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Definition of pericardium
1 Meaning of pericardiumThe pericardium (from the Greek περι, around, and κάρδιος, heart) contained in the Middle mediastinum, is a membrane fibroserosa of 2-layer that surrounds the heart and great vessels away from the neighboring structures. It forms a sort of pouch or SAC that covers completely the heart and extends to the roots of the great vessels. It has two parts, the serous pericardium and fibrous pericardium. Altogether lining around the heart so that it does not have any injury.
It joins the diaphragm by the pericardiofrenico ligament. It has a form of inverted (with the base down) cone. Its external face, both front and sides has fat formations. Its inner face is the parietal serous pericardium.
Extends from the roots of the great vessels IRIS, laterally from a pleural cavity up to the other and anteroposteriormente from the sternum to the esophagus. In its upper point experiences a reflection of your inner blade which provides the formation of the superficial portion.
PartsA base and four sides, a previous, one rear or Mediastinal pleural right, a vertex, a left pleural and origin of the great vessels.
The base is a triangle with the apex right and left which is settled on the diaphragm, in the leaflet of the central tendon of the diaphragm. The inferior vena cava (VCI) is located in its rear angle and right. Contains a space portal, composed of connective tissue, separates the diaphragm behind the area of adhesion, attaching to the pericardium.
The front face, below, extends from the diaphragm to vascular heart root. It is of triangular shape, where the most acute angle corresponds to the area below and left, which is the apex of the heart. It is oblique from below upward and forward backward, divided into two parts: a part lower or cardiac, and vascular or higher elsewhere.
On this side you can see two breasts, allowing the movement of great vessels: the oblique, backward, at the level of the Pulmonary veins, pericardial and the transverse, posterior pericardial behind the emergence of the aorta and the pulmonary artery.
The rear face is convex, and vertically stretches from the diaphragm to the right pulmonary artery, across from a pulmonary hilum to the other, and between the Pulmonary veins right and left; It is less high than the front.
The right side is vertical, narrow and extends from the diaphragm to the superior vena cava (VCS). It brings together the front with the back side. In this, a channel is located below the pulmonary artery bisected by the superior right pulmonary vein.
The left side adapts to the shape of the left edge of the heart. It is oblique, convex upwards and backwards and it is crossed by the left Pulmonary veins.
2. Definition of pericardiumThe pericardium is a membranous sac that surrounds the heart. The concept comes from the Greek language and refers to two layers covering both mentioned organ and the roots of its major blood lines.
This bag, which is in the Middle mediastinum, can be divided into fibrous pericardium (the outer layer) and serous pericardium (inner layer). Ligament pericardiofrenico, on the other hand, links it with the diaphragm.
The fibrous pericardium, of conical appearance, is based articulated to the diaphragm. Thanks to his presence, the movement of distension of the heart is a limit. The serous pericardium, in turn, can be divided in parietal and visceral, two regions that have their separation in the pericardial cavity.
It is important to highlight that, between both layers, there is a fluid that is responsible for the lubrication of these elements. Thanks to this Lubricator element, the heart can perform movements of contraction with greater ease.
There are various problems that may arise in the pericardium. When fluid accumulates in the bag, one speaks of a pericardial effusion, causing pressure on the heart and hinders normal operation. The consequences of this buildup can lead to tamponade pericardial, able to cause death. Different causes, on the other hand, can lead to an inflammation of the pericardium that is called pericarditis.
Symptoms that may reflect a problem in the pericardium, problems breathing, include discomfort in the area of the chest and palpitations. The treatment of these disorders will depend on the problem in question.