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Definition of analytical chemistry
1. Concept of analytical chemistryAnalytical chemistry can be defined as the science that develops and improves methods and tools for information on the composition and chemical nature of matter. Analytical chemistry include chemical analysis which is the practical part which applied the methods of analysis to solve problems related to the composition and chemical nature of matter. The fields of application of chemical analysis are varied, the industry emphasizes the quality of raw materials and finished products control; trade in certified laboratories ensure goods quality specifications; in the medical field clinical analyses to facilitate the diagnosis of diseases.
It is interesting to make a definition of terms linked to the analysis:
• Sample: representative part of the analysis subject matter.
• Analyte: Species chemical that analysed.
• Technique: Medium of information about the analyte.
• Method: A set of operations and techniques applied to the analysis of a sample.
• Analysis: Study of a sample to determine its composition or chemical nature.
Within analytical chemistry can also distinguish different areas according to the information to be obtained. Thus, qualitative analytical chemistry focuses on identifying the presence or absence of an analyte, while the chemical quantitative Analytics develops methods to determine their concentration.
Methods of analysis
• Classical methods, which were based on chemical properties of the analyte. The gravimetry, the volumes and the classic qualitative analysis methods are included.
• Instrumental methods, based on chemical and physical properties. The classification of instrumental methods is carried out on the basis of the property being measured (spectroscopic, •electroanalytical, heating...).
• Methods of separation. This group includes the methods whose purpose is the separation of compounds to eliminate the interference and to facilitate measures
2. Meaning of analytical chemistryAnalytical Chemistry (from Greek ἀναλύω) is the branch of chemistry that aims to the study of the chemical composition of a material or sample, using different laboratory methods. It is divided into quantitative analytical chemistry and qualitative analytical chemistry.
The search for faster analysis methods, selective and sensitive is one of the essential objectives of the Analytical Chemists. In practice, it is very difficult to find analytical methods that combine these three qualities, and in general, any of them should be sacrificed for the benefit of the others. In the industrial analysis, speed up the process tends to influence the characteristics of the method used, rather than its sensitivity. Conversely, in toxicology the need to identify substances in very small amounts can be very slow and costly methods.
The General characteristics of analytical chemistry was established in the mid-20th century. Gravimetric methods were preferred, in general, to the volume and the use of the torch was common in laboratories. Authors such as Heinrich Rose (1795-1864) and Karl R. Fresenius (1818-1897) published influential works during these years, which established the General characteristics of the discipline. The second was also the editor of the first magazine devoted exclusively to analytical chemistry, Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie (Journal of analytical chemistry), which began to appear in 1862. Karl R. Fresenius also created an important laboratory dedicated to the teaching of analytical chemistry and chemical analysis for various State institutions and chemical industries.
The development of instrumental methods of chemical analysis came in the last quarter of the 19th century, thanks to the establishment of a series of correlations between the physical properties and chemical composition. The works of Robert Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff laid the foundations of spectroscopy and made possible the discovery of numerous elements. New optics, as the colorimeter or polarimeter, simplified and made much faster a lot of analysis of industrial importance. Electrochemical laws established by Michael Faraday (1791-1867) and medicaments are based on investigations by authors such as Oliver Wolcott Gibbs (1822-1908) and the creation of research laboratories such as Alexander Classen (1843-1934) that allowed electrochemical analysis techniques to gain importance in the last years of the 19th century. In the twenties of the twentieth, the Polish Jaroslav Heyrovský (1890-1967) established the basis of polarography which, later on, became a very important analysis of certain ions technique and was also used for the study of the nature of the solute and dissolution reaction mechanisms. Another important technique that started his career in those early years of the 20th century was chromatography developed enormously in later decades. The 20th century was also marked by the arrival of new instruments such as the pH meter and the great development of espectrocopicos methods, particularly the infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance, which had a great application in many areas of chemistry, particularly in organic chemistry.
3. What is analytical chemistryMany fields in which the investigation of any organic or inorganic compound is involved depends on the analytical chemistry for the identification of the components of what you want to. The pharmaceutical is perhaps the main field of research that employs analytical chemistry, not only to identify, but also to investigate the properties of compounds and reactions that might have people in a relative interaction. Diseases behave as a guest in the body and medicines make the times of delay and expulsion, but must establish a disease control and indicate what are the weaknesses of these and attack out there. Analytical chemistry therefore ventures in the social field when people need this to act for the good of the human being.
There are so many chemical elements present on the planet, that analytical chemistry must be set by means of the methods, which dictate a process and a means by which should be directed to identify all existing classes. The quantitative method refers us to the amount of element, its performance and how should be distributed to be applied. The qualitative method shows us is the quality of use of compounds, in order to determine what will be its precise objective within the standards of application of some chemical. Chemical analyst expresses each thing in the corresponding unit by very unusable to be in society in general.