Definition of Peronism
1. Concept of PeronismThe PJ Peronism is an Argentine mass movement created around the figure of Juan Domingo Perón, which is an important player in the country since the mid 1940's. In its favour form, was organized as a Peronist, and subsequently, party party Justicialista.La word "justicialism" comes from one of the three large flags of this ideology, social justice, and it was suggested for the first time by Dr. Eduardo Raúl Stafforini, specialist in labour law and civil servant of the Ministry of labour and welfare when Peron was serving as Secretary of labor.
The figure of Colonel Juan Domingo Perón won public knowledge over the course of the coup of June 4, 1943, which overthrew the Government of Ramón Castillo. The coup was led by the generals Arturo Rawson and Pedro Pablo Ramírez, and supported among others by a group of young officers of the Argentine army gathered in the Group's official Unidos (GOU), among whom was Peron, who feared that the neutral position that kept the Argentina with regard to the second world war amended.
The program of the GOU (United officers group), became finally in the program of the revolution of 43. In fact, the GOU was operationally formalized after the revolution of June, as a kind of extension of the Ministry of war from which Perón was Secretary. There was where the GOU with the official addressing circulars are printed. General Edelmiro j.. Farrell, Minister of war, and his wife Beatriz Verdún convened the heads and officers so that they will find the same Perón.
The economic structure of the country had changed profoundly during the 1930s, due to the great depression that led to a significant reduction in international trade. This affected the argentina economy based on export agriculture, which was converted by controlling the market of meats and grains and an accelerated industrialization based on the substitution of imports of manufactured goods. This process was accompanied of a major internal migration from the rural areas of the interior towards the periphery of large cities (mainly Buenos Aires, Rosario and Córdoba). These new popular masses, employed in the new industries and no history of unionization, are those that will form the basis of the Peronist movement.
IdeologyPeronism has hosted numerous ideological trends which have permanently entered into conflict with over the years.
Since its emergence on the national political scene, peronism was defined by Perón as a national movement, which included a social sector known as 'working class'. This nickname, which initially was a euphemism used by the General to distinguish their "national and popular" conception of the criteria "proletarians" Marxists, became in a short time in a doctrinal definition stating opposition to the class struggle for peronism.
Until we proclaim our doctrine, front we stood triumphant capitalist individualism and collectivism Communist to lengthening the shadow of its imperial wings by all walks of humanity (...) Thus was born the Justicialismo under the Supreme aspiration of a high ideal. The PJ created for us and for our children, as a third ideological position to get rid of capitalism without falling into the oppressive grip of collectivism.
In this context, the Peronist movement understood (ideally) all those who could match the concepts of Social Justice, political sovereignty and economic independence. This interpretation of Peron allowed the unexpected growth of its political structure and took her to levels of popular representation which never had been achieved in Latin America. However, to maintain that situation it was necessary to concentrate permanently the possibility of generating doctrine, since the massiveness of the movement required content and contain sectors with conflicting interests.
The interpretation of reality could not then be in the hands of a collegiate structure, which necessarily would have generated conflicts and disagreements internal and external to reducing the flow of power of the movement in the medium term. Perón concentrates upon himself this task with exclusivity, generating a higher Council which was, in practice, the only member with voice and vote. Also if between the Higher Council and the foundations of the movement there are intermediaries, the doctrine would be mediated by them and appropriate to sectoral interests, which would end encorsetando to the own Peron.
He is then adopted the model of direct communication between the leader and the masses: an absolutely horizontal movement, with a single pop-up. To confirm this analysis, is a clear example of Evita, who soon begins to fulfill the role of an intermediary between the driver and the people. The speech and actions of Evita mediatized doctrine to such an extent that the movement was quickly sectoriza. It begins to generate the division of interests that Perón sought to avoid. The absolute inclination of Evita to "the grasitas", the "descamisados", generates his, fear and outrage among the military, the Church and the middle class, who initially accepted Perón, as your project out diffusely humanitarian and "pj".
2. Meaning of Peronism
Juan Domingo Perón(Wolves, 1895 - Buenos Aires, 1974) Military and Argentine politician who dominated the Argentine political scene for nearly thirty years. At age five the family moved to Río Gallegos and in 1905 was established in Buenos Aires, where the young Juan Domingo attended the international Polytechnic College. Their classrooms he went to military school, graduating in 1913 with the rank of second lieutenant of the infantry weapon.
After dealing with various destinations, participate in the coup of 1930 and play in the Superior School of war, was appointed military attaché in the Embassy of argentina in Chile, a country which returned in 1938 to then carry out a mission in Italy. He lived in Europe between 1939 and 1941. He took part in the coup that toppled President Castle in 1943 and began his political career as Secretary of the National Department of labor, which, in 1944, became a Secretary for labour and welfare.
From that position, he developed a social program that would bring in the accession of a large part of Argentine society, especially the workers. Imprisoned in 1945 and released thanks to the popular mobilization of October 17, Perón held the positions of Minister of war and Vice President. Accompanied by doctor Hortensio Quijano won presidential elections for the period 1946-1952.
The Peronist party, of rigid vertical and strong discipline was held in 1947. Perón found a country whose economic conditions were favorable for its development and also had the support of the General Confederation of labour. The Pro-State and nationalist policy was fulfilled within the provisions of the first five-year Plan (1947-1951).
Elected for a second term after having reformed the Constitution (1949), it was sworn on June 4, 1952. In this second period he should face serious problems and he was unseated by a coup military September 16, 1955. Peron is harbored in Paraguay and, after living in Panama and Santo Domingo, settled in Madrid. From his residence in the neighbourhood of Puerta de Hierro, continued to influence national policy. After a frustrated attempt to return in 1964, prior official lifting of the sanctions against him he could do it in 1972.
His definitive return occurred in 1973, when through the resignation of Héctor J. Cámpora agreed to the Presidency with 62 percent of the votes. His third wife, María Estela Martínez completed the formula. During his Government he led to the establishment of a social pact between organizations of workers, employers and the State and closed the country's income in the Organization of non-aligned countries. He died on July 1, 1974 in exercise of the Presidency.
Prestigious teaching military, wrote notes of military history (1932-1933) and strategic studies (1928). Within its political production fit cited Peronist doctrine, political leadership (1952), the force is the law of the beasts, the third position, organized community and policy and strategy.
3. What is PeronismPeronism is the doctrine and movement developed from Juan Domingo Perón, a politician and military who was elected three times by the people of Argentina as President (in 1946, 1952 and 1973). Two of those periods, however, could not complete them in the Presidency, since he was overthrown in 1955 and died in 1973 while serving as maximum leader of Argentina.
The development of peronism began in the Decade of 1940, when Perón was Colonel and began to have one increasing political influence. Peron was able to identify and integrate the millions of rural workers who, as Argentina was moving away from the agro-export model because of the new world economic landscape, came to major cities to work in the fledgling industry.
It is usually appointed on October 17, 1945 as birth of peronism. That day, a huge number of people met in the Plaza de Mayo in Buenos Aires city to demand the release of Peron, who had been forced to resign the Office occupied during the Government de facto Edelmiro Farrell and then arrested by soldiers opposed to his policies. Since then, Peron became a key player in Argentine politics, whose influence is still crucial in the 21st century.
Eventually, the Peronist movement was divided in different political parties, being the Peronist party the most representative and most traditional. It is very difficult to define the ideology and policies basic peronism, since under its name tabled proposals on left (linked to the redistribution of income in favour of more delayed classes, for example) and right (shrinkage of the State proposed by neo-liberalism, among others) that are contradictory.