Definition of plastic
1. Concept of plasticThe plastic term in its more general signification, applies to substances of similar structures that do not have a fixed point of evaporation and possess properties of elasticity and flexibility allowing mold them and adapt those different forms and applications for a range of temperatures.However, in a sense specifically, name some types of synthetic materials obtained by polymerization or multiplication semi-natural phenomena of the carbon atoms in the long molecular chains of organic compounds from oil and other natural substances.
The plastic floor was originally used as an adjective to denote a low degree of mobility and easiness to acquire certain form, sense is preserved in the term plasticity.
The invention of the first plastic arises as a result of a competition held in 1860, when the American manufacturer of Phelan and Collarder billiard balls offered a reward of 10,000 dollars to whom has a substitute natural ivory, intended for the manufacture of billiard balls.One of the people who competed was the American inventor John Wesley Hyatt, who developed the celluloid dissolving cellulose (natural material) in a solution of camphor and ethanol.While Hyatt did not win the prize, has a very marketable product that would be vital for the further development of the film at the end of the 19th century industry.
In 1909 the American Belgian chemist Leo Hendrik Baekeland synthesized a commercial interest, of molecules of phenol-formaldehyde polymer.He was baptized with the name of bakelite and was the first completely synthetic plastic of history, it was the first of a series of synthetic resins that revolutionized the modern technology from "the age of plastic".throughout the 20th century the use of plastic became popular and came to replace other materials both in the domestic, commercial and industrial area.
An event that will set the standard in the development of plastic materials took place in 1919.The German chemist Hermann Staudinger ventured that these consisted actually of Giant molecules, or macromolecules.Efforts to prove these statements initiated numerous scientific investigations that produced enormous advances in this part of chemistry.
Properties and characteristicsPlastics are synthetic chemical substances called polymers, macromolecular structure which can be moulded by means of heat or pressure and whose main constituent is carbon.These polymers are large groupings of monomers United by a chemical process called polymerization.Plastics provide the needed balance of properties that is not possible with other materials for example: color, light weight, good touch and resistance to environmental and biological degradation.
In fact, plastic refers to a State of matter, but not the material itself: usually called plastics, synthetic polymers are synthetic materials that can reach the plastic State, this is when the material is viscous or fluid, and does not have any resistance to mechanical stress.This State is reached when the material in solid state usually turns into a plastic State by heating and is ideal for different production processes is in this state when the material can be handled in different ways that exist today.The word plastic is a way of referring to synthetic materials able to enter in a plastic State, but plastic is not necessarily the Group of materials daily this word refers to.
Production processThe first part of the production of plastics consists of the preparation of polymers in the chemical industry.Today the recovery of post-consumer plastic is also essential.Part of certain plastics industry are used directly in the form of grain or resin.Most frequently used various forms of molding (injection, compression, rotation, inflation, etc.) or extruded profiles or threads of.Part of the greater process of plastics is carried out in an oven.
2. Meaning of plasticThe plastic floor presents an extended usage in our language and we also use it to refer to several questions.Anyway, there is a reference that is best known and which allows us to point out the synthetic materials that can be molded simply.The plastic material is distinguished and characterized by being able to change shape, but also keep this permanently, that is precisely the main distinction that observed in relation to the elastic bodies.
This is possible thanks to the fact that, as a result of compression, substances that compose it, resins, proteins, among others, for a period of time, reach temperatures that facilitate precisely its molding and adaptation to various forms.In general, plastic, are polymers that can be modelled due to heat and pressure acting upon them.
Among the features that distinguish it and have also made him a hyper material popular we can mention: is its resistance to degradation, low production costs, tightness, the possibility of receiving colours and the lightness feature.
For example, it is that it is widely used for manufacturing of various tools, products and tools for everyday use.Without a doubt, drinks bottles are the most popular products that are made from this material.
But not everything is positive also, plastic, it has a knuckle directly and negatively affecting our environment and that is such degradation is doing are not easy to be recycled.On the other hand, if they are subjected to extreme heat cast highly toxic substances.
On the other hand, the word plastic is used to refer to what has any link with the art and the technique of modeling.I'm attending a course in Visual Arts at the University.
Meanwhile, in the field of medicine, the term plastic/a is used to designate that branch of medicine, plastic surgery, is responsible for correct or repair physical defects, for reasons of aesthetics or brands, sequels, some accident or operation.
3. What is plasticWord comes from the latin p... and refers to each of the materials based on organic polymers obtained by chemical modification of natural substances or synthetically from organic or inorganic raw materials
They can occur in different forms: as a liquid, solid moldeades, sticky mass, leaves, fibers, etc.Almost all plastics are easier than natural materials, since during the fabricaciono transformation are ever soft and ductile.Moldable plastic at will, usually through a temperature rise and he hardened again when it cools, called thermoplastic.
Who are just molded at the beginning, at high temperatures and once hardened to retain their hardness and rigidity even against the action of heat, are called thermosets or thermosetting;They include the phenolic resins, urea resins, Melamine resins, the aminoplastos, silicone resins, epoxy resins, polyesters, reticulated and cross-linked polyurethanes.
Thermoplastics consist of parallel filiform molecules, no sin link (or very few) between them, while thermoset plastics are composed macromolecules oriented in all directions and joined together by numerous links.
The majority of plastics are resistant to corrosion, rot and weather, as well as the action of numerous chemical products;the inatacabilidad of some kinds of plastics is only surpassed by the noble metals
A partir de 1840, year in the the American chemist Charles Goodyear discovered vulcanization of rubber, beginning to improve the properties of plastic materials.
In 1845, the Sconbein German, discoverer of ozone prepared nitrate of cellulose, which obtained the Jhon W. Hyatt American in 1869 the celluloid and camphor;the synthetic Horn obtained in 1897.Baekeland in 1909 abtuvo bakelite, the first plastic organic.