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  1. Trichotillomania in children: Why hair pulling children?
  2. Borderline Personality Disorder: What it is, how to identify and guidelines to follow to treat
  3. Mythomania, a disease that is still surrounded by mystery
  4. Borderline personality disorder: care?
  5. Onychophagia and excoriation disorder: compulsive disorders focused on hands
  6. Hoarding: When the desire for possession leads to obsession
  7. ADHD: Those children who can not sit still ...
  8. autism
  9. Anxiety
  10. My son worries about everything, are you depressed? - The psychologist responds
  11. Adjustment disorder: differences with depression
  12. Superiority complex

Trichotillomania in children: Why hair pulling children?

Children who pull hair are relatively common although they speak little. It often happens that neither parents nor the children themselves are aware of this practice in the "hair loss" is self - induced. This disorder is seven times more common in children than in adults and affects more girls than boys, with the exception of children under 6 years stage in which the disorder concerns boys more than girls.
• What is trichotillomania?
• Features of this disorder and how to identify
• Do we know what causes it?
• What should I do?
• What is the prognosis?

What is trichotillomania?

The trichotillomania is the term chosen to refer to the irresistible act of hair pulling. The first physician to describe this disorder was the French dermatologist François Hallopeau in 1889 and comes from the Greek words trich (hair), tillein (pull), and mania (madness), although this process was not formally included as a psychological disorder until 1987 almost a hundred years later. This habit can occur in isolation, with no apparent cause and without obvious explanation. Flirting with hair and possible accidental dehiscence is a habit commonly associated with boredom. However, a sufficiently strong hair loss is the main cause of going to the specialist, in some cases, may indicate an emotional deprivation and even become associated with compulsive traits and other psychological disorders larger.

Features of this disorder and how to identify

It is estimated that over the life course with varying intensity, this disorder may affect 1 to 4% of the total population.
The young children often admit that hair pulling when asked but cases of more severe impairment in older children usually deny touching their hair. Instead, they can comment incriminating colleagues.
Feature is the involvement of the frontoparietal region, above or behind the ear for easy access representing, but any area of the hair can be involved. Often we find hairs twisted and broken hairs of different length and extent of the affected area can be extended to the whole head in severe cases. What is not usually affected hair from other body areas.
Suspicion is not difficult for the specialist, but must be ruled out other processes such as ringworm hair, which is an infection of the scalp fungal, and alopecia areata, of probable autoimmune etiology. But in the trichotillomania, the surface of the scalp is inflamed as previous.

Do we know what causes it?

Unfortunately not. Neurobiological studies find different structural and functional characteristics in those affected. There is a genetic component in some cases and identified families with more than one affected member. Some personality traits may be more apparent: low tolerance to stress or anxiety, perfectionism ... the possible link with the consumption of sugar, caffeine or lack of sleep is also speculation.

Are there other accompanying signs?

It can not be ruled out, however , that trichotillomania has been preceded by an episode of alopecia areata, which could motivate so doing the child.
It 's no wonder the coexistence of common habit of biting your nails (nail biting) or even reaching to pull them up (onicotilomania). Must also investigated the possibility that the child is eating hair is started (trichophagia), conduct that logically should be treated to prevent can form "balls" hair in the stomach or intestine, which could cause an obstruction in the intestines.

What should I do?

Of course the child or adolescent who think that "start" hair greater or lesser amount should be treated by his doctor to confirm or refute our suspicions. If it is an isolated habit and low magnitude must implement the necessary resources to detect the cause of your discomfort or emotional disorder that generates this concern without being in your face the child with an excess of recriminations. Cognitive-behavioral therapies are widely validated approaches.
They are also taught to recognize and accept the "urgency" they feel without acting on it. As often trichotillomania may be a symptom of other processes have to locate what lies behind that statement and form of behavior. Therefore always it requires an understanding and an exquisite and specialized therapeutic approach. Overall, rarely resorts to drugs.

What is the prognosis?

Generally it depends on the emotional experience experienced by the child and his "Rooting". In practice, cases in young children tend to be temporary while in adolescents, especially girls, may require a longer approach.

Borderline Personality Disorder: What it is, how to identify and guidelines to follow to treat

Priority today in welfare programs, Borderline Personality Disorder has become one of the most common reasons for consultation by teenagers flock to the psychologist.
• What TLP patient shows symptoms?
• it Is the same as the bipolarity?
• How do you perceive, feel and act a person with borderline personality disorder?
• Is it a disease that can be cured or never goes away completely?
• Do we know what causes it ?
• Is there any way to prevent it ?
• Why it is cataloged as a disorder of the lower classes?
• How to treat?
• What guidelines of coexistence can be given to family members living with them when treating them ?
Unlike other diseases that are triggered at a particular time of our life, as it may be depression or anxiety, in the case of borderline personality disorder (BPD) This is a general pattern of behavior and a particular way of feel and think that is maintained throughout our lives difficult time.
Patients who perceive themselves as bad people and feel a great inner emptiness, need to work on the recognition, identification and expression of emotions to end their wrong thoughts and learn to adapt and respond to changes and challenges It raises their lives.
We spoke with the psychologist Luis Torres Cardona, an expert in child and adolescent psychopathology, who serves as therapist Psychology Center Biem, directed by Rocío Ramos-Paul, to explain to us what it is, how to identify and recommend us guidelines to follow to treat .

What TLP patient shows symptoms?

