Amnesia: memory loss ... Unemployment and mental health: survivor syndrome ... Mega Post » Mental Health

Mega Post Health and Wellness » Mental Health

  1. Amnesia: memory loss
  2. Unemployment and mental health: survivor syndrome
  3. DSK case: the theory of the failed act or unconscious self-destruction
  4. Happiness improves health and prolongs life
  5. Society and mental health
  6. Psychology, psychiatry and psychoanalysis
  7. When you go to a mental health specialist
  8. The psychological effects of unemployment and underemployment

Amnesia: memory loss

Amnesia is defined as a total or partial loss of memory. What these losses are due? What types of amnesia exist? What are the treatments? Dr. Catherine Thomas-Antérion, neuroscientist responsible for the unit neuropsychology Center Hospitalier Universitaire de Bellevue (France), answers our questions.
Amnesia may be related to illnesses or accidents. Depending on the type of amnesia will be affected memory systems or others. Treatment depends on the cause of the amnesia.

Amnesia: The Causes

Amnesia means memory loss. "Appears in very diverse pathologies is given as occurs an altered functioning of brain structures that govern memory" says Dr.. Catherine Thomas-Antérion. Thus, amnesia may be related to degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, which combines brain atrophy and loss of neurons, or infectious diseases such as herpes encephalitis (inflammation followed by neuronal death in the important temporal regions for memory). Amnesia can also be caused as a result of head trauma. "In that case, it can be caused by direct vascular injury hematoma or microlesions shaking white matter in the frontal lobes, basic for retrieving stored information areas" precise neurologist.
Another possible cause of amnesia: an amnesic stroke. "This is a temporary suspension of registration memory, which lasts between 6 and 24 hours and is always recoverable, " says the specialist. "Let 's say it's like a power failure, the cause unknown, in memory circuits, " he adds. Amnesia may also be due to a seizure or be classified as iatrogenic, that is related to taking medications, particularly anticholinergics, which have the side effect of slowing records and disorders consolidation especially in people elderly and vulnerable.
Finally, mental disorders can also cause amnesia. "It is, in that case, memory disorders restriction of attentional resources are busy with something else. However, that memory works well good care resources are needed, "said Dr. Thomas-Antérion. "Attentional resources may be disturbed by an overload of fixed ideas, concerns (depression, OCD ...), interference ..." says the doctor.

Unemployment and mental health: survivor syndrome

When there are mass layoffs that will suffer but also those who stay. Survivor syndrome suffer not only people who survive in an accident while others die, but also suffer in the workplace.
• Culpa, irritability, anxiety ...
• How are survivors feel?
• Council for employers. Helping survivors and regain their confidence
The survivor 's syndrome manifests with guilt for having survived a traumatic event like an accident, a natural disaster or a crime. If job loss is definitely a traumatic experience, you can also keep it be, though for different reasons. "Workers who experience remain similar to those who were dismissed feelings. The syndrome survivor manifests itself in anger, fear, depression, guilt and mistrust. " (Maes et al. 1996).

Guilt, irritability, anxiety ...

In addition to feeling guilt - "Why him and not me," is question- the survivor supports the added pressure of having to work twice as hard and often more hours to do the tasks of colleagues who are no longer. Those who are not only work more and in worse circumstances but should try to superiors who can respond to increased workload and adapt quickly to the new situation. This pressure and fear to be the next fired often create a cocktail of "irritability, difficulty concentrating and, in some cases, anxiety attacks, " writes expert in labor issues Julie Monti Today's Chicago Women Magazine. (1)
Several studies claim that those who hold the job in the midst of massive layoffs experience comparable to those of the departed, (Kivimaki, Vahtera, Elovainio, Pentti, & Virtanen, 2003) physical and emotional effects. (2)
The syndrome survivor work has intensified with increasing mass layoffs that have taken place in recent years. Breaking the implicit agreement between the employer and the employee leaves the survivors laden with negative emotions.
Survivors suddenly see change the conditions in which they had gone to work for other worse, which makes them experience a strong sense of "injustice and betrayal" (Noer, 1993).
These negative emotions affect not only mental and physical health of the employee kept his job title but also reflected in productivity. The company, which just fired so many people to become more competitive, is now facing a diminished productivity that could result in new layoffs. And end up doing actual one of the nightmares of the survivor: ending up in the street.

How are survivors feel?

