3.2. Iguazu Falls

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Iguazu falls (Argentina, Brazil)


 

Review of this Natural wonder

These waterfalls are formed by 275 falls of up to 80 m height of which 80% are on the Argentine side, fed by the flow of the Iguazu River. Walks can be by boat under the waterfalls and hiking trails appreciating some semi-tropical jungle animals. A show apart is its leap greater flow, and with 80 m, also the highest: the throat of the devil, which can be enjoyed in all its Majesty from only 50 m, along the catwalks that depart from port canoes, which can be reached using the eco-friendly train service. By this jump passed the border between both countries. In the year 1542, during a crossing from the Atlantic Ocean to Paraguay Asuncion, Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca saw amazing waterfalls of the Iguazu River and baptized them as «Santa Maria jumps", name which eventually was replaced by primitive guarani name Iguazu (old spelling of yguasú 'large amount of water' of and 'water' and 'big' Guazú). By then the region was inhabited by the ethnicity mbya-guarani Indians, who began to live the evangelization process led by the Jesuit priests of the society of Jesus, who developed a unique experience Latin America in the region around 1609: the formation of a reduction system that came to have 30 villages in the regions of the keep capped and del Guayra (currently southern Brazil and Paraguay(, all the Argentine Province of Misiones and part of the North of Corrientes). Political and economic differences with the Crown of Spain, the Jesuits were expelled from the region in 1768. Falls area thus became forgotten until June 1881 - little before the federalization of missions - time in which the province of Corrientes, which exercised jurisdiction, sold 50 square leagues of land on the Paraná, Iguaçu and Uruguay rivers to Severo Fernández and Ernesto Arnadey. These transferred their rights in October of that same year to Rafael Gallino who returns to dispose them in favor of Gregorio Lezama. In December 1881 missions separates current and in 1882 assumes the first Governor Rudecindo rock that divides the territory into 5 departments. One of their commanders, Francisco Cruz, reaches the confluence of the River Paraná and Iguazú river carrying a German Scientific Commission seeking land to colonize. This expedition was funded by Ledesma (owner of the lands of Iguazú) and directed by Carlos Bossetti Explorer. Among the expedition members was also Jordan Hummell, years more evening organized the first tourist trip to the falls. Cataracts are "discovered" again and again to be admired. In 1888, Gregorio Lezama sells «land of the Iguazú» Martín Erracaborde Cía. In 1902, the Ministry of the Interior of Argentina, commissioned landscape architect Carlos Thays, a study of the falls, which was the basis for the creation of the Iguazu National Park in 1934, possessing 67,620 hectares of forest.

Foz de Iguaçu 27 Panorama Nov 2005.jpg

Geographical aspects

The Iguazu falls (in Portuguese: cataratas do Iguaçu) are located on the Iguassu River, on the border of the Brazilian State of Paraná and the Argentine Province of Misiones. They are completely inserted in protected areas; the sector of the Argentina lies within the Iguazú National Park, while the portion of the Brazil is located in the Iguaçu National Park. About them is the border between Paraguay and Argentina, only 13.8 km in a straight line. They were chosen as one of the "seven natural wonders of the world».

These waterfalls are formed by 275 falls, 80% are from the Argentine side. A show apart is its leap greater flow, and with 80 m, also the highest: the throat of the devil, which can be enjoyed in all its Majesty from only 50 m, along the catwalks that depart from port canoes, which can be reached using the eco-friendly train service. By this jump passed the border between both countries. Walks can be by boat under the waterfalls and hiking trails appreciating some animals of the semitropical forest belonging to the mixed forests of the phytogeographic province Paranaense phytogeographical district.

Toponymy

The Iguazu name comes from two words: the word 'and' (that reads [ɨ]) as the close central unrounded vowel) and the word "guasu", which in guarani language means 'water' and 'big', respectively. In Portuguese they are called cataratas do Iguaçu.

