Definition, concept, meaning, what is liberalism
1. Concept of liberalismLiberalism is a doctrine which is based on the defence of the individual initiatives and seeking to limit the intervention of the State in the economic, social and cultural life.
It's a philosophical and political system that promotes civil liberties and against despotism. Representative democracy and Republican principles are based on the Liberal doctrines.
Although it often speak of liberalism as a full uniform, it is possible to distinguish between different types of liberalism. Economic liberalism is the most widespread since it is defended by large corporations and the most powerful economic groups. It is based on limit State interference in trade relations, by promulgating the reduction of taxes and eliminating regulations.
Economic liberalism believes that, by not intervening State, are guaranteed equal conditions and sets a perfect competition market. The lack of State intervention, however, does not allow social assistance (are cancelled subsidies, for example).
Social liberalism, for its part, defends freedom in the conduct of private individuals and their social relations. Drug legalization is backed by social liberalism.
Political liberalism, finally, delivers power to the citizens, who choose their representatives in a free and sovereign manner. State officials, therefore, are elected by the popular power of democracy.
Each of these doctrines of liberalism, of course, has variants and more or less staunch defenders of freedoms promoted.
2. Definition of liberalismLiberalism is an ideology that promotes individual freedoms, or in other words is a current of thought, or a political, economical and philosophical system. This system comes with the French Revolution (pillars: equality, liberty, and fraternity), in the 18th century, and is expressed against the traditional institutions, as it is for example the Church, by which its appearance is a so much controversy.
Liberalism is in favor of representative democracy, equality before the law, private property, the division of powers, and the freedom of trade; It aims to limit the power of the State, reducing as much as possible. Look for the progress of society, through the individual freedoms of its members.
The father of economic liberalism was the philosopher and Economist Adam Smith, and the fundamental work of this ideology is "The wealth of Nations", written by himself. The economic output of the liberal system is capitalism, whose functional and organic laws are inferred or discovered by Adam Smith, who called the natural laws, since they exist and develop by themselves.
Capitalism (economic liberalism) has certain elements, among them are: the law of supply and demand, competition, and selfish interests.
Selfish interests is the appetite for profit, i.e. the gain as a supreme goal; the producer is responsible for and concerned with producing as much as possible, taking into account the produced goods to match demand. Among those who produce a same good creates competition, which benefits the consumer, since it prevents abusive speculation, and regulates prices.
The law of supply and demand is that the increased supply and reduced demand prices lower, while increased demand and lower supply prices rise; the demand is limited by the needs of the consumer. In addition, you can apply to the work of the workers, and their respective salaries.
3. Meaning of liberalismReferred to as liberalism ideology political, social and economic, of the bourgeoisie, which acquired this name in the 19th century, which caters to the individual and the inviolability of their rights, above the State and criticizes any obstacle to their freedom, whether civil, social or economic, unless it is imposed not harm to third parties. Liberalism is opposed to any form of privilege.
Liberalism had already given signs of his power, in the defeat to absolute monarchical system and feudal privileges, to incorporate in the Declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen (1789) during the French Revolution, these principles of protection of private property as an inalienable right; freedom in all its manifestations (religious, of opinions, transit) and equality. It also inspired the French Constitution of 1791.
The pioneer of economic liberalism was Adam Smith (1723-1790) advocating the passive role of the State against the activity of individuals, which would be accommodated their trade relations through the balance provided by the law of supply and demand of goods.
Economic liberalism as a doctrine, suffered with the crisis of 1930, a process of exhaustion, since it could not respond to the needs of the most vulnerable sectors, which meant that the State began to intervene in the economic issues to ensure equity, giving birth to the welfare State, to 1970, also showed his exhaustion and gave birth to neo-liberalismthat it has shown us its unfair consequences, such as the job insecurity and unemployment.
In terms of political liberalism, it is he who opposes dictatorships, with power in the people who choose as sovereign, its leaders, unconditionally, and for a limited time, after which the sovereign power returns to its rightful owner: the people.