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St. Basil's Cathedral and its domes resembling the Tatars turbans
Its construction started in 1555 and completed in 1578 with the tenth of its towers erected over the grave of St. Basil. The interior is beautiful. Icons and paintings on the walls deserve a break. The altars are back as in all Russian Orthodox temples
KREMLIN: Russian, kreml, Citadel , also fortress or fortification, and refers to a large group of civilians, such as cathedrals, palaces and halls works, which have been built along several withthe initiative of many tsars.
Ltohistory initial construction back hascia half of the 12th century, when Prince Yury Dolgoruky built a Fort of wood in that place after the unification of the principalities of Moscow, with a large wooden church, which later suffered the mongol attack.
In 1339 Prince Daniel de Moscú (Iván I) when ordered to build stone churches that had been originally built in wood in the year 1156.
Ivan I built the Cathedral of Asunción, where the Czars are buried. Then followed the Church of the Archangel Michael, then of Ioann Lestvicnik, and, finally, last, but not the smallest, the Church of San Salvador in the forest, whose splendid wooden structure is the oldest architectural element that we can admire today in the Kremlin.
The stone walls were built later. The white limestone of Miackov protect the grandson of Ivan, Demetrio, the man who would begin to use the power that Moscow had accumulated while at your service against the Tatars. Thus, a Kremlin of stone, result of fifteen years of tireless work, from 1359-1374, replaced the primitive wooden Kremlin.
For this reason, the construction of the Kremlin today (the former was looted and destroyed by the Tartars) Moscow specifically began in 1485 with Tsar Ivan III, with the construction of a new Palace for the Tsar, which was performed under the direction of the Italian architects Marco Ruffo and Pietro Antonio solarium.
Ivan III, who had risen to the throne in 1462 and was he who increasingly began to use, instead of the traditional title of Grand Duke of Muscovy, the "tsar" (i.e. Emperor) of "all the Russias", together with the autocrat.
The great achievement of Ivan the great (Iván III) was to reject the despotism of the Mongols or Tatars. The Mongols had invaded the medieval State of Kievan Rus in 1223, in their advance towards the East through Asia Europe. A contingent of the mongol army had remained in the area of the Volga River. It was the so-called Golden Horde.
Russia was underdeveloped, but certainly was a potentially rich country, and was in full expansion; but it was terribly poor of superior technical expertise. The wife (Iván the great) Ivan had chosen, the Byzantine - now renamed as Sofia- Zoe , educated in the courts of Constantinople and Rome, he did so frequently observed. It was clear, then, that should find "industrialized" men that it was not possible to form technically in their homeland.
To this end, Ivan sent an emissary, the bolyar Simeón Tolbuzin, looking for them to the country that was then the cradle of the art and the technique: to the Italy of Leonardo da Vinci, León Battista Alberti and Bramante. And this happened fifteen years until the French discovered, before any other European (and by chance, because of a war that was as a military walk), the glares of the Renaissance.
The architect selected was Aristóteles Fioravanti, municipal engineer of Bologna, architectural Advisor to the Sforza and Director of works for the King of Hungary, Matthias Corvinus. In the spring of 1475, with the thaw, the Italian architect, to whom Ivan paid a salary that never dreamed to perceive a Moscow architect came to Moscow: ten roubles a month. But abroad showed that he deserved it, and further, that by the way was granted widely.
In four years only, the reconstructed Cathedral of the assumption (which many call of Dreaminess, literally translating the Russian term of Uspenskij Cathedral) already stood majestically their white walls inside the Kremlin. The foreign "expert" had fulfilled its main obligation: teach technicians in the country, although there is a black history where it is said that Ivan imprisoned Fioravanti, who died in captivity.
Then Marco Ruffo and Pietro Solari, from 1485, they replaced Fioravanti, a Palace, built for the Tsar at the end of this name: the Palace of Granovitaja, whose facade feature upholstered in vivid angles is as the transfer to the Russian land from the experiences of the Palace of the diamonds of Ferrara, jewel of the Italian Renaissance.
The splendid upper room of this building (which would later give Catalina sensation of suffocation) covered by four vaults supported on a single central pilaster and splendidly decorated with scenes of sacred and Russian history on golden background (what worth you deserved gold room name), would be, for centuries, the Hall of reception of the tsars until the construction of the Kremlin Palace, already in the last century.