People affected by TLP show an immense fear of abandonment, which makes them dependent but once tremendously unstable relationships such partner, constantly changing and idealizing. They are impulsive and showing difficulty controlling impulses risk behaviors toward themselves, for example, reckless driving, substance abuse, gambling, frequent accidents. They have a negative image of themselves and are often perceived as "bad people" and usually refer to a feeling of "emptiness inside." Often they express feelings or emotions of fear, and emotional lability.

Is the same as the bipolarity?

They are different disorders, although the existence of many common characteristics makes it difficult to distinguish. The main difference is the stability and duration of symptoms, which as said are very similar. The TLP is a more stable condition, while the bipolar changes in mood are intermittent. Sometimes to make an accurate diagnosis is necessary to study the evolution and history of symptoms over time.

How do you perceive, feel and act a person with borderline personality disorder?

People are perceived as poor and empty, in most cases self-esteem is affected; They feel that others can leave them, what worries them immensely and try to do everything possible to avoid it, and mainly have a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships tremendously. Often they are acting with behaviors that endanger their lives: daredevil, drugs, gambling, autolisis ...

Is it a disease that can be cured or never goes away completely?

Borderline Personality Disorder is a stable condition, a way of being that involves a personality trait. With proper treatment the symptoms decrease significantly over time also causes symptoms soften, studies show that from the 40/45 years is much milder symptoms, there are even asymptomatic periods. But for that intervention must be multidisciplinary, no treatment itself is enough. Therefore it is aimed at alleviating the symptoms with drugs and the patient to learn a different way to address the difficulties, as well as impulse control and manage emotions through psychological therapy (cognitive behavioral).

Do you know what causes it?

There are biological and genetic factors that determine the possibility of developing BPD. Although they are fundamental and decisive for the onset of the disorder environmental factors, factors that are related to education, family, social and school environment. Therefore there is a genetic predisposition but environmental factors that determine the disease appears or not. a disorder of complex etiology is considered since many factors come into play: social, biological, educational and personal in the appearance of the TLP. Different theoretical models that can shed light on the possible causes of TLP, always genetic or biological alterations (amygdala, prefrontal cortex, alterations of serotonin, limbic system) are observed and the patient's history there are environmental factors (educational, social , problem solving, impulsivity, childhood abuse) that determine the onset of the disorder.

Is there any way to prevent it?

We can prevent through the environment with no genetic or biological factors. Giving the child a stable environment safe and affection through habits, rules and limits attached to feel valued and loved is the main vaccine to reduce your chances of getting this or many other disorders.

Why it is cataloged as a disorder of the lower classes?

I do not agree with this issue, in fact the incidence figures show that BPD is more common in upper-middle classes in casualties. Although always it depends on genetic vulnerability factors (biological) and psychological (environment, society, education ...).

How to treat?

It is through pharmacology which is intended to alleviate the dominant symptoms: anxiety, impulsivity, depression, impulse control and psychiatrist in charge of deciding what is the best for the patient given his clinic, because there is no specific drug for the TLP. Pharmacology has joined its fundamental role cognitive behavioral therapy, which has the mission to teach the patient alternative behaviors and work with irrational ideas (or wrong thoughts) and powers the patient makes their problems or difficulties. Besides doing a tremendous job of recognition, identification and expression of emotions. They are difficult because patients as in their personal relationships, usually therapist often change what often difficult therapy.

What coexistence guidelines can be given to family members who live with them when treating them?

The first is that families know and "professionalize" the TLP, know the symptoms and resulting behaviors. Help relatives identify the early symptoms that may indicate the beginning of an "outbreak." Usually after a crisis often feel very guilty, reassure them, calm them and accompany them. It is important, then, change the "I'm a bad person" for "have to change this behavior." In these cases, we also recommend support groups for families to exchange experiences and seek support from others who are going through the same. They should give them confidence but preventing abuse it, marking them limits. Providing them with a tranquil atmosphere and help them find alternatives to their behavior.

Mythomania, a disease that is still surrounded by mystery

At the moment, the mitomanía has not revealed all its secrets to psychiatry, which makes it even more intriguing for experts. Sophistic these personalities so extravagant, unable to cope with reality, are immersed in a sea of lies. Professor Michel Lejoyeux, chief of psychiatry and addictions Hospital Bichat in Paris, gives us his vision about it .
• The mitómano invents a heroic life
• Are mythomaniacs aware of their lies?
• Some reasons that remain unclear
• How to recognize a pathological liar?
• difficult to treat patients

Mitomanía: lying for lying

Although the term "myth" is used very frequently, we should be careful to avoid undue use. In life, we all encounter a situation where we have to lie, more or less worthy reasons: to escape a dinner out of an embarrassing situation ... Also, some scammers perfectly mastered the art of lying, which they use to extort money from their victims. In such cases we speak of "utilitarian lie".
But the mitómano does not fall entirely within that definition. First described the mitomanía was a psychiatrist in the early twentieth century, Ernest Dupré, who described it as a "narrative impulse, a desire to have something extraordinary for someone interesting from the social point of view" , explains Professor Lejoyeux .

The mitómano invents a heroic life

Naturally, there are different degrees of mitomanía, but the base is always the same: "tell lies for pleasure" to invent an exciting life. Mythomaniacs imagine an inherited past, a life full of adventures and even a paid job very well. One of the most famous examples of world literature is the story of Jean-Claude Romand, told by Emmanuel Carrère on the adversary . A medical student who never gets to get a degree aims to work in the World Health Organization and deceives his family for 18 years to reach the fatal ... When your family is about to discover the truth, kills his wife, children and parents, and attempts suicide.

Are mythomaniacs aware of their lies?