The survivors of the tsunami of layoffs instead of feeling happy and grateful to retain his post end, however, crushed by a mountain of conflicting emotions and negative behaviors.
The most common feelings and concerns that harass survivors, according to Noer, are:
Job insecurity (fear of losing the job) , the most widespread feeling among survivors .
Injustice, in two dimensions: on the one hand, they feel that management and senior management have remained unscathed- the piper are paid exclusively curritos - and on the other, is the perception that the decision about who stays and who goes is not fair.
Depression, stress and fatigue.
• The need to avoid the risks and decreased motivation : the survivors are afraid of being the next to be on the street and make every effort to go unnoticed. Work more conservative, so as not to draw attention, you can limit the personal growth and ultimately also the company. On the other hand, the destructive negative emotions and often decrease the ability of employees to focus on work, which also generates lower productivity. • Feelings of distrust and betrayal as a result of the surprise dismissal and lack of respect for labor agreements by the company. • Feeling of lack of reciprocity in the survivors who remain loyal to the company but noted that the company is not loyal to employees. The result is more negative feelings such as bitterness, resentment and anger. • Disgust with the way they were planned, administered and reported layoffs. Most survivors complain that the dismissals were not communicated well in advance and that there has been an open and fluid communication by management. • Ira by the dismissed unfair treatment . The survivors feel anger and concern about how the company has treated the dismissed colleagues. On the other hand, when the feelings and dignity of former employees are not taken into account, the survivors discover what the real values of the company. • Feeling of permanent and sudden change. The lack of stability increases stress and generates resignation and fear.

Advice for employers. Helping survivors and regain their confidence

More communication, to further engage employees and recognition of emotions boiling in the workplace after massive layoffs are some of the tools that experts recommend to help survivors to reduce or eliminate your symptoms and improve the environment of work.
Some management strategies are "flood the workplace with oral and written information" (Tang and Fuller, 1995; Willihnganz, 1997); "Encouraging participation" (Noer, 1993; Willinhnganz, 1997), and "promote communication between senior managers and employees to promote trust and loyalty and create feelings of job satisfaction" (Tang and Fuller, 1995).
Once produced massive layoffs, it is essential that management recognizes the turbulent emotions felt by employees who remain. Management should "recognize their difficulties and validate their feelings and give them the time and opportunity to express them so they would be easier to understand and accept the changes and overcome the situation more positively." Management also should "tell the truth and give reliable information to employees" so that they can "take control over their futures and careers" and said Noer and Willihnganz, "gain trust and credibility" the ¿lucky? keeping her chair and desk.

DSK case: the theory of the failed act or unconscious self-destruction

Power is a very powerful aphrodisiac, but what are the links between politics and sexuality are? Does omnipotence can lead to violence? If the charge of attempted rape who is accused Dominique Strauss-Kahn confirmed, what mechanisms could explain their behavior? French psychoanalyst psychiatrist Serge Hefez and evokes the possibility of an unconscious act of self-destruction.

What is the relationship between power and sex?

Power and sex ... It 's hard not to relate. Power, especially when it is important, is approaching omnipotence, that is, the feeling of being above others and therefore entitled to everything. There is a border between one thing and another, but can be passed happily. Many people believe privileges and take advantage of different situations, including as sexual.
A powerful man attracts women, which may feel flattered to have been chosen by someone with visibility and a social, economic or political position important.
In addition, the exercise of power is very exciting, and causes a lot of secretions: dopamine, serotonin and testosterone. That is, there is an increase of sexuality. All women who approach politicians in positions of power feel this energy libido.

Politicians, feeling supermen, are you more inclined to push the boundaries and commit, for example, a sexual violation?

A politician superman feel is obvious. This is reinforced by the fact that many women have not only respond to his advances, but precede them. So far, there had been many cases of rape by these "supermen" called; first, because they did not need, and second, because the exercise of their duties required them to be constantly monitored. However, these men completely lose control in the presence of a woman at odds with the character they represent. So I think in the DSK case have been activated mechanisms that transcend the desire and loss of control.

What kind of mechanisms?

My position in relation to this I repeat, only if it is confirmed that it was an attempt to rape is that we are facing what in psychoanalysis is known as "passage to the act"; commonly said "a wire crossing". This means we are full of contradictions, very strong ambivalences, which means that there are something like two opposing currents capable of creating a short circuit.
So that a man can lust for power at the same time, have a desire to project themselves into a future without obligations. Then it can be prey to a very strong contradiction, which decides solved by autoboicot, ie destroying himself.

Happiness improves health and prolongs life

More than 160 studies show that people who declare themselves happy --according their own definition of felicidad-- tend to be healthy and live longer, according to Article Health and Well Being (Health and Welfare) published in the journal Applied Psychology.
Ed Diener, a psychology professor at the University of Illinois and Micaela Chan, of the University of Texas, USA, authors of the paper, have compiled various studies over several years with humans and animals on the effect of the happiness on health.

significant decrease in mortality

Various studies have been interested in the relationship between happiness and longevity. Ed Diener cites a paper published in 2006 based on 4,989 students followed for 40 years (1964-2004): the most pessimistic died before the most optimistic. A 2004 study conducted for 11 years with 866 people with heart problems showed that the most long - lived were the least depressed.
Another study, published in 2001, analyzed the personal diaries written over several decades 180 American nuns. Those expressing more positive feelings lived longer.
For 3,149 Dutch studied for 28 years, living happy and satisfied with their lives showed a direct relationship with longevity, regardless of their health problems or past. Another study of 11,557 Germans also showed that happiness influence the duration of life, especially in people who suffer from chronic diseases.

