was free, or rented them fields, but farmers could not compete with the production of the feudal, possessing greater technology, fertilizers and land quality. Thus, those who stayed, soon also abandoned rural life to the urban, favoring enlargement and the development of cities, where lived the former rural poor, in search of work, and the rich merchants and bankers.
Power economic growing of this social class, the bourgeoisie, not allowed, however, access to part of privileged States, which were the nobility and the clergy, except for marriage between people belonging to wealthy burgher families and noble poor, although these new nobles were not well regarded by the ancient traditional nobility. The bourgeoisie continued integrating the third State or State plain, population sector which comprised from the beggar at the rich merchant, passing by the proletarian workers and class media professional, who argued the State, because they were the only ones who pay taxes. These rich merchants began to differentiate itself from the rest of the State level, carrying out important works, such as schools, hospitals or nursing homes.
15Th centuryThe 15th century brought new impetus to commercial activity, upon the discovery of new territories that intensified trade between Europe and the rich American territories, from which brought raw materials and precious metals, in Exchange for processed products (manufacturing).
The division of Christianity with the birth of Protestantism, changed the image that had up to then of the businessman, considering its speculative as not contrary to religion and positive action, but quite the opposite.
The scientific and technological development promoted by the new conception of the world, which placed the human being at the Centre of the world (humanism) and advocated artistic and literary development through the Renaissance and resurgence of ideas through the Enlightenment, became a powerful social class, especially since the Industrial Revolution the bourgeoisiewhere, through the factories accumulated huge profits at the expense of salaried workers.
These rich bourgeois, started a fight for the vindication of his political rights, which did not have, trying to knock down the foundations of the old regime, trying to achieve three ideals: liberty, equality and fraternity, establishing a new system of Government: democracy, where power resided in the village and not a King who justified his immense and absolute power, as coming from God.
While the bourgeoisie fought to eradicate privileges, also had them in her own womb, since the bourgeois, little capital traders or artisans, went on to integrate the list of poor earners, employees at the factories of the rich bourgeoisie.
Absolute monarchy should yield to the need for financial resources to grant money, charges the bourgeois in the bureaucratic apparatus of the State, but this was not enough.
England. Triumph of the bourgeoisieIn England, the war between the parliamentarians, under the command of Oliver Cromwell, and the King Carlos I, meant with the execution of the monarch, the triumph of the bourgeoisie who managed to support the Parliament, establish a Republic as a form of Government, which defends the interests of its kind, the development of commercial and industrial activity. Cromwell developed a protectoria policy of English trade, especially of their ships for export of goods, which were unprotected during the monarchy.
French RevolutionIn France, this struggle resulted in the French Revolution, born to achieve equality of classes which in practice divided their leaders themselves, since some sought to exclude from the right to vote do not pay those taxes. The French Revolution, meant a great achievement of the high bourgeoisie, especially by the recognition for the first time in the history of humanity, of the natural rights of man, of his freedom, equality, property, and resistance to oppression. However, workers had endure another century of injustice and subjugation, without labour rights, since the bourgeois even though they proclaimed the right to work, did not establish dignified conditions, since not suited to them, such as factory patterns.
They were Socialist and communist ideas that created the workers class consciousness, and his opposition to capitalist society, based on a new privilege, now determined by wealth, to claim for fair conditions of work.