It is the question that poses more problems to the experts. Teacher Lejoyeux, " the pathological liar is aware of his lies, but in a very limited way" . In his words, it is not more than " liars cynics ." In the case of Jean-Claude Romand, the protagonist prefers to kill their relatives and attempting suicide to face reality. " The mitómano does not support confrontation with their lies. Therefore, he prefers to continue telling lies, and never turn back. Is a state of perpetual flight forward " , explains the expert.

Some causes remain unclear

To explain the constant need to invent a different life, experts speak of a serious lack of self - esteem. "It is often also refer to trauma, especially sexual. Those people have turned to defend himself by oblivion. It has also established a partnership with multiple personality might think that the mitómano not completely lying and different personalities are to be successively manifesting, " says psychiatrist.

How to recognize a pathological liar?

As we have seen, lies, created by people who may be especially bright and convincing, can last years. Jean-Claude Romand was lying even when family, starting with his wife, who was a pharmacist. Nevertheless, the mitomanía may be associated with other aggressors behavior in the social sphere, such as theft. " It is possible to observe such behavior when the lie is discovered and the person is immersed in an absolute crisis. However, those people insist that their story is true , "says the professor.

difficult to treat patients

Mythomania is a disease that requires the expertise of a psychiatrist. It is not treated with medication and analytical work also tends to be compromised. " The whole problem of mitomanía is that those affected do not recognize their illness, and this entails great difficulties" he explains. " It is very difficult to cure the disease, since the basis of social interaction is based on not lie" , explains the expert. These simple stories do not leave anything to be extremely "fascinating" for psychiatrists continue to explore the disease.

Borderline personality disorder: care?

Mood swings, relational and behavioral instability, dependencies ... The borderline disorder or borderline personality disorder (BPD) affects 4% of the population. What are the treatments available for these patients today? Dr. Bernadette Grosjean, a psychiatrist, and Dr. Martin Desseilles, psychiatrist and psychotherapist, tell us about this disease.
• TLP: psychotherapeutic treatment
• Identify traumatic events
• borderline personality disorder: 3 treatments Reference
• borderline personality disorder: when drugs are needed?
• borderline personality disorder: alternatives to classical psychotherapies
Personalities borderline are characterized by impulsiveness and emotional instability. Of course, to diagnose this disease, we must take into account other criteria. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , bible of psychiatry, specifies that in order to diagnose a TLP, the patient must meet at least nine criteria of a long list (for example, alteration of identity, fear of abandonment, impulsivity , etc.). Once you have given a name to the disease, the patient can begin treatment. It is important for him and his environment properly informed about the different types of treatments to choose and that suits.
Currently, psychotherapy represent the mainstay of treatment of disorders borderline . There are different ways to suit the stage of the disease, introspection capabilities of the individual or the degree of control over their self - destructive behavior; but also the availability of psychotherapies and choosing patient1. In some cases, medications may also be useful.

TLP: psychotherapeutic treatment

"Psychotherapy is the primary treatment of disorders borderline because you have to deal with problems of emotional and behavioral dysregulation in a relational context , " says Dr . Bernadette Grosjean2. Moreover, numerous studies have shown the interest of long - term psychotherapies to improve borderline3 personality disorders, 4, 5.
The psychotherapeutic treatment of borderline personality disorder is a long - term treatment (3 to 5 years even more, according to experts). "The passage of time and corrective emotional experiences are needed to change behavior and intrapsychic conflicts and feelings of emptiness and boredom , " explain the Grosjean and Desseilles doctors. A long - term goal is that the patient becomes his own therapist. "once patients have learned new skills to control their emotions through psychotherapy have many relapses or, if they do, are less dramatic" report psychiatrists.
Specifically, the recommended form of psychotherapy depends on the symptoms and severity of the disease. Also in the most "sensitive" cases, especially when the patient's life is in danger (10% of patients borderline die from suicide or the consequences of their self - destructive acts), a dialectical behavioral therapy is necessary ( TCD): "its aim is to help the person identify and control their emotions by learning new emotional competencies , " he explains Dr. Grosjean "So, we can combat the behaviors that put their lives in danger"...

Identify traumatic events

Fortunately, "after a year of treatment, regardless of the therapy used, these behaviors are generally under control , " says Dr. Grosjean. In this case, the patient can start an orientation phase "psychodynamic" for further analysis deep intrapsychic disorders.
" We will address, for example, trauma and more existential problems. When there is a borderline pathology, often due to traumatic events: abuse, neglect or sometimes simply chaotic circumstances of life , "say the experts.
Moreover, the environment of the patient is often identified as responsible for their condition. However, the notion of trauma does not necessarily include the environment. "So, there is no use blaming the relatives needlessly or focus solely on the environment , " says Dr. Desseilles.

Borderline personality disorder: 3 treatments Reference

There are 3 approaches recognized treatment. The Mentalization Based Therapy (therapy based on mentalizing), the Dialectic Behavioral Therapy (Dialectical Behavioral Therapy) and Transference Focused Therapy (psychotherapy focused on the transfer and inspired by the psychoanalytic clinic)
• therapy based on mentalizing
This therapy psychodynamic approach , which lasts 18 months and comprising individual sessions and group aims to help patients borderline identify both internal and external emotional states. Mentalizing can be defined as the ability to imagine how others see us and how they perceive themselves. This capability is essential to understand and interpret human behaviors and interpersonal reactions.
• Dialectical Behavioral Therapy
This therapy derived from cognitive-behavioral techniques focuses on learning skills that help manage important emotional movements and behaviors that can be life threatening. This learning management emotions takes place in a therapeutic environment in which the "validation" plays a very important role. The idea is to, at the same time, validate past or present difficulties of the person trying to change his self - destructive behaviors. This method comprises individual therapy, group sessions and telephone consultations. Lasts at least one year.
• focused on the transfer therapy
is a psychodynamic approach that gives importance to mental representations (of self and others). The therapist pays special attention to verbal and nonverbal communication. In addition, it is also very attentive to the feelings of aggressiveness expressed by the patient. This therapy is individual and usually every two weeks is performed.

