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What is the meaning of Organic chemistry? Concept and Definition of Organic chemistry


Definition of organic chemistry

Química Orgánica: Definición, Concepto, Significado, Qué es Química Orgánica

1. Concept of organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is the science that deals with the study of carbon compounds, which are very numerous is this an abundant in nature. Its importance lies in the wide variety of molecules formed by the combination of carbon with other elements (halogens, nitrogen and oxygen), known as organic compounds that are closely related to biochemical processes and industrial chemical processes.
Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry which are studied the carbon compounds and reactions.

There is a wide range of substances (drugs, vitamins, plastics, synthetic and natural fibers, carbohydrates, proteins and fats) formed by organic molecules.

Organic chemicals determine the structure of organic molecules, studying their reactions and develop procedures to synthesize organic compounds.

This branch of chemistry has profoundly affected the life from the 20th century: it has perfected natural materials and it has synthesized natural and artificial substances which, in turn, improved health, increased welfare and have enhanced the utility of almost all current products.

Organic materials are all those who have in their chemical structure the element carbon, therefore fall under your category all living beings, hydrocarbons, and especially oil and its derivatives, etc.

The emergence of organic chemistry is often associated with the discovery, in 1828, by the German chemist Friedrich Wöhler, of the substance inorganic ammonium cyanate could become urea, an organic substance that is found in the urine of many animals. Before this discovery, chemicals believed to synthesize organic substances was required the intervention of what they called 'vital force' i.e., living organisms.

The experiment of Wöhler broke the barrier between organic and inorganic substances. Modern chemists consider organic compounds to those containing carbon and other elements (which can be one or more), the most common being: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and the halogens. Today, call it organic chemistry also chemical carbon. (See: functional groups).
Importance of organic chemistry

Despite its late appearance in the history of chemistry, the chemistry of carbon compounds is currently the Chemical Sciences Branch that grows more quickly. The variety of products derived from the carbon can be virtually unlimited due to the unique properties of the atom and, therefore, constitutes a potential source of new materials with special properties, drugs and health products, dyes, fuel, etc.

Some of these examples are considered below.

The living matter is, in part, consisting of carbon derivatives. The suffering living beings, and transformations observed with the naked eye, correspond, from a point of view submicroscopic or molecular changes or chemical reactions of biological substances. Sugars, fats, proteins, hormones, nucleic acids, are some examples of substances, all of which are compounds of carbon, whose synthesis and degradation in living organisms inside deals biochemistry.

2. Meaning of organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that studies the carbon compounds.
The word "organic" is a relic from the days in which chemical compounds were divided into two classes: inorganic and organic, according to their origin. Organic compounds were those obtained from live sources, such as plants and animals; It was believed that nature possessed some vital force and only living things could produce organic compounds.
This conception was dispatched in 1828 when Friedrich Wohler, a German chemist, prepared urea (organic compound), from the reaction of two inorganic compounds, sodium silicate powder of lead and aqueous ammonia. After having been established, it was convenient to maintain the organic name.
Although today many carbon compounds are better isolated from plant and animal sources, most of them are obtained by synthesis. Currently more than 13 million of synthetic and natural organic compounds are known. This number is much higher than the 100,000 or more compounds inorganic that known.
Classes of organic compounds are differentiated according to the functional groups that contain, these are groups that give an organic molecule certain characteristic qualities; They include alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers and amines.
All organic compounds are derived from a group of compounds known as hydrocarbons (only formed by hydrogen and carbon), which are divided into two main classes: aliphatic hydrocarbons, which do not contain the Group benzene or the benzene ring (alkanes, alkenes and alkynes); and aromatic hydrocarbons, containing one or more benzene rings.
Hydrocarbons may have isomerism, whether structural (chain, function and position), geometric, and optical.
The field of organic chemistry is very large by the enormous variety of possible compounds, and knowledge of their structures; In addition, being very large and complex molecules, which may break or reordered to generate new molecules, replace new atoms by ancient, among others.
The importance of this part of the chemistry is what an immensely primary field for the technology. It is the chemistry of dyes, drugs, paper, inks, paints, plastics, gasoline and tires; It is the chemistry of our food and our costumes.
Organic chemistry is fundamental to biology and medicine. Living organisms are formed mainly by organic substances, in addition to water; the molecules of molecular biology are organic. At the molecular level biology is Chemistry organic.

3. What is organic chemistry

Organic chemistry consists of a whole system of study of the compounds that have a covalent bond with the carbon, either type carbon - carbon or carbon - hydrogen. Organic chemistry deals with a very 'Natural' study of organisms that develop on Earth. The story shows how researchers began to apply methods of observation in animals and plants decomposed, found that, on the decomposition of these, are releasing different substances of which it could be extracted genetic information of the species concerned.
Organic chemistry at its inception could resolve as discover those components that were more fundamental, however, inorganic chemistry was supposed to turn a wide field of research in which separating everything in different ways. The study of the carbon atom is perhaps the most important of them, allowing its composition and presence in the majority of the elements of nature that the study is one of the most diverse nature. While biology is a more generic work concerning the behavior of the species and the environment that surrounds them, organic chemistry studies the Covalent of carbon with other elements too.
Thanks to organic chemistry, different data on the Earth, your age, movement, its internal behaviour have been able to decipher and much more, the combination of this data with astronomy, perhaps meant an accurate reference of what is quality and the current situation of the planet Earth. Global warming under the microscope reveals an alteration in the covalent bonds of the carbon structure of the hydrogen and all its derivatives, weather and pollution have reduced much the production of CO2 from the trees, as well as the ozone layer has also been involved in dramatic changes. Organic chemistry is a pillar of information and development of substances on the planet, its boom in society has enabled the manufacturing of all kinds of materials such as plastics, fabrics and much more.

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