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Definition, concept, meaning, what is Platinum
1. Concept of PlatinumPlatinum is a noble metal, white, soft and ductile. The platinum group metals (Platinum, Palladium, Iridium, rhodium, osmium and ruthenium) are widely distributed on Earth, but its extreme dilution makes his recovery, except in special circumstances. The platinum group metals are widely used in the field of chemistry because of its catalytic activity and its low reactivity. Platinum is used as catalyst, in the reactions of hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, isomerization, Cyclization, dehydration, tarnishing and oxidation.
Platinum is not affected by the atmosphere even in industrial environments with sulphur content. It retains its brilliance and exhibits film of oxide when heated, although it forms an adherent thin film under the 450 ° C (842 ° F). Hydrogen or other reducing atmospheres are not dangerous for the Platinum at high temperatures. Platinum can be machined in fine wire and thin films, and by special, in extremely thin wires processes.
Platinum is available in fluffy form by thermal decomposition of ammonium cloroplatinato or reducing it from an aqueous solution. In this way shows a high absorption power with respect to gases, especially oxygen, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The high catalytic activity of Platinum is directly related to this property. Platinum has a strong tendency to form of coordination compounds.
Platinum, PtO2, dioxide is an insoluble dark brown compound, commonly referred to as a catalyst for Adams. Platinum chloride (II) PtCl2, is an olive green solid insoluble in water. Chloroplatinic acid, H2PtCl6, is the most important Platinum compound.
Platinum health effects
Platinum is a noble metal. The concentrations of platinum in the soil, water and air are minimal. In some places deposits, can be found which are very rich in Platinum, mostly in South Africa, the Soviet Union and the United States. Platinum is used as a component of various metal products, such as electrodes and this can be used as a catalyst in a number of chemical reactions. Platinum links are often applied in medicine to cure the cancer. The effects on health of platinum are strongly linked to the kind of link that these form and the level of exposure and the immunity of the person who is exposed.
The Platinum metal is not very dangerous, but Platinum salts can cause various effects on health, such as:
• Alteration of DNA.
• Allergic skin and mucous reactions
• Damage to organs, such as the intestine, kidney and bone marrow.
• Damage to hearing
Finally, a danger of Platinum is that it can cause potentiation of toxicity of other hazardous chemicals in the human body, such as selenium.
Environmental effects of Platinum
The application of Platinum metal products is not known to cause many environmental problems, but we know that it causes serious health problems in the workplace. Platinum is issued to the air through the exhaust of cars that use gasoline. As a result, levels of platinum in the air may be higher in certain locations, for example in garages, tunnels and truck companies land.
The effects of Platinum on the animals and the environment possibly not been hayn still widely researched. The only thing we know is that Platinum will accumulate in the roots of plants after being taken. If you eat roots of plants that contain Platinum can do damage in animals and humans, but it is not yet clear. Microorganisms may be able to become Platinum substances more hazardous substances in soils, but on this issue we also have little information.
2. Definition of PlatinumPlatinum is a chemical element that does not have a presence that is abundant on our planet. This metal, atomic number 78, has a silvery hue and can be found in alloys, integrated in the form of grains or minerals.
Malleability, ductility, corrosion resistance and its smelter at very high temperatures are some of the main features of this metal used in the manufacture of laboratory instruments, thermometers, parts, electronics, watches and other products.
History note that the Platinum, initially, was confused with the Silver: hence comes its name. Then it was discovered that it was a different chemical element, present in several regions of the Earth. Currently, South Africa, Russia and Canada (in that order) are the main producers of platinum in the world.
At a general level, it is not as a too dangerous metal Platinum. Its salts, however, can cause cancer, changes in DNA and allergies in skin, among other disorders.
Apart from this, the Platinum is almost essential in various fields. In motor vehicles, Platinum works as a catalyst, allowing you to convert emissions of polluting gases (such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and others) in other less harmful, such as H2O or nitrogen vapor. The catalyst that can achieve the Platinum is also important in the production of fertilizers and petroleum refining.