Borderline personality disorder: when drugs are needed?

There are no specific medications to treat disorders borderline6. "We often encounter a problem of misdiagnosis. Think are bipolar patients and prescribe medications for this disorder Obviously, the treatment has no effect on personality disorder borderline " they lament.
Drugs are only a reinforcement when there is a deep depression (prescribing antidepressants), paranoia disorder or major dissociative type (a light dose of antipsychotic, may be beneficial). Drugs are needed when the pathology borderline is associated with bipolar disorders: 15% to 20% of patients diagnosed with disorder borderline are also diagnosed as bipolar. This condition requires a long - term drug treatment (mood stabilizers) which, however, has little effect on borderline personality disorder.

Borderline personality disorder: alternative to conventional psychotherapies

Psychotherapies have their effects in treating borderline and have demonstrated, but requires great emotional and material commitment by the affected human resources and large, two factors that limit their start-up person. "The main thing is that there is a strong therapeutic setting, with a psychiatrist who knows disorders borderline and dominates the long - term. Only in this way a bond of trust between patient and therapist may be established and a structured and coherent work will begin" says Dr. Grosjean. "the human relationship is a factor of great importance in all psychotherapy", insist the experts. If it were possible to conduct psychotherapy long - term there are other alternatives: the medical literature has shown, for example, that the workshops of group psychoeducation short allow a significant reduction of impulsivity, a decrease of relational disorders and social5 a performance increase.

Onychophagia and excoriation disorder: compulsive disorders focused on hands

It is said that the hands are our calling card, and to have healthy nails and manicured fingers and can also influence our relationships with others. However, there are many people (almost 25% of adults) suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder affecting hands, especially nails area. Nibbling a fingernail occasionally can be considered a fairly common practice but when the damage reaches significant levels it is necessary to seek help from a specialist.
• excoriation disorder
• Causes of onicofagia and excoriation disorder
• Risks of onicofagia and health excoriation disorder
• Remedies to stop martyring hands
• When you need help?
• Onychophagia and excoriation disorder in children

Onicofagia

Among the disorders that affect the health of the most widespread hands it is, without doubt, the onicofagia. Technically, the term refers to the fact onicofagia nail biting, although it is often used to mean bite to pluck without ingesting later.
Eat and nail biting is a phenomenon that affects all of us at least once in life. Despite being a fairly common habit that usually does not concern particularly for some, the risk that be transformed into self-injurious behavior is very high. Onychophagia becomes pathological when it endangers the health of your hands and it is impossible to stop martyring nails.

Dermatilomanía

The second most widely obsessive compulsive pathology associated hands is the excoriation disorder. This condition is very complex and not only affects the hands but also the face, arms and other body parts. People suffering from excoriation disorder is scratching and tear the skin continuously, the pielecillas and scabs, even to self - mutilation.
The difference is that the onicofagia excoriation disorder leads people to find a part of her body full of imperfections, in this case hands, and have to intervene to eliminate them .
Patients suffering excoriation disorder focused on hands notice itching and discomfort in the area of nails and feel satisfaction when they eliminate skin and pielecillas more. In severe cases, subjects reach such a level of compulsion that require you to surgically intervene to preserve the functionality of your fingers.

The causes of onicofagia and excoriation disorder

Most of obsessive-compulsive disorders are rooted in the inability of the sufferer to face serenely anxiety and stress. Freud, one of the first to analyze the onicofagia in psychiatric terms, believed that the source of nail biting was a problem associated with oral fixation.
Instead, modern theories consider the onicofagia excoriation disorder and psychosomatic problems are derived origin of a particular psychological condition. People suffering onicofagia and excoriation disorder often have great difficulties (sometimes expressed but often unconscious) to manage their emotions.
Not only facing the wrong way negative emotions like anger, fear and pain, but also have extreme difficulty managing even positive emotions like love or a sudden joy.
People suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder focused on hand, often have very low self - esteem and a wrong perception of themselves. In the end it often happens that the onicofagia and excoriation disorder end up being just one more symptom of a larger problem personally, perhaps associated with a traumatic event or a state of depression.

Onicofagia risks and health excoriation disorder

Many people think that obsessive-compulsive disorders related to hands only have to do with an aesthetic problem. Although this is the most obvious aspect is not the most dangerous.
Always have open wounds on the fingers favors the passage of bacteria and other harmful to health into the body pathogens. One of the biggest risks is that of contracting a viral infection oral-fecal transmission due to the absence of the security barrier providing nails and skin.
Another common problem associated with onicofagia is caries and other problems in the tooth and gum, also because the bacteria present in the fingers. The excoriation disorder, meanwhile, can also cause arthritis in the bones and joints of the fingers, reaching genuine cause malformations.

Remedies to stop martyring hands

Prior to combat onicofagia and excoriation disorder it was the action itself, trying to prevent the subject ate or nails or skin arrancase. Almost all remember glazes and hand creams with an unpleasant taste, whose effectiveness was demonstrated only in milder cases. In severe cases, especially in children and adolescents, patients sometimes forced to wear gloves even indoors.
However, most doctors are convinced that to treat this type of obsessive-compulsive disorders is necessary to treat the person and the motivations that have led to the development of this pathology. This is possible thanks to psychotherapy: to eliminate the problem often enough a few sessions of behavioral therapy.

