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What is the meaning of Biopsy? Concept and Definition of Biopsy


Definition of biopsy

Concepto de Biopsia

1. Concept of biopsy

A biopsy is a diagnostic procedure that involves removal of a total or partial sample of tissue for examination under a microscope.The word biopsy is made and comes from the Greek bio life, opsis, and observe.

Types of biopsy

Biopsy delivered the maximum certainty diagnosis. There are different modes depending on the clinical circumstances:
1 Woven as the bronchial and transbronchial biopsy in the course of a fiberoptic Bronchoscopy.
2 Lymph node biopsy
3. Percutaneous biopsy in palpable nodes must be a detailed physical examination and if there are lymph nodes are usually biopsy.
4 Daniel biopsy or escalenicos node biopsy: involves removing the fat preescalenica and study it histopathologically. If the study is positive, it is a criterion of inoperability. Little correlation between a negative biopsy and the possibility of resection of carcinoma of lung has made this technique has been practically abandoned. One has the impression that it is not very useful for the small number of positividades which provides, but this is due, in large part, to the error for the removal of the fat preescalenica, when really what should be examined is the yugulosubclavia Confluence supraclavicular ganglions, which are those draining pulmonary lymph, and which are recognized to contain content anthracotic.
5. Mass of soft tissue biopsy: is biopsiara visible suspect lesions if still not been established treatment or if the determination of the stadium is based on the fact that a given lesion is or not cancer.
6. Bone biopsy of an OSTEOLYTIC lesion: is determined by the radiology of the affected bone or bone scan.
7 Bone marrow biopsy: usually do a puncture of iliac crest in lung cancer often metastasize in bone marrow frequently.
8. Pleural biopsy: if it is peripheral tumor and pleural effusion. It can be with different types of needle, being more employee of Vim-Silverman. Requires local anesthesia and the existence of a liquid Chamber at air in the pleural cavity, allowing to insert the needle from biopsy freely and without risk serious injury to the lung parenchyma. While this is not no problem for the technique, since its main indication is in thoracic processes that involve the appearance of pleural effusion, whose origin no has been able to be filiado by other procedures. The only drawback that they can put this technique is given by the inability to select the pleural territory that you want to biopsy. I.e. it's a blind procedure, which has an impact on the variability of profitability. However, given its low or null morbidity, allows subsequent recurrence of the technique without serious drawbacks. It will not be a blind procedure, when display pleural masses in the TAC.
9. Transpleural or transmural, or percutaneous lung biopsy: is usually done with radiological control. There are various methods as the aspiration, cutting needle biopsy and ultra fast compressed air drill. The main indication is in those peripheral tumors of difficult or impossible to access by other processes. The truth is that with the improvement of transbronchial biopsy, with radiological control and the FNAP, cases in which it is necessary to perform this technique are very scarce. In more than 80% of tumors enough samples are obtained to establish the diagnosis of the tumor. The disadvantages are pneumothorax occurring in 15 to 55%, sometimes very serious or pleural dissemination of tumor cells. Contraindications are Bullous emphysema, suspicion of hydatid cyst, suspected aneurysm or arteriovenous, contralateral pneumonectomy, hemorrhagic Diathesis, and cor pulmonary fistula grave.
10 Extemporaneous biopsy or preoperative: is a diagnosis "in situ" the patient is still in the operating room, to decide a cancer behavior, which can be: benign, malignant or deferred.

2. Definition of biopsy

The biopsy and its utilities.

What is a biopsy?

A biopsy is a procedure carried out for the purpose of obtaining tissue or cells of the body to examine them under the microscope. Some biopsies may be performed in the doctor's Office, while others need to be done on the premises of a hospital. In addition, some biopsies require the use of anesthetics to numb the area, while others do not require sedatives of any kind.
Biopsies are usually performed to determine whether a tumor is malignant (cancerous) or to determine the cause of an infection or unexplained swelling.

How is a biopsy performed?

A biopsy can be obtained in various ways, depending on the type of sample needed. Flexible endoscopes (flexible tubes of optical fiber, with a lens for viewing and light) allow the surgeon to see inside the body through a small incision and to take a tissue sample. Tissue samples are usually small and are removed the tissue that appears to have undergone changes in its structure, such as tumors.

