What is the meaning of Piaget? Concept, Definition of Piaget

Definition of Piaget

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1. Concept of Piaget

(Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1896-Geneva, 1980) Swiss psychologist. Jean Piaget graduated and received his doctorate in biology at the University of his native city (1918). From 1919 he started his work in psychological institutions in Zurich and Paris, where he developed his theory about the nature of knowledge.
He published several studies on child psychology, and based primarily on the growth of children, developed a theory of intelligence sensorimotor describing the spontaneous development of practical intelligence, based on the action, formed from the emerging concepts that has the child's permanent objects of space, time and the cause.
For Piaget, the principles of logic begin to develop before the language and are generated through the baby's sensory and motor actions in interaction with the environment. Piaget established a series of successive stages in the development of intelligence:
1 Stage of intelligence sensorimotor or practical, basic affective regulations and the first external fixations of affectivity. This stage is the period of infant and lasts until the age of one year and half or two years; it predates the development of language and thought itself.
2 Stadium of intuitive intelligence, spontaneous inter-individual feelings and social relations of submission to the adult. This stage ranges from two to seven years. Preoperative thinking was born in her: the child may represent the movements without running them; It is the time of symbolic play and of selfishness, and from four years of intuitive thinking.
3 Stadium of intellectual operations concrete, the feelings of moral and social cooperation and the beginning of the logic. This stage comprises of seven once-doce years.
4. Stage of abstract intellectual operations, the formation of the personality and the intellectual and affective inclusion in society of adults (adolescence).
Jean Piaget is one of the most important places of contemporary psychology and, without a doubt, the most prominent in the field of child psychology. The universities of Harvard, Paris, Brussels and Rio de Janeiro awarded the title of doctor honoris cause.
Multiple studies and wrote a large number of books; the most important works of Piaget are language and thinking in the child (1923); The representation of the world in the child (1926); The birth of intelligence in the child (1936); The psychology of intelligence (1947); Treaty of logic (1949); Introduction to genetic epistemology (1950); Six studies of Psychology (1964); Memory and intelligence (1968), and the development of thinking (1975).

2 Meaning of Piaget

Get an idea of Jean William Fritz Piaget to shape us from it a concept, refers to the August 9, 1896 in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, where he was born in the bosom of a cultured family, being his father Professor of medieval literature.
It was a child curious and interested in biology and a very good student. In 1918 he achieved a doctorate in biology, beginning soon his interest in psychoanalysis.
At a school in France, he worked with children, by applying intelligence test created by its director, Alfred Binet, proving that small children, ponies responses deliberately, what was not happening with older children, which led him to conclude that madurativas stages in the process of knowledge existed in the human. It deepened these studies investigating even about their own children.
For Piaget, since the child born up to approximately two years, the stadium is called sensorimotor, or of practical intelligence, just dominated by the sensitivity and Motricity. The child plays, moves, unlike things by their shapes, colors, flavors, sucks, begins to walk, and then to jump and run. The interaction between the child and the environment, makes that the logical principles, arise in his mind until the child talk.
Preoperative Stadium, where the child is understanding external reality develops between the two and seven years. It is characterized by symbolic, more individual than group games, the intuitive thinking (from 4 years) and the glorification of the ego.
Between 7 and 11 years of age he began to sketch a comparison already donated of ideas, although priority is given to concrete thinking, and is even incapable of abstracting. The child can already participate in game and cooperative group activities. From the age of 12 will be born thinking abstract, able to draw conclusions and apply them to similar situations.
He died on September 16, 1980, in the city of Geneva.

3. Definition of Piaget

Within the genetic psychology is Jean William Fritz Piaget one of the key figures, along with Lev Vigotsky, due to its great advances on the study of the child. Jean Piaget was born an August 9, 1896 in the city of Neuchatel, and died on September 16, 1980 in Geneva; i.e., that both the beginning of his life as the end happened in the European country of Switzerland. From very small interest was guided by biology, and as a result, became biologist and epistemologist (epistemology is a philosophical branch studying scientific knowledge), closely linking psychology and widely trained in it.
In the work of Piaget, we can find elements taken from Alfred Binet (1857-1911); so is that Piaget values of greatly to Binet by his discovery of a thought away images, i.e., test the existence of conceptualization. In addition, considered the contribution of a method (mental test, in relation to the Binet scale) focused on the "mechanism" of thought. This relationship between Piaget and Binet is no coincidence, since Piaget worked in the Parisian laboratory installed by Binet and driven doctor Théodore Simon. There, Piaget was devoted to standardization of mental test, a task that was not of the most rewarding for him, so it decided to adapt it to their own goals; This way Piaget takes interest in children errors in the test, whereas these positively, because they express the own child thinking mode. The positive error, Piaget, in opposition to the error of Binet gives rise to a fundamental difference between these two authors, found in the notion of age. While Binet for the age of the child is a time chronological, limited and moderately relevant to certain levels of intelligence; for Piaget, age is just a reference, and thus reduces the proportional relationship between age and intelligence (but does not eliminate this partial correspondence). Piaget prefers to speak of stages of intelligence, instead of using the notion of age, which are time periods or stages in the cognitive development of the child.
Listed by Piaget stages of intelligence are as follows: sensorimotor (that it is divided in turn into six stages), preoperative, operative surgery, formal concrete. The last stage contains the psychological processes more complex and developed, characterised by the process of abstraction and the existence of representations (especially in the first period or stage two elements).
Piaget studied intelligence, using their biological knowledge, and by means, not only the theory, but experimentation. In relation to intelligence, it is that he is interested in the interactions between the organism and the environment.
Another of the authors that we read to better understand Piaget is Claparède, whom Piaget takes the biological concept of 'need'. The intelligence meets a need. Claparède distinguishes two elements that make the intelligence (and in general all processes of living beings): function and mechanism (or organ, or structure). The function is invariably (functional homogeneity), while the mechanism varies (heterogeneity of structures). Piaget Claparède takes the notion of functional invariance, but instead of being biological (as in Claparède), transforms into logic; in the same way, accepts the invariability of the bodies, but he prefers to speak of "organization". Therefore, Piaget experiences with the organization or structure of the child, to formulate a theory of logical invariance with respect to intelligence.
Piaget child study can be divided into two stages: initially used the mental test, while then leave them aside to interact directly with the subject through dialogue. Piaget child "manipulates" objects (as an infant), and at the same time reflects on such manipulations (as an adult), by which this author no longer talk about the differences between child and adult to talk about the similarities between them. "" The child as such no longer exists, it is more a transition from baby to adult.
Piaget (as well as Binet) eliminates the introspection of their experimental study of the individual, to pass, not the method of the test of Binet (who also criticized), but polling "in depth".
Piaget's theory is characterized by an active subject (like the subject of Vygotsky), whose interaction with the medium allows for adaptation (which responds to a need), and this, in turn, comes from the intelligence. The subject changed to the object (assimilation) and, at the same time, the object changes the subject (accommodation), thus establishing a reciprocal influence.
Piaget goes the development towards learning, in contrast with Vygotsky. Development is therefore, independent learning and precedes it.