Definition of toll
1 Meaning of tollToll payment which is done as a right to be able to circulate along a path is called. In antiquity, it was called portazgo to the sum that was paid to cross certain limit (door) between two territorial areas or by crossing a bridge.
In more general terms the concept of toll joins the rate or fee charged to terrestrial, fluvial or maritime transport as a right of transit to use the infrastructure of the respective means of communication; for example to automobiles to circular power by a highway, or the boats to be able to go through a navigation channel or a waterway. In the majority of cases subject to toll sea route or via allows users save travel time and reduce your operating costs, regarding the transit through roads or toll free alternate routes.
The money raised through a toll is normally intended to finance the construction, operation and maintenance of road infrastructure (roads, tunnels, bridges or navigation channels). By its high investment costs, it is usual that the toll charged do not cover the total costs of construction, and when administered directly by the State, in general, the funds collected are used for the operation and maintenance of infrastructure subject to toll. In the case of roads subject to concession or outsourced, toll resumes to the private operator investments and future costs of maintenance, operation, and management.
Toll collection schemes allow the State, either directly or through a dealer, make a direct charge to users who use the road, bridge or tunnel, thus preventing other contributors subsidien users that road infrastructure. On the other hand, and due to problems of chronic road congestion that have been appearing in large urban centres, since 1975 in Singapore, and with greater intensity from the year 2003, introduced urban tolls under the economic concept of congestion pricing, in order to reduce the number of vehicles in the central urban areas. In these cases, the toll charged cover the costs of operation of the control system, and the remaining resources are destined to public transportation or to finance urban road infrastructure.
Normally the toll rates are paid at toll stations located in the road, bridge or tunnel is where traveling, whether it's on the main road or on the side roads (when leaving the motorway). The main direct problem associated with the collection of tolls is congestion occurring at the toll stations during peak (in urban areas) or during the departure and return of travelers during the late week and holidays (in rural areas). When traffic volumes are very high tails can reach kilometers and delays can become extremely high.
Types of road tollThere are several types of toll:
• Open toll: each distance there is a toll booth, where an amount is paid.
• Closed toll: upon entering the toll road, register entry and is paid out, according to the tour length, no more intermediate stops (manual toll collect a card at the entrance, and when using electronic toll collection does not collect card, because the appliance is responsible for registering the entry).
• Annual toll: in some countries, as in Switzerland, users pay annually an amount, which is credited by means of a sticker on the windshield, allowing them to travel on all the highways freely. Those who only use it occasionally (tourists), they have to pay the same amount.
• Urban congestion toll: rate, fee or tax is charged in some cities under the policy of congestion pricing, as the implanted in Buenos Aires, Stockholm, London, Milan and Singapore, with the purpose of reducing the number of vehicles entering a certain area of the Center to reduce traffic congestion, and more recent programsalso have the objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It is an authentic portazgo, and not of a toll in the traditional sense, the media often call it "Congestion charge".
In addition there are other half curious of financing highways:
• Toll shadow: builds and finances highway a trading company and the Administration pays the toll of vehicles driven by it, so that is financed with taxes, but avoided the indebtedness of the Administration in the short term, although experience has shown that in the long run you can assume an economic bankruptcy.
2. Definition of tollThe notion of toll, linked to the terms peatge (in catalan) and Péage (French), refers to the right of a person to pass through a certain space. By extension, referred to as toll site where such permission is payable and the payment that is specific in itself.
For example: "the Government announced a 20% increase in the toll of the national routes", "To get to the Baptist, have to spend 350 dollars in tolls", "Presumably the payment of the toll that must serve to improve the infrastructure of roads, something that does not happen".
The notion of toll was changing throughout history. Currently, it is associated to an amount that must be paid when attempting to use a certain means of transport infrastructure. The toll can be applied to a road or route; a highway; a navigation channel; etc.
The toll can allow recover the investment that takes place in the development of the infrastructure and also solve your maintenance. In some cases, the State manages the infrastructure in question and takes the toll; in others, it is a company which is in charge of managing through a concession granted by the State.
The advantage of a toll is that they pay only those who make use of the infrastructure. In this way, if a citizen does not use the route or tunnel toll, it should not pay anything. The opposite would happen if a tax is applied at a general level for all inhabitants.