When do you need help?

The line between normal behavior associated with passenger stress of true pathology is very subtle. Often, who he has onicofagia or excoriation disorder does not recognize their dependence on the pathology even seeing the wounds on the hands.
When hands are full of wounds, nails have been reduced to a few millimeters long and the person finds it impossible to stop hurting, it's time to seek help from a specialist.
It is necessary to intervene as soon as possible to prevent the situation from getting worse and become dangerous not only for health but hands and to prevent the disorder is too entrenched and require a psychological and longer and complicated behavior therapy.

Onychophagia and excoriation disorder in children

Obsessive-compulsive disorders related to hands most affect children and adolescents. Especially in recent it has been estimated to reach onicofagia and excoriation disorder affecting almost 50%.
The disorder then tends to decrease over the years to disappear completely. Previously it was thought that children were beginning to put their hands in the mouth by a problem associated with breastfeeding (breast grab the trouble, too short breastfeeding, etc.).
Actually, also in case the causes are associated with psychological disorder grow up and have to face others. For teenagers can be useful behavioral therapy linked to a psychological, while for children is often enough the first. It is always advisable to talk to your pediatrician to understand what is the best way and intervene in a timely manner about the problem.

Hoarding: When the desire for possession leads to obsession

If your house looks like a flea market, if you are unable to recycle or separate you from under objects, may suffer silogomanía. This problem of compulsive hoarding immerses some patients in states of very deep anguish.
• What is the boundary between a compulsive accumulator and a collector?
• What causes this condition?
• What types of objects accumulate?
• Can hide other disorders, such as schizophrenia?
• How is it?
• What advice would you give to the relatives of a compulsive accumulator?
Until recently considered a subset of so- called obsessive - compulsive disorder (OCD), excessive accumulation has come to be classified in the DSM-5 -the bible psiquiátricas- disease as a disease in its own right . Mélanie Fouré, a psychologist at the hospital Cochin-Tarnier in Paris, clears the doubts about a disease that often pushes patients into isolation.

What is the boundary between a compulsive accumulator and a collector?

There is a notion of space, first. Compulsive accumulator leaves no room for itself. Everything is crammed with objects. A collector is proud of his collection, while a compulsive accumulator feel shame. Therefore, avoid talking about it or invite people to your home, to keep hidden problem.

What causes this condition?

The source is usually an emotional trauma. Loss of a loved one (parental divorce in childhood, a heartbreak, etc.) creates an important emotional deprivation that is trying to fill through accumulation. Being surrounded by objects gives security.

¿Subgroup of OCD or disease in its own right?

The DMS-5 now considered compulsive hoarding is a disease in itself. The disorder has a very strong obsessive aspect, such as OCD, but emotions are not managed in the same way. In the case of obsessive compulsive problems, repetition is intended to override the doubt creates anxiety. People who suffer some form of OCD seek relief. A compulsive accumulators, find things besides relief, try them pleasure.

What types of objects accumulate?

Often we find clothes, magazines, complimentary newspapers, administrative roles ... Compulsive accumulators have a sense of responsibility. When you keep something, it is because in the future "may have some utility." But that never happens, because over time they forget the object and move to another. They seek immediate pleasure.
One more: the batteries are often perfectionists. In his obsession they are organized. For example, a person who collects magazines will order them by date.

Compulsive aggregability presents a risk to the physical or mental health of the patient?

Yes. There is especially a risk that we could qualify as material. By accumulating many things, sometimes defective, there is a risk of fire and unsanitary. The more acute is the greatest disease is social isolation. This, in turn, can lead to depression .

You can hide other disorders, such as schizophrenia?

Compulsive hoarding is generally associated with a personality disorder.

Hoarding Can be a disease of our time? Consumer society, this disorder does it favor?

Society can promote pathology, in the sense that it encourages the search for immediate pleasure. But in ancient Greece and was called Diogenes syndrome (used for severe cases), which shows that compulsive hoarding is a difficulty that comes along.

How is it?

With a psychotherapeutic treatment associated with one drug, to increase the effectiveness of treatment. Psychological follow - up is often supplemented with antidepressants and anxiolytics.
In therapy works on behavior, perceptions and emotions and management, as these can cause a lot of suffering, it is important to take antidepressants to help bear.

What advice would you give to the relatives of a compulsive accumulator?

Family and loved ones want to help throwing things or inciting throw. But for the accumulator separation it is very painful, because it is clinging to objects like a person. Separation represents the death of the object, so you have to go slowly, carefully. Not to appear intrusive.

ADHD: Those children who can not sit still ...

Very restless, impulsive and easily distracted children may have called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a disease that affects one out of every 20 students. With, discover what causes and ways to treat it .
The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood disease that usually appears after 5 years and can cause impatience, anxiety, distraction or difficulty concentrating. Depending on the severity of symptoms, the child may be affected school performance and social life.
It is estimated that the disorder affects seven percent of the child population, although 75 percent of children who suffers heals spontaneously or by treatment experts say that 35 percent remaining as drags throughout adulthood.

Causes of ADHD

As for the causes they are hereditary by 80 percent and that is common for children with ADHD have a parent with the same condition. "Only when diagnosed the child is discovered that the father, mother or uncle also have the disease , " explains Francisco Montañés, head of the Psychiatric Unit of the University Hospital Alcorcón Foundation and professor of psychobiology at the Faculty of Education the Complutense University of Madrid. The other 20 percent respond to environmental factors, especially smoking during pregnancy; also it believed that some foods preservatives may favor its appearance.
Biologically, ADHD is characterized by a delay in the development of the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex, which works "more slowly and prevents organize behavior adequately , " says the psychiatrist.