The positive impact on health

If happiness, whatever the perception of it you have, the longer life is because it reduces health problems.
Several studies confirm this . For example, one has evaluated the degree of personal satisfaction 3,363 elderly Taiwanese. Those classified as the happiest presented, eight years later, less mobility problems. In 1,793 Canadians, another study revealed the connection between the feeling of happiness and a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease, independent of other risk factors.
Another study of 29,173 Finnish twins aged between 18 and 54 years showed that those who considered themselves happier had fewer accidents and a lower incidence of disabilities and severe mental problems, beyond their general health.
The latest study (the work of Diener and Chan can be seen by clicking here) conducted with 9,981 Australian controlled for three years, revealed that anxiety and depression were factors able to predict cardiac events.
These studies on the connection between happiness and health, made with populations of various regions of the world and with animals in the laboratory, consistently show that while the joy of living protects us from diseases, negative feelings such as anxiety, depression and pessimism and lack of pleasurable activities have the opposite effect.
According to the authors of the study, positive moods improve the function of the immune system, promote cardiac recovery after exercise and accelerate healing. To enjoy better health, therefore, it is crucial to think positive. Hence Diener and Chan argue that in addition to government recommendations on diet, physical activity and control of addictions, it would be necessary to emphasize the effect of individual happiness in the health of the whole society.

Society and mental health

Throughout life, from childhood, women are subject to environmental influences (family environment, social, labor, etc.). Agree how to carry out the constant interaction with others, they will be tested also internal resources and will build a structure of personality, which sometimes presents difficulties; It is when the discomfort usually occurs.
The woman is immersed in a particular historical, cultural and social context which also receives influences, regardless of their particular route on a particular family. Therefore, increasingly, psychologists and psychoanalysts take into account the interaction between various factors when studying the demand for treatment of women.
Today, the value system that had a stereotypical image of the "correct" female no longer holds, and access of women to education, work, marriage or motherhood as election produces a collision between expectations positive change and the choice and strength of schemes that presents a perfect rigid about femininity.
Faced with this dilemma that takes place between the rational and the emotional, often psychological balance falters but as every crisis, from the social level also has the possibility of evolution in a way that has just begun and will affect the relationships between the sexes. Every woman has to find their way and their way of addressing the impact between the various areas of your life experience.


One symptom is the visible exponent that there has been a lack of harmony in the affective plane. There are many types of symptoms: anxiety, fear permanent ... The symptom is a regulatory system of the human psyche and although upsets, allows from its appearance 'reword' questions about how he is focusing one's existence and promote well personal development.

Psychology, psychiatry and psychoanalysis

It is important that before consulting the woman knows the type of professional that you are going and ask the appropriate accreditation to professional, because terms like treatment, psychotherapy, etc., which are also used by other areas of health.


Generally, clinical psychologists have obtained his degree at the Faculty of Psychology and the title allows them to dedicate themselves to performing diagnostics and application of psychometric tests and personality. By psychotherapeutic treatments can treat people suffering from discomfort referred to the symptoms of neurosis, and perform their work in health centers, public institutions, private offices, associations ...
The psychologist specializing in clinical psychology, writes reports and records its membership number in processes appropriate. However you can not write prescriptions, as this is the exclusive competence of medical graduates.


The psychiatrist has a degree in medicine, specializing in psychiatry. You can dedicate to treat their patients regularly only in the pharmacological field or, depending on their additional training, treat personality level, combining support sessions with medication control.
Generally, the psychiatrist is consulted the cause of a type of disorders in which medical intervention due to the severity of the patient's symptoms becomes more essential: psychosis, schizophrenia or paranoia characterized by the appearance of pictures of delirium; severe depression, suicide attempts ... reasons why a certain type of medication is essential. As appropriate, the work is addressed both by psychiatrist and psychologist in an interdisciplinary way.


A psychoanalyst may be a degree in psychology or medicine (psychiatry).
In psychoanalysis there are different ways of conceiving the methodology, but basically the common line of work is part of taking into account the language of the unconscious by working sessions: analyze, through the verbalized content, associations of ideas, dreams, ... fantasies, significant in the history of the analysand and relate them to their own history since childhood elements.

When you go to a mental health specialist

Due to the evolution of society and the growing expectations about what a quality life for women is supposed to be considered a standard practice to consult a qualified mental health care when needed, just like with any other specialist.
Sometimes, however, doubts arise as to when it is convenient or not to request a visit to the psychologist because of not knowing if the subject or problem that worries deserves professional care; then it is necessary to consider the factors listed below.