History

In the year 1542, during a crossing from the Atlantic Ocean to Paraguay Asuncion, Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca saw amazing waterfalls of the Iguazu River and baptized them as «Santa Maria jumps", name which eventually was replaced by primitive guarani name Iguazu (old spelling of yguasú 'large amount of water' of and 'water' and 'big' Guazú).

By then the region was inhabited by the ethnicity mbya-guarani Indians, who began to live the evangelization process led by the Jesuit priests of the society of Jesus, who developed a unique experience Latin America in the region around 1609: the formation of a reduction system that came to have 30 villages in the regions of La Guayra (currently southern Brazil and Paraguay and the keep capped(, all the Argentine Province of Misiones and part of the North of Corrientes).

Political and economic differences with the Crown of Spain, the Jesuits were expelled from the region in 1768. Falls area thus became forgotten until June 1881 - little before the federalization of missions - time in which the province of Corrientes, which exercised jurisdiction, sold 50 square leagues of land on the Paraná, Iguaçu and Uruguay rivers to Severo Fernández and Ernesto Arnadey. These transferred their rights in October of that same year to Rafael Gallino who returns to dispose them in favor of Gregorio Lezama.

In December 1881 missions separates current and in 1882 assumes the first Governor Rudecindo rock that divides the territory into 5 departments. One of their commanders, Francisco Cruz, reaches the confluence of the Paraná River and Iguaçu river carrying a German Scientific Commission seeking land to colonize. This expedition was funded by Ledesma (owner of the lands of Iguazú) and directed by Carlos Bossetti Explorer. Among the expedition members was also Jordan Hummell, years more evening organized the first tourist trip to the falls. Cataracts are "discovered" again and again to be admired.

In 1888, Gregorio Lezama sells «land of the Iguazú» Martín Erracaborde Cía.

In 1902, the Ministry of the Interior of Argentina, commissioned landscape architect Carlos Thays, a study of the falls, which was the basis for the creation of the Iguazu National Park in 1934, possessing 67,620 hectares of forest.

On September 20, 1895, Governor Balestra divided the province into 14 departments. Iguazú Department moves to integrate the Department border along with Manuel Belgrano, Eldorado and part of San Pedro.

On July 19, 1897, is appointed justice of the peace of the incipient population of Iguazú Alberto Mugica. Then, for Jordan Hummell, accompanied by Mr Nuñez and Gibaja already had made a new incursion up to the Iguazu falls, but the Brazilian side, since the Argentine side the jungle was impenetrable. From that trip led to the Government its interest in promoting the arrival of tourists.

Walks


View of the falls from the viewpoint which is located on the lower circuit.


Some of the falls on the Argentine side.


Falls on the Argentine side from the upper promenade.


Aerial view.