Consequences of ADHD

Consequently, the child has difficulty controlling their behavior and emotions, hence you may have, in the words of Montanes, "raptures of aggression, crying apparently unjustified or a tendency to move around a lot and create fuss".
Matías Abramov is a 16 years old and suffers from the disorder 6, although in much milder form. "In class was very distracted, very impulsively responded , and after sitting for a while I got up from the chair and I was the classroom , " he recalls. Matthias was not hyperactive but restless; lost things, he forgot to do his homework and was very untidy. "There was a time when I was five subjects in one book , " he says. And so he ended up repeating course last year. A small "retreat" which however has become useful: "I am more careful this year and participated a lot."
In addition to affecting school performance, as did Matthias, ADHD symptoms can lead to the rejection of other students, who see their partner as someone "weird" or conflicting. In the long term, these "failures" may impact the child 's self esteem, "he wants to do things right, integrate, but can not , " says the psychiatrist.
So that early diagnosis is crucial. To facilitate detection, doctors have established three groups of traits: impulsiveness for example, talk much-; Inattention - not listen - ; Hyperactivity -saltar or continuously - moving. Thus, to determine that a child has ADHD should show symptoms of the first two groups and being hyperactive or not, explained Montañés.
Inattention is the trait you most persistent and often creep into adulthood if the disorder is neglected or not properly treated. And the consequences of this neglect are serious, because the person who tends to be punctual, to improvise and to postpone, will have difficulties in their career development or suffer addiction to toxic substances that help you perform.

autism

Autism is a severe disorder of psychological development that prevents the child communicating with others and condemns often live deep in thought.
Autism is rare, as it only affects two to four children per 10,000, approximately. Generally it affects three times more boys than girls, and it seems more widespread among the upper classes. This disease is a very serious behavioral disorder because it alters all the fundamental psychological functions of the child.

Causes

They are not yet known, although studies conducted and elaborate theories about the disease.
There are three very advanced hypotheses: genetic, biochemical abnormalities that alter brain functioning and family psychiatric history.
In the past, it was common to consider the lack of affection as one of the factors responsible for the disease. Currently, this idea has been abandoned: parents love their children, but generates them distress cope with the presence of a child with such disturbed behavior.
The autistic child may have neurological disorders. At the time of the diagnosis of the disease, it is often difficult to distinguish between autism and mental retardation.

symptom

In children, autism usually manifests before 3 years of age and usually during the first year of life. The first manifestations include fondling rejection by the infant.
In general, the autistic child is very quiet, is passive and lonely. It seems he does not see and hear nothing, no smiles. It is very distant, even with their parents; prevents eyes and prefer entertainment alone. It is indifferent to social rules and feelings of others. It is much more interested in objects than people.
The child is expressed by screaming and crying after any changes and reacts with anger when he feels destabilized by a new situation or is disturbed in his activities.
Autistic completely uninterested about his image in the mirror. Its activity is very often stereotyped: tirelessly reproduce the same gestures with various objects or repetitive movements. Usually, it is haunted by a specific reason and recreates rituals excessively games, objects or rare collections. Sometimes adopts strange behaviors: walking on tiptoe, twisting fingers for a long time, he swings long or hit. Their activity can also alternate with periods of agitation.
The dominant feature of the disease is the extreme reduction - you can reach even the absence of communication totally.
Language delay is very common: the child has much difficulty understanding the words you say, invented words repeats, and repeats what he hears. When he comes to acquire speech, this is
very limited. The child 's intellectual development is delayed; This has-ce difficult, or impossible, any learning.
Despite all these symptoms, the physical appearance of the child and muscle coordination are normal.

Treatment

It can only be established in a specialized environment with a multidisciplinary medical team. The treatment is based on the educational and psychotherapeutic care. It includes language learning or re - education sessions and motor skills.
The therapy aims to replace a maladaptive behavior by another adapted.
Prognosis depends on the intellectual status of the child and language acquisition. However, this disease responds poorly to treatment and does not always allow the patient to acquire independence. Only one child in six gets to be autonomous.

institutionalization

This chronic disease requires the child to go to specialized centers, which will be attended by a multidisciplinary team (socio-educational and psychotherapeutic). This attention may be accompanied, if necessary, a re-education of language and motor skills.

Warning signs

The onset of autism is early: usually manifests itself during the first three years of life.
You can go unnoticed, given the absence of signs in the infant. Parents should be concerned if your child is too quiet or passive, and if it is retracted into their little world.
These signs can also reveal a defect of sight or hearing and should be evaluated by the doctor.

Anxiety

Anxiety is the most frequent psychiatric symptoms. Treatment aims to get a quick cure to avoid worsening.
Anxiety is a disorder that can be positive if it improves learning and physical and intellectual capacities. But often, it is pathological and requires treatment. According to experts, between 12 and 22% of the population has suffered or will suffer at some point in their lives anxious disorders, especially women and youth.

symptom

They are highly variable. They can be physical: smothering sensations and internal tensions, respiratory distress, wet hands, inhibition reactions and agitation. Psychological manifestations are associated, in some cases, these physical disorders: fear of losing reason, sense of strangeness and being detached from oneself (depersonalization).
Anxiety can also manifest acutely permanent (chronic anxiety) or (if the symptoms of panic attacks are intense).

