What is Gothic? | Art

Gothic art is his own artistic style of the Medieval era. It was developed in France and then spread throughout the rest of Europe. Its development began in the mid-twelfth century and reached the early sixteenth century. It was a time of urban and commercial development; increased monarchical power; secularized culture; He was born scientific advances and the bourgeoisie. Gothic art was characterized by its monumental sculptures, its ornate architecture and its particular style in painting and other disciplines. He was replaced in the sixteenth century by Renaissance art.
The word "Gothic" was used initially as a synonym for "barbarian" in the art world. It was a negative term of opprobrium that named an art considered unrefined and away from the aesthetic forms of classical art. The term would have invented Giorgio Vasari, who used it pejoratively in early 1530, calling this "monstrous and barbaric" art. Even many great artists of the time criticized him heavily, but later achieved recognition and the term "Gothic" was fixed to name this art. Currently, this period is considered artistic one of the most important in Europe.
The most characteristic feature of Gothic art is its architecture, which prevailed until today to be admired by everyone, especially expressed in the cathedral. It is characterized by the use of the pointed arch and vault, which thrusts are concentrated in the corners, allowing large open windows on the side walls. Arcs are important when binding dome angles with outer abutments.
There are several phases that happened Gothic architecture in France. The protogótica phase in the twelfth century, has bent arches and wide. Inside four floors consisting of archery gallery, clerestory window and elevation. It has a round dome in six and has little decoration. (abadái St. Denis, Notre Dame de Paris). The classical phase, at the end of the twelfth and early thirteenth, has slender arches, interior elevation on three floors with archery court and a rectangular window and vault. (Reims, Amiens, Chartres). The Mannerist phase in the second half of the thirteenth century fourteenth century, is characterized by more pointed arch, interior elevation on two floors (arches and windows), vaults with larger secondary veins and rosettes (Holy Chapel in Paris, Rouen cathedral). Finally, the baroque phase in the fifteenth and sixteenth part, have simpler structures, starred vaults, decor and much greater repertoire of arcs.
Gothic art was also important in England (cathedrals of Canterbury, York and Westminster), Germany (cathedrals of Cologne, Strasbourg, Marburg, Magdeburg and Regensburg), Spain (cathedrals of Zamora, Tarragona, Burgos, Toledo, Leon, Palma Mallorca, Barcelona, Gerona, among others), and minor in Portugal (Convent of Batalha monastery of Alcobaça) and Italy (Charterhouse of Pavia, municipality of Perugia and ducal palace Casa del Oro).
As for sculpture, was born in the walls of St. Denis, who was the first Gothic building. The preferred field of this art were different architectural parts of the cathedrals, but gradually moved away from it toward greater naturalism. The sculptures had a narrative in which the figures are communicated with each other to express pain, joy, sadness, etc. Highlights include the Real Porch of Chartres, the cover of Senlis, covers cathedrals of Chartres and Reims, among others.
Finally, the Gothic painting began some 50 years after the architecture and sculpture. It began with the linear Gothic period, with gold backgrounds, symbols, plane figures, vivid colors and Byzantine influence. He went to a period of italogótica painting, where the black line is lost. The abundance of decorative elements and sinuous forms reached a stage known as International Gothic, which was a delicate style that developed in the courts of Europe between 1375 and 1425, highlighting the kings of France, the Duke of Flanders and Berry. It survived until 1450, when it leads to the birth of flamenco and Renaissance art. International Gothic art was characterized by elegance in the lines, its unreal funds, its vivid colors, the delicacy of his characters, his naturalistic elements with symbolism and its thoroughness and detail.

Translated for educational purposes.

Culture and Science