Definition of César
1. Concept of CésarThe word Caesar is of Latin origin, comes from "caesar" which means "what is cut", alluding to the hair. In ancient Rome, the name of persons belonging to the patrician class were composed of a name that today we call stack, which for them was the "praenomen"; a sort of surname, designating "gens" or the family to which belonged, which was the "nomen"; and in addition a "cognomen" or nickname, indicating or the place of origin, or any accomplished feat or a quality or defect attributed to a member of that family, and others acquired by inheritance. In this case, César, was a cognomen, for example, which was to Cayo Julio César, military, politician, historian, and member of the first triumvirate, along with Pompey and Crassus, political form, which together with the second triumvirate, leading up to the Roman Empire.
The adopted son of Julio César, Octavio, took the name of Caesar and Augustus, such as titles, to be crowned as the first emperor of the Romans.
In the Tetrarquias system, imposed by the Emperor Diocleciano, who ruled between the 284 and the year 305, the Caesars in number two, were appointed with the aim of replacing the two emperors, who ruled temporarily, with the title of augustos.
Remember that even in Rome not taken Christianity, therefore, and being a pagan name, it was banned by the Catholic Church from the 7th to the 15th centuries.
César is also the name of a salad invented by Cesar Cardini, owner of an Italian restaurant. Its ingredients include Romaine lettuce and "croutons" (toasted rolls).
Without accent, that is, the verb cesar, comes from the latin "cessāre", with the meaning that something finished or complete.
2. Definition of CésarCésar (in singular latin Caesar in plural "Caesars" Latin Caesari/s) is an imperial title. Cesar comes from the word Caesar or head of the Empire. Derives from the cognomen of Gaius Iulius Caesar ("Cayo Julio César"), the intelligent general, consul and dictator (named by the Senate) Roman who was killed during the IDEs of March 44 BC. The transformation of the family name Caesar in a qualifying imperial can be vaguely traced starting from the year 68 (the so-called year of the four Emperors). And at the beginning of the second century, the Latin author Suetonius wrote the lives of the Twelve Caesars (De vita Caesarum XII), in which he describes the biographies of Cayo Julio César and eleven first Roman emperors (up to Domitian).
MeaningCaesar originally meaning "Beautiful", which suggests that the Iulii Caesares, a specific branch of the patrician gens Julia, were known to have abundant hair (also given the sense of Roman humor, however, could mean that they were more likely to be bald, problem which, no doubt, the most illustrious member of the family, Julio Cesar suffered). The first emperor, Augustus, took this name as a symbol of power. His birth name was Gaius Octavius, being adopted posthumously by Caesar in his will, so that, according to Roman conventions, it was renamed "Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus" (Cayo Julio Cesar Ottaviano, usually "Octavio") during the course of his life.
Due to political reasons, Octavio chose to emphasize its relationship with Julio César (since natural child was not his, but simply adopted) to call themselves simply "Emperor Caesar" (name that the Roman Senate added voluntary title Augustus "Majestic" or "Venerable", in year 26 BC), not to hold any other element of your full name. The successor of the Emperor Octavian, his stepson Tiberius, also held the name Caesar as the title. Its native name was Tiberius Claudius Nero (Tiberius Claudius Nero), being adopted by Octavio on June 26 of the year 4 as Tiberius Iulius Caesar. In this way, a precedent was established: the Emperor designated his successor by adopting him and giving him the name of "Caesar".
History of its coinage as titleThe fourth Emperor, Claudio, was the first to take the color purple and assume the name "Caesar" without having been adopted by the previous emperor nor, therefore, having adopted the name of Caesar (although a member of the family was Julio-Claudian). After the death of Nero (in the year 68, the year of the four Emperors), the usurper Serbian Sulpicius Galba was the first to assume the purple and the name at the same time without any valid reason, adopting the name "Servius Galba Caesar Imperator". He also helped to consolidate the use of "Caesar" as the title of the designated heir to the give it to his adopted heir, Lucius Calpurnius floor Frugi Licinianus.
The next step in the development of the title came a year later in 69, when the usurper Vitellius deposed the previous usurper Otto and held the purple along with the name "Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Imperator Augustus". Initially Vitelio not adopted the title "Caesar" as part of their name, and perhaps sought to replace it with Germanic (since he granted the name Germanicus to his own son in that year). However, Caesar had become an integral part of the imperial dignity and their place was restored by the fourth Emperor in the year 69, when the natural son of Tito Flávio Vespasiano, Tito Flavio Sabino Vespasiano became "Titus Caesar Vespasianus" (known to posterity as Tito).
At this point, the status of "Caesar" was regularized as the title given to an emperor-designate (occasionally also along with the honorific title princeps youth, "Prince of youth") and was preserved after rising to the throne (e.g., Trajan became the heir of Nerva as Caesar Nerva Traianus in October 97 year and ascended to the throne on January 28 of 98 as Imperator Caesar Nerva Traianus Augustus). After some variations during the reign of the first Roman emperors, the name of the Prince appointed as successor of the emperor was NN Caesar (where NN was the birth name of Prince). After becoming Emperor, was Imperator Caesar NN Augustus converia. After the ascension to the throne of Alexander Severus, popularized the custom of calling the Emperor appointed Nobilissimus Caesar NN ("Noble Caesar") instead of calling him simply Caesar.