various disorders

They can be of three types:
• Panic disorder. Begins with an acute crisis, which appears suddenly and without apparent cause. The person feels afraid of dying or losing reason. Manifestations of panic disorder are often intense enough to warrant medical intervention. The medical examination is usually normal and reassuring. The description defines crisis panic disorder. The patient fears suffering a new crisis and cope with the conditions in which already there has been a previous crisis. Without proper treatment, the evolution of this disorder is chronic and often complicated with phobias, depression, dependence on tranquilizers drugs and alcohol consumed at first to offset or "treat" anxiety, but quickly creates dependency.
• generalized anxiety disorder. It may occur in the course of a panic disorder or isolation. When it occurs during panic disorder, it manifests itself as fear of the emergence of new crises. Weak individuals are particularly sensitive in this respect, which may justify a psychological treatment. This disorder usually evolve into the chronic form.
• reactive anxiety. Adjustment disorder is also called. A month after that there has been a stressful event (death or a family illness, job loss or separation) appears. It can also occur after a desired event (promotion, wedding or pregnancy). By definition, it has a limited duration and disappears while the factor that causes anxiety or when the individual has managed to overcome the situation.

Treatment

It is preferable to rapid and early treatment of the ill-ness.
When anxiety disorders develop for several years, healing is still possible, but the patient must agree to follow a prolonged treatment.
• Panic disorder. This disorder is distinguished from other anxious about the fact of having a particular sensitivity to certain medications (antidepressants) disorders. Treatment is mainly medical and can be prescribed by a general practitioner or a psychiatrist, usually on an outpatient basis. Antidepressants prevent relapse after a period of action of a few weeks. The initial phase of treatment is quite delicate: drugs have variables, passengers without gravity (dry mouth, visual disturbances, palpitations and difficulty urinating) side effects. Often the anxious person supports these side effects bad because it will give the impression of being even worse. Even if symptoms disappear, drug therapy should not be discontinued to avoid a relapse; It is necessary to continue doses for 6-8 months, or even longer. In the psychological aspect, we must properly explain to the patient what their illness. It serves as a relief to know that the symptoms that correspond to a clearly identified and trivial disorder: this is not a hypochondriac, nor for medicine exceptional case. In some cases, the doctor also prescribe tranquilizers, where there are high chances that new crises arise.
• generalized anxiety disorder. Treatment includes psychotherapy drugs and. The most effective drugs are tranquilizers. They are fast acting and can reduce the level of anxiety and regain responsiveness. Usually well they tolerated. Its use, however, is sensitive: may cause dependence and withdrawal symptoms when treatment is discontinued abruptly. This risk appears after 3 months of treatment, so that in some countries there is a regulation that limits the duration of use of tranquilizers. Discontinuation of treatment must be carried out progressively, with stepwise dose reduction for several days in order to avoid some signs, such as muscle tremors, insomnia or relapse of anxiety. The difficulty of pharmacological treatment of this disorder is determined by its nature, often chronic. In this case, it is advisable to find other therapeutic measures: supportive psychotherapy, with the patient in a condescending doctor listener and some advice relaxation or sophrology, which provide muscle relaxation and, therefore, decreased anxiety; psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, as in the case of panic disorder.
• reactive anxiety. Reactive requires a brief treatment because it disappears when the stressor has ceased anxiety. This allows the use of tranquilizers, very effective in controlling anxiety without risk of dependence.

Causes of Anxiety Disorder

They are of two types:
Reacting to a stressor, which may be understandable. However, not all events are equally stressful for everyone, as each individual has a history and its own personality. In the case of reactive disorders, everything returns to normal after a few months, possibly with medical aid and short - term psychotherapy.
Alterations of biological origin, which require drug treatment. The physician should explain to the patient the source of their problems so that it can better understand their illness.
Anguish. A panic attack is accompanied often various physical signs, primarily smothering sensations, shortness of breath or palpitations.

My son worries about everything, are you depressed? - The psychologist responds

My son is too responsible, cares for everything, is afraid the news and even affects eating and sleeping. I fear you have depression. What I do? Sandra (Santander)
Anxiety in childhood and adolescence is one of the most common disorders. Some statistics indicate that 40% of children have suffered any problems related to anxiety before the age of 16 years.
"Too responsible" exactly as you have defined your son is like the set of most common symptoms that indicate a Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is defined.
The guys who have it show too much concern for all. They need security live under stress and often become withdrawn. sometimes that same anxiety makes superstitious them and invent and practice some sort of ritual to release their anxiety.
Almost always, generalized anxiety causes digestive and sleep disorders, as you say happens to . your child: loss of appetite or eating behaviors disordered and sleep schedules also untidy
also must pay attention to more serious signs: onset alcohol or drugs as an escape attempt and decrease stress; changes attitude, isolation and poor performance and especially thoughts or utterances concerning death.
to help them , the most important thing is ob preserve the appearance of symptoms and evolution. Namely prevention and detection principle of anxiety may be sufficient to be cleared. As you see symptoms:
1. Talk to your doctor to assess whether these symptoms can have a clear and distinct source of anxiety.
2. Look for information to learn more about the problem.
3. Contact specialists in these cases.
4. Look associations dedicated to these disorders and parents of other children who have or have had.

Adjustment disorder: differences with depression

Although there is talk on many occasions adaptive disorder and depression interchangeably, the truth is that they are not the same entity. It is true that share some of the treatment patterns, but it is clearly distinguishable two tables, and its approach in many respects, differs significantly. Today we will see what they are some of these differences.
• Common symptoms in depression and adjustment disorder
• What can we do to prevent or minimize the effects of an adjustment disorder?
• Report medicine can help me ?

¿Adaptive disorder or depression?

