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Definition of Post-Impressionism
1 Meaning of Post-ImpressionismPost-Impressionism or post-impressionism is a historical term which applies to the pictorial styles of the late 19th century and early 20th century post-impressionism. It was coined by the British Critic Roger Fry on the occasion of an exhibition of paintings by Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin and Vincent van Gogh, which was held in London in 1910. This term actually covers different personal styles pose them as an extension of Impressionism and at the same time as a rejection of the limitations of this. The Post-Impressionist continued using vivid colors, a compact application of paint, distinguishable brushstrokes and real-life issues, but tried to bring more emotion and expression to his painting. Although the postimpressionists based his work on the use of color experienced by the Impressionists, reacted against the desire to faithfully reflect the nature and presented a more subjective view of the world.
All the artists grouped under the term post-impressionism knew and practiced at some point the Impressionist principles. Impressionism was a pictorial movement developed strongly in the second half of the 19th century and which broke the existing academic, social, and economic assumptions in the art. At the time, it meant a revolution and his works received harsh criticism. To be rejected in official circuits, the Group of impressionist painters organized their own exhibitions and maintained cohesion that lasted until decades later, some of them achieved some recognition. The disintegration of this movement was born partly as evolution and partly as rupture post-impressionism.
Impressionism was a break of the key concepts in painting and sculpture. If until then they dominated the rational study of the work, the composition of previous drawings and the clarity of lines, the neo-impressionists abandoned that ground to try to capture in his works the spontaneous impression, as it came to its senses. No matter the object that he wanted to paint as the received feeling them both. The feeling fleeting, ephemeral, hardly discernible and reproducible. The impressionist painters abandoned workshops and went outside. His models were the street, the building, the landscape, the person, the fact but not in its static and permanent, but perceived concept that currently almost unique. The Impressionist painter, painted in situ and finished the work quickly. He used loose, short and vigorous strokes. Objects and the space itself is not delimited lines following the Renaissance canons they are formed in the retina of the observer from such imprecise strokes. Impressionist painting discovered the changing value of light and movement, using a rich color palette that excluded black because the color black, as they said, did not exist in nature.
2. Definition of Post-ImpressionismThe Post-Impressionist are artists of late 19th century and early 20th century, which gave it a particular, individualistic approach to Impressionism, following with the use of capturing real life in sharp, colorful strokes, but extending its limits, giving his paintings, more emotion, subjectivity and expression, and were so called by the English artist and art critic, Roger Fry, who was a great admirer of this style.
The Post-Impressionist include to Paul Cézanne (1839-1906). He represented especially nature in a simple, analytic and solid, predominating the geometry in the forms, with the right combination of colors, giving a tone different from every angle. It is considered predecessor of cubism, being one of his most representative works "Pines and rocks".
Georges Seurat (1859-1891) managed to give shine to their creations, for example in the painting "A Sunday on the island of la Grande Jatte", using a method that the impressionist Monet because it had been used, but not systematically: is the pointillism, which is placed one next to the other across the spectrum of colors, provided, to give an effect of softness that was very attractive to the Viewer to distance. It also combined and harmonized forms.
Other impressionist painters post, were Dutch Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890) he expressed in his works his own tormented, pure colors and winding forms spirit; Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) with his paintings of Islands and native who knew navigating the Pacific Ocean, as "Women of Tahiti" and "Arearea" or "Breton Calvary".
3 Concept of Post-ImpressionismImpressionism, with its effort to capture the natural light, had been dissolving forms in their environment and all the elements of the picture had been losing volume, drawing and sense of space. In the last years of the nineteenth and early twentieth Centuries we find a few painters from Impressionism, derive to a personal painting that advertise some of the most important pictorial movements of the 20th century. Post-impressionism is among other things a recovery of the importance of drawing and the concern for capturing not only light but also the expressiveness of the things and enlightened people. its significance for the evolution of art is, if anything, greater than the of the impressionist painters.
Some general characteristics, including the painter who best represents them:-Interested in the construction of shape, the drawing and the expressiveness of the objects and human figures.
-Conciliation between volumetric effect (violated by the Impressionist light glare that almost had electronic forms) and the purely aesthetic taste (Cézanne).
(-Conception of the box based on rigorously geometrical bodies (Cézanne)).
-Use of contrasting colors for distendir and define levels and forms.
-Pictorial effects based on structural, spatial and chromatic searches.
(-Use of colours pure with great emotional charge (Van Gogh) and modulated (Gauguin)).
-Imaginative creations based on cursive strokes trying to express the anguish and the interior desolation (V. Gogh).
-Interested in the exotic (Gauguin) and the lower depths (Toulouse-Lautrec).
-Creation of compositions simplified and static, looking for the harmony of the chromatic masses in well tight profiles (Gauguin).
Influences-Of the Impressionists, the taste for the contrasts of colors in Cezanne-of Rubens, the neo-impressionists and Japanese prints, rich chromaticism, pure colors and flowing of forms in V. Gogh cursividad - exotic cultures of Oceania, primitivism in Gauguin.
Postimpresionistas paintersPaul Gauguin. It starts in the impressionism with Pissarro; leave a comfortable life, family, women and children and is poorly installed in Paris and Brittany, and later moved to Tahiti, where he painted his series of Tahitian women. It stands out for use as expressive making color with strong, vibrant and often arbitrary ringtones offers large planes bounded by curved linear rhythms. It has two preferred themes: the exotic world of Tahiti and the "primitiveness" of Britain. His work is preferred symbolism and his sense of color will affect the Fauvists and Expressionists. Waiver mainstreaming, suppresses the modeling and the shadows and identifies feeling flat as in Japanese paintings.
Paul Cezanne. In his painting recovers the volume geometry, drawing and the definition of the forms using brush strokes that have been called constructive; all this without sacrificing the color of great intensity through the contrasts and colored shadows. In his pictures enhances the foreground and makes small distortions resulting from the use of more than one point of view (still life). His painting is the starting point of Cubism and has influenced colorists like Matisse. The card players, the mountain of Santa Vitoria...
Van Gogh. He is set to Arles excited by light of Provence painted figures and landscapes of winding and flaming shapes that reflect his inner fire. It is passionate about the color as a vehicle to express the frequent depressions and anxieties that it had suffered. His brushwork is very characteristic, sinuous, italics, and thick; colors are sometimes aggressive with - yellow on orange - not frequent contrasts. It opens the door to the expressionism of the 20th. Self-portrait, starry night, sowing,...
Toulouse-Lautrec. Reflects us the atmosphere of the nightclubs: dancers, singers, and prostitutes are their models. In technical drawing, capturing movement and ironic and caricatural load is essential. He was the driving force behind the poster. In his works, highlights: Moulin Rouge.