Types of biopsies:

• Endoscopic biopsy
This type of biopsy is performed by means of an endoscope for optical fiber (a thin, long tube having a telescope of close focus on its tip to see) inserted through a natural orifice (as for example the rectum) or a small incision (eg, Arthroscopy). The endoscope is used to observe the body in question to look abnormal or suspicious areas to find a small amount of tissue to study it. Endoscopic procedures are named for the organ or body part that will be display, receive treatment or both. Doctors can insert the endoscope within the gastrointestinal tract (alimentary tract endoscopy), bladder (cystoscopy), in the abdominal cavity (laparoscopy), in the cavity of a joint (Arthroscopy), in the central portion of the chest (mediastinoscopy), or into the trachea and the bronchial system (laryngoscopy and Bronchoscopy).
• Bone marrow biopsy
Aspiration and bone marrow needle biopsy is a procedure that involves the removal of a small amount of bone marrow fluid (aspiration) liquid and or solid bone marrow tissue (biopsy core or puncture), usually of the bones of the hip, to study the quantity, size and maturity of blood cells and, or abnormal cells.
• Excisional or incisional biopsy
This type of biopsy is commonly used when you need a large or deep skin portion. Using a scalpel (surgical knife, scalpel), removed a part of the skin in its entirety for a detailed examination, and the wound is sewn (with surgical sutures).

When the entire tumor is removed, the technique is called excisional biopsy. If only a part of the tumor is removed, it is called incisional biopsy technique. Excisional biopsy is the preferred method when melanoma is suspected.
• By means of a needle aspiration biopsy fine (its acronym in English is FNA)
This type of biopsy includes the use of a thin needle to remove very small parts of a tumor. Local analgesics are sometimes used to numb the area, but the test rarely causes discomfort and does not leave scars.
The FNA is not used to diagnose a suspicious Mole, but can be used to biopsy large lymph nodes near the melanoma to know if this is has metastasized (propagated). A CT scan can be used (its acronym in English is CT or CAT) - a procedure that produces images of cross-sections of the body - to guide the needle into the tumor in an internal such as the lung or liver organ.
• A biopsy of drilling
Drilling biopsies taken a sample of deeper skin with an instrument for biopsy which a short cylinder or "heart of Apple", of the tissue removed. After providing local anesthesia, the instrument is rotated on the surface of the skin until it cuts all layers, including the dermis, epidermis and superficial parts of the subcutis (FAT).
• Shave biopsy
This type of biopsy is performed by removing the most superficial layers of the skin by scraping them with a sharp instrument. Shave biopsies are performed with local anesthesia.
• Skin biopsy
Skin biopsies are performed by removing a skin sample to examine it under the microscope and determine if there is a melanoma. The biopsy is performed using local anesthesia. Usually the patient feels only slight prick of a needle and a little burning for more or less a minute, with a little pressure, but no pain.

3 Significance of biopsy

Biopsy is a very important study in the area of medical science, it consists in the evaluation under the microscope of a portion of tissue in order to detail the evil that relates the case. The biopsy is performed in many infectious cases, which is not known with the normal procedures of examination do not arrive with the solution due to lack of clarity in the study. Biopsy is performed frequently in the area of Oncology hospitals, as this represents a precise and definitive test to identify cancer-infected cells. There are many types of biopsy, but the two main ones are: in which tissue is removed and is evaluated under a microscope and added reagents to make changes if necessary, and using cameras inside the body is coming into the origin of the infection.
The term biopsy comes from the Greek "Bio" and "Opsis" meaning 'Life' and 'Watch' respectively, indicating that it is mostly a process of visualization of the affected areas, without prompting a shift within the study but if to evaluate the behavior of the infected cell. Some biopsies are also done with radiological tools, percutaneous calls made inspections of tissue from the outer having purely graphic alterations as a margin of error. When it's a tumor or an organ with cancer this should be removed, in order to analyze the progress of the cancer in the body (metastasis) is proceeds to biopsy sample contained within what was retired in order to determine the extent of the disease.
Many organs must be removed in its entirety or by stages if it is possible to regain some of its functions, but it is clear that the patient's life won't be the same. This type of studies is a very accurate diagnosis and precise, thanks to the biopsy, cannot be identified treatment in time and take into account what would be the effect of the cancer cells. Very important, periodic biopsy is performed in order to evaluate the progress of the therapy.


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