March 1, 293, Diocletian established the so-called Tetrarchy, a system of Government that divided the Empire into two parts, East and West, and contemplated, so two main emperors and two side emperors, appointed successors of the former in every part of the Empire. The two main emperors were named in the same way that came naming hitherto: Imperator Caesar NN Pius Felix Invictus Augustus (Emperor Elagabalus had introduced the use of Pius Felix, "the pious and blessed", while Maximinus the Thracian introduced the use of Invictus, "the Vanquisher"), and were called Augusti ("Augustos"), while the two minors, attachments emperors and successors each an augustothey were named as former emperors designated as Nobilissimus Caesar NN. Also, under the emperors retained the title "Caesar" before succeeding to the Augustus. He is assigned to each Augustus and every Caesar a portion of the Roman Empire for his Administration (an Augustus and a Caesar to the western part and many others to the East).
However, the complex system of tetrarchy was abandoned (especially because required concurrency in the resignation of the two August so the two Caesars assuming the purple), and the old system of appointed emperador-emperador, both in the western part of the Empire, Latin speaking (where the title of "Caesar" was preserved), and the oriental, Greek-speaking ("kaisar"). Later, the fall of the Roman Empire in the West caused it to fall into disuse the title of "Caesar" (although the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire were called kaiser in German, his correct title was in latin, the cultured language of the time, imperator augustus, without caesar), and most of the languages in Western Europe use derivatives of imperator to refer to emperors (e.g.'Emperor' in Spanish, "empereur" in French or "emperor" in English).
3 Meaning of CésarGaius Julius Caesar (latin: Gaius Iulius Caesar) (Rome, Italy, July 12/13, 100 b.c. - ibid., March 15, 44 BC) was a military and political leader of the tardorrepublicana era.
Born in the bosom of the gens Julia, in a patrician family of little fortune, was related with some of the most influential men of his time, as his uncle Cayo Mario, who would influence a decisive in his political career. In 84 BC, at the age of 16, the popular Cinna appointed him flamen dialis, religious job that was relieved by Sila, with whom he had conflicts because of his marriage with the daughter of Cinna. After escaping death at the hands of the assassins of the dictator, it was spared through the intercession of his mother's relatives. Moved to Asia, he fought in Mytilene as legatus under Minucius Thermo. He returned to Rome on the death of Sila in 78 BC, exercising for awhile the law. In 73 a. C. succeeded his uncle Cayo Aurelio Cota as pontiff, and soon entered in relation to the consuls Pompey and Crassus, whose amicitia would allow him to launch his own political career. In 70 a. C. Caesar served as quaestor in Hispania province and mayor seat in Rome. During the tenure of the judiciary offered a few shows that were recalled by the people for a long time.
In 63 a. C. was elected praetor urbanus to obtain more votes than the other candidates to the pretura. That same year died fifth Caecilius Metellus Pius, Pontifex Maximus appointed during the dictatorship of Sulla, and in the elections in order to replace him, beat Cesar. At the end of his pretura, he served as propretor in Hispania, where he led a brief campaign against the lusitanians. In 59 a. C. was elected consul with the support of its two political allies, Pompey and Crassus, men with which Caesar formed the so-called first triumvirate. His colleague during the Consulate, Bibulus, withdrew in order to hinder the work of César, which, however, was able to bring forward a series of legislative measures, notably a land law that regulated the distribution of lands among the veteran soldiers.
After his Consulate was appointed proconsul of transalpine Gaul, Illyria and Cisalpine Gaul, the latter provinces after the death of its Governor, Celer. His Government was characterized by a very aggressive policy in which practically all peoples underwent Celts in several campaigns. This conflict, known as the Gallic wars, ended when the general Republican defeated in the battle of Alesia to the latest sources of opposition, led by a chieftain named Vercingetorix's boss. His conquests extended Roman rule over the territories that today comprise France, Belgium, Holland and part of Germany. He was the first Roman general to penetrate in the unexplored territories of Britannia and Germania.
As César finished organizing the administrative structure of the new province, which was annexed to the Republic, his political enemies dealt with in Rome stripped him of his army and charge using the Senate, where most were. Caesar, knowing that if he entered the capital it would be tried and exiled, he tried to present to the Consulate in absentia, to what the majority of the Senators refused. This and other factors prompted him to challenge the Senate orders and starring in the famous crossing of the Rubicon, where apparently uttered the immortal phrase "Alea iacta est" (the die is cast), starting a conflict known as the second war Civil of the Roman Republic, which faced the optimates, who were led by his old allyPompey. His victory, based on the defeats inflicted on the conservatives in Pharsalus and Thapsus, Munda, the master of the Republic did. The fact that it was at war with the middle of the Roman world did not prevent it to deal with Pharnaces II at Zela and enemies of Cleopatra VII in Alexandria. On his return to Rome was made name consul and dictator perpetuus - dictator for life-, and initiated a series of economic, urban development and administrative reforms.
While under his Government the Republic experienced a brief period of great prosperity, some senators looked to Caesar as a tyrant who aspired to restore the monarchy. In order to eliminate the threat posed by the dictator, a group of Senators formed by some of his men as tenth gross, gross and former lieutenants as Trebonio and Casio concocted a conspiracy in order to eliminate it. The plot ended when, on the IDEs of March, the conspirators killed Caesar in the Senate. His death sparked the outbreak of another civil war, in which supporters of the regime of César, Antonio, Octavio and Lepidus, defeated in the battle of Philippi double their assassins, led by Brutus and Cassius. At the end of the conflict, Octavio, Antonio and Lepidus formed the second triumvirate and they divided the territories of the Republic, although a time section Lepidus, finally they would face in Actium where Octavian, Caesar's heir, defeated Mark Antony.
Apart from his political and military career, César stood out as a speaker and writer. At least, wrote a treatise of astronomy, another about the Republican Roman religion and a study on latin, none of which has survived to the present day. The only works that remain are his reviews of the Gallic wars and reviews of the Guerra Civil. The development of his career as a military and a great part of his life through his own works and the writings of authors such as Suetonius, Plutarch, Veleyo Patérculo or Eutropius is known.