Friday, December 05, 2014

Types of particles in the universe | Earth, Solar System and Universe

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All the matter that exists in the universe is composed of particles. Each particle type serves a different function. The interaction between the different types of particles makes it possible to our universe. There are two kinds of particles: fermions and bosons. The fermions form the mass of matter. Bosons are responsible for applying to this mass the four fundamental forces: electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force and gravity.

Elementary particles

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Elementary particles are parties or smaller portions in which matter can be divided.
The elementary fermions are the leptons and quarks:
- Quarks: come together in groups of three to form larger, such as protons and neutrons particles- leptons: are very light, like electrons, muons and neutrinos particles.
Elementary bosons are photons, gluons, and others:
- Photons: responsible for electromagnetism.
- Gluons: deal with the strong nuclear force.
- Bosons W and z: responsible for the weak nuclear force.
- Graviton: responsible for gravity, but still it has not been never.
- Higgs Boson: responsible for the particles to have mass. Still not been shown that there is. It would explain all the matter we see, and for this reason is called "the God particle".

What are hadrons?

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When several elementary particles come together, they form compound particles or Collider.
Composite fermions are the Baryons. The best known are the protons and neutrons. Composite bosons are the Inns. The best known is the pion.
The Hadron Collider at CERN is the largest particle physics experiment carried out so far. Scientists from around the world participate in it. It accelerates the particles (hadrons) to almost the speed of light and makes them to collide to see how they behave. Through these experiments, the CERN seeks information about undiscovered types of particles, the composition of the universe, its origin, and how acting forces among themselves. 

Translation for educational purposes authorized by: Astronomía: Tierra, Sistema Solar y Universo

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