Symptoms are superimposable in both cases (vital sadness, insomnia, loss of appetite, tearfulness). But their cause (known or not) to differentiate between the two. Thus, adjustment disorder of a specific problem (bad relationship, or family, a labor dispute, a health ...); whereas in depression, the patient feels sad (much more than usual, of course), without external cause to attribute such sadness.

Common symptoms in depression and adjustment disorder

In addition to sadness, which is the linchpin in this group of syndromes, the person may have some insomnia (especially by early awakenings after getting sleep properly), loss of appetite, emotional lability (medical term which means that the person cries with relative ease), irritability, loss of interest around us (people or things), difficulty enjoying situations that the person generally considers rewarding ...
in the case of adjustment disorder, as we saw earlier the reason that leads to the appearance of the whole symptomatic arsenal is a life situation (separation of the couple, job loss, financial problems, family relationships or friendships complicated ...). Clearly most of us, if we lost our workplace, we would feel sadness and a whole host of symptoms similar to those reported. We speak indeed of adjustment disorder when the response exceeds the "normal", which anyone would in that situation.
In psychiatry, also put a limit (relative, of course, depending on the cause that generates it) about three months since the triggering event occurred. This limit, insist on it on and not applicable to all cases, would discriminate normal reaction to a loss, a real adjustment disorder.
Nor do we have a physiological situation if at a loss not considered "serious" (the disappearance, for example, a family would not be included in this definition), the person sees how this affects your life (night 's sleep, meals, encouragement to develop his task daily ...) more than expected.

What can we do to prevent or minimize the effects of an adjustment disorder?

Always in moderation, trying not to give unnecessary vueltras again and again on the same issue; and, above all, listening to what others tell us, talk to friends, acquaintances and relatives about what happens. Talk and listen. And still, if it thinks fit, indications that they, from outside, give it.
Learning from the past is another good option: If you previously had faced something similar, try to remember what he did to overcome it , and learn from mistakes then.
With the help of a sheet and a pen, write neatly what happens, the problems it faces, and try to prioritize in terms of the actual importance of each. In this case, it should perhaps be a friend to help you in this process, since, as is being immersed in a sea of complicated situations, prioritizing can be difficult.
When you begin to solve them , also should prepare a strategy previously. And request the supervision of that unconditional friend, to tell us if our project is realistic, or are painting castles in the air.
Whenever you can abscond. Surely there hobbies or activities several, which are especially soothing. Try placing some of them every day in their agenda. At least in those moments, you get not be invaded by anxiety that creates the problem.
And if you can not think of any activity to escape, turn to the most common: a relaxing bath, some physical exercise every day, go to a movie, perform consistently relaxation technique (conscious breathing, as well as being simple to practice, you get spectacular results in a short time).

Report drug can help me?

Surely, it is. However, you should not approach the medication without the supervision of a health who can guide you about the best option in your case, the duration of treatment and the necessary controls to detect and properly treat possible side effects appear .
There is not strictly drug, with a negligible efficiency without attributed to drug side effects marketed intermediate step. This intermediate step is plants (phytotherapy). In this regard, valerian ( Valeriana officinalis ) is the plant of choice, if anxiety prevails, and if we are willing to use the oral route. If you prefer to use essential oils as massage, for example, lavender is a very good, and nothing expensive, option. And if our mind is which is proving affected, the Hypericum (better) or Rhodiola (second option) would be very good alternatives. Beware the Hypericum, since it interacts with multiple medications that doctors prescribe our.

Superiority complex

Arrogant attitude, mocking, exaltation ... Behold the main features of a person with a superiority complex. Why do some people develop a superiority complex? How should it be treated? Answers to these and other questions in the hands of Dr. Frédéric Fangent, psychiatrist and psychotherapist.
• superiority complex: how it manifests?
• superiority complex: why?
• superiority complex: how to treat it ?
The superiority complex is a personality disorder that actually conceals a lack of self confidence.

Superiority complex: how does it manifest itself?

"The superiority complex is a personality disorder -we usually refer to narcissistic personality more or less pathological , " explains Dr. Frédéric Fangent, psychiatrist and psychotherapist. Those who suffer adore, admire and despise others, whom they consider inferior.
How a person identifies with superiority complex? It has an arrogant attitude; teases easily; It shows great confidence; not usually listen to others; frequently used the expression "I ..." or "me ..."; It does not support that take the opposite; need to be admired, and to achieve this , no doubt exaggerating, coming to lie to embellish reality; criticizes and scorns the success of others ... "The superiority complex is more common in men than in women , " says Dr. Fanget.

I superiority complex: why?

In 9 out of 10 cases, the superiority complex hides an inferiority complex. "It is a reaction of the cognitive system," says the psychiatrist. It is a psychological response opposite to what frightens us and makes us feel inferior. So people who do not manage to overcome the complex "overcompensate" Trying to fill it through contempt. "The superiority is a mask, self-defense," says the doctor. Much less frequently, the superiority complex is the result of education received the child, if parents educate him into believing he's the best. In such cases it is a cognitive model associated with delusions of grandeur.

Superiority complex: how to treat it?

"Narcissistic personality enters the field of psychiatry , " pointed out Dr. Fanget. Most people who suffer from superiority complex do not request assistance. "Nor suffer so much , 'says the doctor. However, sometimes these people feel the need to trust what happens to a therapist. " In the end they end recognizing a nonentity they feel" added the psychiatrist. The therapy focuses on telling those people who, even when they boast of their superiority, are still endowed with positive qualities. "We teach them not to relate their worth with being superior to others and try to understand that each individual has positive aspects , " explains Dr. Fanget.