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PLASTIC - ITS DEFINITION AND CONCEPTS
1. Concept of PlasticThe term plastic in its more general meaning, is applied to the substances of similar structures that lack a fixed point of evaporation and held over a temperature range of elasticity and flexibility properties allowing mold them and adapt them to different shapes and applications. However, as a concrete, names certain types of synthetic material obtained by polymerization phenomena or semi-natural multiplication carbon atoms in the long molecular chains of organic compounds derived from petroleum and other natural substances.
plastic word was originally used as an adjective to denote a low degree of mobility and ease to acquire some form, meaning that is preserved in the term plasticity.
The invention of the first plastic comes as a result of a competition held in 1860, when the American manufacturer of billiard balls Phelan and Collarder offered a reward of 10,000 dollars to anyone who got a natural ivory substitute, for the manufacture of billiard balls. One of the people who competed was the American inventor John Wesley Hyatt, who developed celluloid dissolving cellulose (natural material) in a solution of camphor and ethanol. While Hyatt did not win the award, got a very marketable product that would be vital for the further development of the film industry of the late nineteenth century.
In 1909 the Belgian-born American chemist Leo Hendrik Baekeland synthesized a polymer of great commercial interest, to from phenol and formaldehyde molecules. He was baptized with the name of bakelite and was the first fully synthetic plastic history, was the first of a series of synthetic resins revolutionized modern technology starting the "plastic age". Throughout the twentieth century the use of plastic became popular and came to replace other materials both in the domestic, industrial and commercial like.
In 1919 an event occurred that set the tone in the development of plastic materials. The German chemist Hermann Staudinger ventured that they were in fact composed of giant molecules or macromolecules. Efforts to test these claims initiated numerous scientific investigations that produced enormous advances in this part of chemistry.
Properties and characteristicsPlastics are synthetic chemicals called polymers macromolecular structure that can be shaped by heat or pressure, and whose main component is carbon. These polymers are large groups of monomers linked by a chemical process called polymerization. Plastics provide the necessary balance of properties which can not be achieved with other materials such as: color, light weight, pleasant feel and resistance to environmental degradation and biological.
fact, relates to a plastic state of the material, but the material se: synthetic polymers usually called plastics are actually synthetic materials that can achieve the plastic state, that is when the material is fluid or viscous, and it has properties of resistance to mechanical stress. This state is reached when the material becomes solid plastic state usually by heating, and is ideal for different production processes and in this state is when the material can be handled in different ways that exist today. Plastic so the word is a way to refer to synthetic materials capable of entering into a plastic state, but plastic is not necessarily the group of materials to which this word refers daily.
2. Definition of PlasticFrom the Latin word plasticus and refers to each of the materials based on organic polymers obtained by chemical modification of natural materials or synthetically from organic or inorganic materials
may be present in different forms: as liquids, parts moldeades solids, sticky masses, sheets, fibers, etc.. Most plastics are easier to model than natural materials, since during the processing fabricacióno sometime are ductile and soft. Softened plastics at will, normally by increasing the temperature, and hardened again as it cools, thermoplastics are called.
Those are malleable at first only at high temperatures, and once cured retain their strength and rigidity even against to the action of heat, thermoplastic or thermosetting called, include phenolic resins, urea resins, melamine resins, aminoplasts, silicone resins, epoxy resins, crosslinked polyesters and crosslinked polyurethanes.
Thermoplastics are threadlike molecules formed by parallel, without any links (or very few) between them, while the thermosetting plastics made of macromolecules are oriented in all directions and joined together by numerous links.
Most plastics are resistant to oxidation, putrefaction and weather as well as the action of many chemicals, the inertness of some kinds of plastics is surpassed only by the noble metals
From 1840, the year in which the American chemist Charles Goodyear discovered vulcanization rubber, beginning to improve the properties of plastics.
In 1845, the German Sconbein, discoverer of ozone prepared cellulose nitrate, from which, the American John W. Hyatt won in 1869 celluloid and camphor, in 1897 obtained the galatita. Abtuvo Baekeland Bakelite in 1909, first organic plastic.
3. Meaning of PlasticPlastics materials that are composed of resins, proteins and other substances are easily molded and can change its shape permanently after a certain compression and temperature. A plastic element, therefore, has different characteristics to a resilient object.
Usually plastics are polymers which are molded from the pressure and heat. Once they reach the state that characterizes the materials we usually call as plastics, are quite resistant to degradation and, in turn, are lightweight. Thus, the plastic can be used to manufacture a wide range of products.
For example: "Plastic bottles keep them in the cabinet of the aisle", "I bought a plastic table with four chairs for the garden", "Martha Eliana gave plastic vase very nice. "
reduced manufacturing cost, resistance to deterioration, water resistance and the ability to color them in different shades are some of the reasons that make plastics so popular. However, they also undergo various cons: many of them are not capable of recycling, so that they can contribute to the contamination on the other hand, plastics are often not withstand excessive heat, melting and releasing sometimes toxic.
La the plastic condition is known as plasticity. Therefore, the term can be used as an adjective to qualify him or that which demonstrates ease in different forms: "He's a plastic that always manages to slip through defenders."