Louse – Its Definition and Concepts
1. Concept of louseThe ftirapteros (Phthiraptera), commonly known as head lice, are an order of neopteros, wingless insects, ectoparasites of birds and mammals, which includes some 3,250 especies.1 their eggs are called nits, that lice stick to hair or feathers of their host.
They have heterometabolo development paurometabolo. They are all forced ectoparasites of birds and mammals, with the exception of monotremes (the Platypus and Echidna) and few eutherian orders, such as Chiroptera (bats) and folidotos (pangolin).
They are highly specific with host many species prefer even specific places in the body of its host. While lice spend their whole lives on the host, they have developed adaptations that enable them to keep a close contact with him. These adaptations are reflected in its size (0.5 to 8 mm), legs and strong claws to cling firmly to the hair, skin and feathers, wings and inflated dorsoventrally. They feed on remains of skin (epidermal), parts of feathers, Sebaceous secretions and blood. Its color varies from pale beige to dark gray. If they feed on blood, they may be considerably darker. Lice do not jump but can be infected by contact, as they tend to move from a host to another.
Pediculosis is the medical term for infestation with lice. The oldest trace of human lice infestation is 6900 to 6300 BC in Egyptian mummies. Lice are still existing and growing and it is usual to find rates of infection from 5 to 20% in schools in developed countries. This is due to basically two reasons: resistance to insecticides and increase in travel.
In recent years lice has become a phenomenon so common already hardly calling attention, from being a disease that was hiding, become an almost common fact in the life of the child in school.
But this way of seeing things can cause different consequences in the guy, since affect school performance, to cause serious damage to the body. It is necessary then the enemy against which we struggle to establish the most appropriate strategies for their control and eradication.
Lice have parasitized the man from time so remote that are incorporated into the tradition of all the peoples of the world, so that have received names in all languages and dialects. They constitute an ever existing problem, soon to sprout again and spread with unusual speed whenever there are natural disasters, wars, poverty or famine. And are synonyms of moments and difficult circumstances, since there may be few health indices to denounce the precarious life and under poor hygienic conditions. For this reason should be that the problem is not isolated, but depends on other factors which necessarily will have to act. The distribution of lice is cosmopolitan. The lack of hygiene, promiscuity, overcrowding and migrations conducive to their development. They usually appear small family epidemics and its incidence has shown a significant increase over the last decade. This affects all races and especially to women. Pediculosis of the scalp predominates among schoolchildren.
2 Meaning of liceWhat child has not had, some time, your head lice? It is a nuisance that parents try to avoid but that, in general, late or early appears in the lives of kids who are in school age.
Lice are insects that measure about two millimeters and have no wings. These animals are external parasites that feed on the blood extracted from those organisms which become guests.
Due to its high reproductive capacity and their ability to move from one guest to another, lice can be difficult to combat. Staying in the human head, adhering to the hair. They can also live among the fur in the feathers of birds and other mammals.
The presence of lice in a person is known as pediculosis. There are various chemical products seeking to eliminate lice and their eggs (called nits), so that the hair of the individual to be free of these parasites. Another common treatment consists in passing a fine comb between the hair for lice entrapment between the bristles.
It is important to note that lice is very common and usually does not bring major complications to the individual. In general, the only symptom is itching, caused by the very presence of lice. When the person scratches, it may hurt, yes representing a potential risk of infection. That ideally reduce scratching and go to products designed specifically to combat the lice.
Lice, finally, is the name of a famous Argentine rock band which was active between 1988 and 2009.
3. Definition and what is louseThere are three species of lice that infest humans:
Louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) head.
Adults are elongated, usually 1, 0-2, 0 mm long, reddish with dark margins. His legs are equal in length and each has a claw to grab the hair. Thus, the head lice cannot jump or fly, draggable only.
Forms not mature (nymphs) are similar in appearance to adults, but they are much smaller. The adult female is larger than the male. Grisaceo-blancos eggs (nits) she sticks to the hair shaft.
Nits can be found anywhere in the head, including folds of the neck, eyebrows, eyelashes, behind the ears, and on the Crown. The female can reach between 80 and 100 eggs. Once the egg they spend between 7 and 10 days until they are born the lymph. There are three linfales stages or juvenile stages which takes to reach adults between 9 and 11 days.
The louse lives 30 to 40 days.
Louse (Pediculus humanus corporis) body.
The main difference between this lice and head lice is that the body louse is larger than the head louse, on average of 2, 0-4, 0 mm in size and does not have the typical dark margins of head lice. Most importantly, these lice live in the clothing of a person, however, return to the body to feed.
Like head lice, body lice infestation can reflect poor hygiene.
Crab louse, (pediculosis pubis).
The smallest of the three lice is usually 0, 8-1, 2 mm or less in length. It is easy to recognize the shape of the body and the different legs, giving the insect its common name. The legs are uneven in length and are specially modified to grab the hair.
Crab louse is more sedentary in nature than the other two species and prefers an area where hair is more dense; areas i.e., pubic, although they found in whiskers, eyebrows and beards. However, the latest examples are rare. In some situations, children found with infestations in their eyebrows. Lice infestations can cause the skin of the infested area to develop a purple pigmentation.
As mentioned above, the three species need human blood to survive, and remain in close proximity to the human body or - in the case of the louse body-infested individual clothing.
There is controversy as to how long a louse can live outside the human body, however, it is believed currently less than 24 hours, depending on environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity. Egg output usually takes place within the period of 7-10 days, depending on environmental conditions.
Lice should be monitored, according to Parasitologists and pharmacists who have advised the Ministry of health of Chile, through the use of washable 1% permethrin creams or lotions or deltamethrin solution 0.02% more butoxide butoxico 2.5%.