In the music industry, called Platinum certification that gets an album to reach a certain number of copies sold. The number of disks that should be promoted to receive Platinum varies by country.
3. Meaning of PlatinumPlatinum is a chemical element of atomic number 78, located in Group 10 of the periodic table of the elements. Its symbol is Pt. It is a transition metal white grey, beautiful, heavy, malleable and ductile. It is resistant to corrosion and is found in various minerals, often along with nickel and copper; It can also be found as metal. It is used in jewelry, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts, fillings catalysts for automobiles.Platinum was discovered by the Spanish Antonio de Ulloa, in Esmeraldas (Ecuador) 1 being taken for the first time to Europe in the year 1735 . The name of the element relates to its resemblance with the silver, with which mistook him at first. In 1822, Platinum was also found in the Ural mountains (Russia), and later in Canada and South Africa.
Uses and applicationsPlatinum is used in multiple and essential applications, while new uses for Platinum are constantly developed.
• Jewelry: In 2006, demand for Platinum for jewelry accounted for 25% of the total demand for Platinum. This precious metal is highly valued for its beauty and purity, along with their specific properties, in Europe and the United States its normal purity is 95% although in other countries can decline to 85%.
• Catalysts for vehicles: Platinum, palladium and rhodium, are the main components of the catalysts that reduce vehicle emissions of gases such as hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide or nitrogen oxide. Catalysts make most of these emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapor, which are less harmful. This is the second sector of greater use of Platinum, reaching 51% of the total demand for Platinum in 2006.
• Electrical and Electronics: Platinum is used in the production of hard drives in computers and fiber optic cables. The increasingly greater use of personal computers will continue to have a very positive effect on demand for Platinum in the future. Other uses of Platinum include (termocouples) devices that measure the temperature in the industries of glass, steel and semiconductors, infrared detectors for military and commercial applications. Also used in ceramic capacitors multi-layers and crucibles for glass.
• Chemistry: Platinum is used in fertilizer and explosives like a gauze for catalytic conversion of ammonia in nitric acid. Also used in the manufacture of Silicones for the sectors aerospace, automotive and construction. In the gasoline sector it is used as a fuel additive to boost the combustion and engine emissions. In addition, it is a catalyst in the production of biodegradable elements for domestic detergents.
• Glass: Platinum is used in glass manufacturing equipments. It is also used in the production of glass fibre-reinforced plastic and liquid crystal (LCD) devices.
• Oil: Platinum is used as a catalyst of refined in the oil industry.
• Medical applications: Platinum is used in anti-cancer drugs and implants. It is also used in neurosurgery apparatus and alloys for Dental restorations.
• Spark plugs: Most of the vehicles in North America use spark plugs with Platinum filter. In Europe, the greatest durability requirements have resulted in an increase in the amount of Platinum used in the spark plugs.
• New applications: Fuel batteries are devices that generate electricity and being developed now as an alternative to internal combustion vehicles engines. Most of these devices, applied technologies of Proton Exchange membranes to produce energy from hydrogen and oxygen, using Platinum catalysts. The use of fuel-cell has both environmental and economic advantages. They are more efficient in the production of energy and pollution is minimal.
Main featuresWhen is pure, white grey, malleable and ductile. It is corrosion resistant and does not dissolve in the majority of acids, although it is possible to dissolve it using aqua regia giving acid cloroplatinico.2 is attacked slowly by hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the presence of air. It is called a group of Platinum elements ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, Iridium, palladium and Platinum. These elements are rather used as catalysts.
Platinum is relatively resistant to chemical attack, has good physical properties at high temperatures, and good electrical properties. This has been used in various industrial applications. For example, it can be used as electrode, electronic contacts, etc. Platinum does not rust with air, but can react, depending on conditions, cyanides, halogens, sulfur, lead, silicon and other elements, as well as some fused basic oxides and ozone.