Rides are mostly on the Argentine side, but from the Brazilian side you have a panoramic view.
  • Walking bottom:
Starting from el mirador, which reminds by its figure to a lighthouse and stands of the environment by its white color, down by numerous staircases (some were carved in the same rock) toward the Iguazu River and passes through a beautiful hiking trail. Surrounded by the lush forest you can enjoy a beautiful view of the bottom of the falls.
Starting the visit in the jump Lanusse and by Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, reach a splendid vantage point from where you will have a first view of the Devil's throat. Moving a little further there is the island Saint Martin and on his eponymous jump right. The salto Bossetti is located at the end of the trail.
If we remain long time we will end up wet, as the water vapor produced by the shock of the water against the rocks there is a subtle but incessant rain. Descending along the path towards Punta danger it may, if at that moment is enabled, navigate the Iguazu River and cross at the San Martin island. Back moves by the salto Dos Hermanas, where before you could enjoy a refreshing swim in the huge natural pool that forms at its base, now this activity is prohibited.
  • Walk top:
Starting from the same above mentioned site, travel, as shown in the name of the ride, the top of the waterfalls. The observation from a higher point changes completely the vision of the landscape. You will see virtually at his feet to hurl the turbulent waters.
In this way you will again visit salto Dos Hermanas, the Bossetti, boy, that will be a small preview of the impressive Garganta del Diablo. On this site, where the water falls from approximately 70 meters height, we will surprise the deafening roar of the water, permanently covered by dense columns of steam, which dismisses the shock of water with rocks.
  • Devil's throat:
He is accessed through the falls train, descending on the station the Devil's throat. From there is a walk through the new footbridge, which meandering among the Islands, runs 1100 meters to the large balconies located along the edge and front of the Garganta del Diablo. This tour lasts 2 hours and the last train leaves at 4:30 p.m.
  • San Martin island:
It is possible to reach the island of St. Maarten via boats departing from the lower circuit. From here, he can see a panoramic view of the Devil's throat, the window (with its roost of vultures), and jump San Martin.
  • Sendero Macuco:
This path of trekking is one of the traditional outlets for the observation of nature lovers. An old bite of timber extraction from 3600 m in length by jungle environment. This trail provides access to a cascade of 20 m in the jungle. It is an opportunity to meet forest and spotted tinamous, monkeys, coatis, pavas de monte, a myriad of insects and occasionally coral snakes.
Should be recalled that the Sheraton hotel is located within the Park (formerly: hotel Iguazu international), which boasts a panoramic view of the Garganta del Diablo and the Brazilian jumps.
In 1984 the Argentine sector of the falls, Iguazu National Park, was declared world heritage by Unesco. Later in 1986, the sector of Brazil, located in the Iguaçu National Park, was also declared a world heritage. The falls border with Argentina and Brazil, and are a few kilometres from the triple border with Paraguay.
Near the falls, Puerto Iguazú, is located at the confluence of the Iguazú and Paraná rivers.
Cataracts are the main tourist center of the northeast of Argentina, and one of the leading nationwide.
Panorama de algunos de los saltos del lado argentino.

Panorama of some of the jumps on the Argentine side.

Distribution of cataracts between Argentina and Brazil

The Iguazu falls are arranged in a way that seems a great reverse "J". On the right bank (North) is the Brazilian territory, which owns little more than 20% of these falls hops; and left (South) side are Argentine jumps, which make up almost 80% of the falls. To fully know and appreciate all these falls, the recommendation is to visit both the Brazilian and the Argentine side because one side shown panoramically the other, and vice versa. Arises from this distribution the saying "cataracts are from Brazil, and from Argentina is living" (from Brazil is an impressive jumps, which can be traversed most panoramic in vividly on the Argentine side). However, one moves between jumps on the Argentine side, not only on the catwalks that allow almost touching the water, but also in the boat rides, allowing to go up beside the impressive waterfalls, and even you can enter until the very throat of the devil, if it is by boat from Argentine territory.

The Iguaçu Falls seen from the Brazilian side to the Argentine side.

One of the seven natural wonders of the world


View of the falls (in the Centre of the Devil's throat)

Video Clip: panoramic view of the falls.


Cataratas del Iguazu.


Aerial view of the falls.

November 11, 2011, the Iguazu falls were provisionally chosen as one of the "seven wonders of the world». On February 22, 2012 New7Wonder Foundation finally confirmed that these falls are officially one of the «seven natural wonders of the world». More than one billion people around the world voted to choose the seven wonders. They did so by Internet by text message. "These wonders survive all the wonders that exist and can exist because they are wonders of nature", said Brazilian Ambassador Enio Cordeiro.
To get to be among the seven wonders, the falls had to leave behind 440 attractions in 220 countries.
«Our vision of Iguazu falls as one of the seven wonders of nature is the promotion of the falls through a form of tourism that makes a minimal impact on the environment, while helping to create quality jobs for the local population», said Bernard Weber, who thanked the voters, to the official committees of support, and to the Governments of Argentina and Brazil for their commitment to the success of the campaign.
Becoming one of the seven natural wonders of the world resulted in the first year, in an increase in the volume of tourism in approximately 300 000 people.