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Study information for Theocratic Ministry School
Bible reading: Joshua 12-15 (10 min.)
(Joshua 12:7)These are the kings of the land whom Joshua and the Israelites defeated on the west side of the Jordan, from Ba′al-gad in the Valley of Leb′a•non and as far as Mount Ha′lak, which goes up to Se′ir, after which Joshua gave their land to the tribes of Israel as a possession by their shares,
*** it-1 p. 1022 Halak, Mount ***
(Ha′lak) [Smooth Mountain].
A mountain marking the southern geographic limit of Israel’s conquest of the Promised Land under the leadership of Joshua. (Jos 11:16, 17; 12:7) Halak is generally identified with Jebel Halaq (Har He-Halaq), the last W Palestinian height on the road from Beer-sheba to the Arabah. The range that begins with Jebel Halaq divides the pastureland on the E from the sandy desert on the W. If this identification is correct, then the Biblical description of Halak as ‘going up,’ or ‘rising,’ toward Seir may mean that the broad side of this mountain, running from SW to NE, faces Seir.
(Joshua 12:14)the king of Hor′mah, one; the king of A′rad, one;
*** it-1 p. 142 Arad ***
2. A city on the southern border of Canaan, whose king attacked Israel as they approached Canaan. The Israelites devoted the district to destruction and called it “Hormah,” meaning “A Devoting to Destruction.” (Nu 21:1-3; 33:40) They did not then settle there, however, and evidently some of the inhabitants escaped destruction. Hence, the king of Arad is included in the list of 31 kings later vanquished in Joshua’s whirlwind campaign. (Jos 12:14)
*** it-1 p. 1142 Hormah ***
At Joshua 12:14 “the king of Hormah” is listed next to the king of Arad among the 31 kings defeated by Joshua. It seems unlikely that this refers to the victory gained earlier while Moses was yet alive and Joshua was serving as military commander, since these victories are listed as though gained after Israel’s crossing the Jordan into Canaan. (Jos 12:7, 8) Though this victory by Joshua is not specifically described, it may be included in the statement at Joshua 10:40-42. This would indicate that after Israel departed from that region in order to travel around the land of Edom, the Canaanites resettled the territory. While Joshua is shown to have defeated the king of Hormah, the record does not state that the Israelites then occupied the city of Hormah.—Compare the case of Gezer at Jos 12:12; Jg 1:29.
(Joshua 12:18)the king of A′phek, one; the king of Las•shar′on, one;
*** it-1 p. 120 Aphek ***
3. A city that, on the basis of the cities mentioned with it, was evidently in the Plain of Sharon. Its king was among those slain by Joshua. (Jos 12:18) Centuries later, but prior to Saul’s kingship, the Philistines encamped here before their victory over Israel, drawn up at nearby Ebenezer. (1Sa 4:1) Its location is considered to be at Ras el-ʽAin (Tel Afeq; different from No. 2 above) at the source of the Yarkon River.
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