Before making the decision

If the woman you want, you can comment on what happens with other people (family, friends, etc.), but keep in mind that ultimately has to make the decision according to their own criteria.
It is appropriate given the time needed before deciding the consultation, both for herself and her children (if any), without that time is too long, because then the problematic situation can become chronic, thus hindering their resolution.

Consult a psychologist

Women should consult a psychologist when you notice that the degree of psychological or psycho - physical discomfort that is suffering persists over time, and that there is a brief episode because of a specific situation then subsides spontaneously but It is installed in your life even though it appears intermittently.
Rational attempts at changing attitudes are not enough to resolve the conflict, because the will is not capable of dissolving, for example, the state of permanent anxiety, lack of zest for life, personal devaluation ...
w -situations that need treatment There are some cases where psychological care is necessary, and should not be questioned in turn to a professional to seek their help:
in those critical situations in which, due to a traumatic or difficult event, precise listening, guidance and counseling ( bereavement, illness, sexual abuse, mistreatment, harassment at work, etc.).
When before making important decisions in your life requires a period of forethought and the opportunity to clarify any doubts or before its contradictions (wedding, maternity, job change, divorce ...).
When required to put into words what we're feeling against another person who is not linked to the world of friendship or family, with the confidence to express themselves freely because it enjoys the privilege of this group.
When in relation to the children perceived that something does not work properly and want to consult their doubts. It may be disturbances in their
evolutionary development, attitudes of concern, etc., situations where the mother is very involved.

The framing of psychotherapist

Although it may be beneficial sometimes it is not the same as talking to a friend or family member to go to a professional. People who are emotionally involved and hear or say about the woman who raised them your problem can give moral support or affection, but do not have adequate training or techniques to cure. ¿Would ask a friend to undertake surgery without being a surgeon? The woman raises questions about its existence will face their situation, which, while having parallels she perceived friends and acquaintances, is related to a particular course regarding how to approach your life. The look in the mirror of other women is useful only to a certain extent, because every woman has to find their own way.
Models of femininity are influenced according to the prevailing historical or social context but for the first time in history, women have the ability to think as a group that in your life there are several areas: work, family, motherhood. .., and they need not define their identity by one of them.

The psychological effects of unemployment and underemployment

Devastating and in some cases permanent psychological effects are some of the consequences of prolonged unemployment and underemployment.
• psychological effects that become chronic
• self - reproach and guilt
devastating psychological effects and in some cases permanent are some of the consequences of prolonged unemployment and underemployment.
According to the American Psychological Association (APA), "unemployed people are at twice the risk of suffering persons employed psychological problems such as depression, anxiety, psychosomatic symptoms, low psychological well - being and low self - esteem". (Paul & Moser, 2009). (1)
Research conducted by Arthur H. Goldsmith, (2) Professor of Economics at Washington and Lee University also warns US on effects "can last a long time and even become chronic."

psychological effects that become chronic

According to this study, people who take more than five weeks to find a new job begin to acknowledge the change and ask questions like "Why has touched me?" "I lack the necessary training?" " there's something troubling me? ". "Thus the erosion of fundamental psychological well-being to feel self-esteem begins," says the professor in his study. Often, if unemployment is spread over several months, people begin to have high levels of anxiety, depression and difficulty sleeping. When unemployment stretches for long periods, "six or nine months or more, the psychological effects often become chronic."

Self-reproach and guilt

In his research Goldsmith identifies two types of individuals: those with a locus or internal locus of control "feel that influence the things that happen to them, " while those with a locus or external locus of control "feel they have no control over events that happen. "
"The external locus acts as a mechanism that helps prevent self - reproach, which helps protect the sense of emotional well - being, " he explains.
In the same vein, the study " The Psychological Consequences of Unemployment" ( "The psychological consequence of unemployment") (3) states that people who blame themselves for their employment status are less satisfied with their lives and have poorer health physics who externalize blame (Kee-Ryan et al., 2005). Employees who lose their jobs in times of mass layoffs also tend to blame less and consequently experience less psychological distress (Dooley & Prause, 2004).
At the same time, the fact of losing their jobs in times of high unemployment creates more stress, as competition for a new job will be much more intense and the chances of reemployment, smaller. (3)
Professor Goldsmith adds that with the unemployed, the other group feels the impact of unemployment is made up of people who work but have stopped in the family or in your circle of friends. "[Employees] first sympathized [the unemployed] but then begin to feel the concern that they may happen to them, which could result in creating considerable anxiety, " he explains.
The consequence of staying unemployed for long, Goldsmith says, amounts to "a permanent scar, not a single wound. When the person returns to find work, the adverse effect of unemployment on psychological well - being remains ". 

Recommended Contents