In 1505, few months before the death of the great Ivan, Alvise Nuovo was commissioned to build the Cathedral of the Archangel Michael (second of this name on the inside of the Kremlin), according to Russian schemes executed Renaissance key. The same Alvise Nuovo, from 1499-1508, rebuilt the Palace House of the Royal family, the Terem, in replacement of the old, built, according to the local tradition, wood and, as it happens so often, destroyed by fire.
They were already standing, thus, the Cathedral of the assumption, the Annunciation, the Church of the Archangel Michael, the Palace Granovitaja, official residence, and up to an amazing iglesia-campanario Frame bonus (another Italian immigrant) had erected in the early years of the 16th century to House a large number of campaigns of all kinds and dimensions (the Bell of this church(, or rather, his needle - 81 meters high, still the tallest building of the Kremlin and its symbol - is completed a century later, during the reign of Boris Godunov).
Certainly, at the end of the reign of Iván III, the Golden domes of the Kremlin had begun to worthily occupy the heart of Holy Russia. But their effect would not be so fabulous (or it would be that of the later buildings) without the outstanding work that encloses them: the great circle of red walls, with several towers, surrounding the whole. These towers, at least planning, are the work of Iván the great - which might be called "father of the Kremlin" - and his "team" of Italian architects.
In terms of building the wall was gigantic work: an irregular perimeter of 2.235 metres in pentagonal, with two dozens of towers. The towers are precisely what characterizes the wall, forming the typical image of the Kremlin.
The best known is splendid and gigantic Tower of el Salvador (Spasskaja), so called because of the image of the Redeemer which decorates the door; It was built in 1491 by architects who had to recall the structure of the castle of the Sforza of Milan, and was crowned in the 17TH century, English Galloway, with a needle seudogotica that holds 35 campaigns. The sound of these campaigns, broadcast around the world each noon and every midnight, is still the identification of Soviet radio, as the bells of Big Ben are of the BBC in London.
In the subsequent centuries, the Moscow Kremlin was growing to become what we now know. Moscow is not the only one that can be found in Russia, there are others equally interesting to know and visit, such as the Novgorod, for example.
The centuries gave him increasing dimension and importance to become a great strength of 27 acres surrounded by walls and towers of access. The highest and most famous is that of the Trinity. Within its walls was the events of six centuries of the history of Russia.
The Palais des Congrès of 1961 is the newest. Opposite is the building of the old Arsenal, which was built at the beginning of the 18th century by order of Tsar Pedro I as a store of arms and war trophies. The facade of the building is decorated with old cannons made and parts taken by Russian troops to Napoleon's army in 1812. Front of the building of the Arsenal there are two buildings, the old Senate (which has a large dome with the flag of Russia) and the Military school, both hosted the President of the Russian Federation. It is the seat of the Russian executive power. To the right, opposite the Government building, is the Canon of the Tsar of 1586, which is the world's largest bronze cannon. Nearby is the campaign of the Tsarina, another world record. None has been never used. Cannon never fired bullets and the Bell cracked during a fire in 1737 and might not sound.
In the Center are three beautiful cathedrals. The Cathedral La Asunción, the Archangel Cathedral and the Cathedral of the Annunciation. There is plenty of free space between these cathedrals. The buildings they have the most diverse styles: Arabesque, Gothic, Greek, Italian, Chinese.
Is enclosed by a wall of 2,40 m heightby 2300 Mt. long with towers around the perimeter. It was a city in itself built to be protected against attacks enemies. There are several kremlins in Russia, but the best known is that of Moscow, which occupies 27 hectares. The museum displays crowns and jewels of the tsars, carriages with precious stones on its wheels, long layers of ermine covering Princes and several meters from the floor that walked. Visitors must wrap your shoes with fabric boots to not scrape the luxurious Museum wood surface.
There lived the tsars until the time of Pedro the great, who reigned from 1682 to 1725, when the Court moved to Petersburgo, then Stalingrad, and then his old name. Today houses the Russian Parliament and since 1918 has been the political and administrative center of Russia.
Long lines of people line up all day to enter the tomb of embalmed Lenin. Mountains of cameras and film of the tourists, which have privileged access, are piled up at the entrance because it is forbidden to enter the mausoleum with these devices. Long full discussion is an initiative that would involve removing the tomb of Lenin of the Citadel.