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The paradigm is defined from epistemology, cognitive science, as that great set of beliefs that allow to see and understand the reality in a certain way. These beliefs also include certain preconceptions and philosophical beliefs, that at a certain point the scientific community shares. It is possible to Intuit, paradigms are changing, changes that relates to advancements and scientific discoveries that open new perspectives and horizons.
In simple terms, a paradigm is the set of things that we assume and we believe, that serves as base or filter for our perception and interpretation of reality; for example if quickly show us a set of a deck of cards, quickly passing one by one, but those that be of "hearts" with these black instead of the traditional and customary red, see red hearts, because that is what "hope" of the reality of a set of cards - colors, figures and numbers in this case are part of our paradigm for what are the cards in a deck. All have posts invisible glasses that make us see the reality according to a set of conventions and expectations about what things are and should be, which in other words is a paradigm.
The use of the concept of paradigm is originated a few years ago, in 1962, when Thomas Kuhn, in his "The structure of scientific revolutions" refers to the fact that both in science as in politics and history in general, there are moments that are thought certain things, mastering a set of ideas above other. In addition, makes reference to the fact that this set of ideas is always replaced by a new one, settling as well, a new paradigm, which in most cases means a time of crisis or revolution. A clear example of this situation was what happened during the Renaissance, when it was made the drastic turn of classical physics, in which land was constituted as the center of the universe, the Geocèntrica theory, by the controversial Nicolas Copernicus's heliocentric theory.
Something fundamental paradigms is these include not only scientific beliefs that have religious, social, aesthetic and philosophical elements of the context, among others, which often have close relationship with the success that have new paradigms as they are being born.
From the above, it is said that a paradigm is inserted in a context of discovery, that along with those elements clearly scientists and objectives, known as context of justification, allow you to the one installed as such in particular historical moment.