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Who is Christopher Columbus | Biography & Life

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Christopher Columbus
(Unknown - 1506/05/20)
Navigator and discoverer

He was born the year 1451 in Genoa.

His parents were Domenico Colombo and Susana Fontanarrosa. Five brothers, two, Christopher and Bartolomé, had soon vocation by sea.

Sailor since age 15 and remote controlled boat from the 20 or 22 years old.

Between 1470 and 1476, he toured all the important trade routes of the Mediterranean, from Chios in the Aegean, to the Iberian peninsula, in the service of the most important Genoese signatures. He participated in the clash of Renato de Anjou and the King of Aragon, Juan II, the succession to the Crown of Naples. It seems that he came to the coasts of the South of Portugal (Lagos), near Sagres, after a naval battle that took place near Cape St. Vincent, the 13 August 1476. Burned down his boat, he saved his life by grabbing a rowing and swimming to the coast. He lived in Portugal almost ten years. The Portuguese learned to know the ocean and frequent trade routes ranging from Iceland to Madeira. In the year 1477, he travelled to England and Iceland, and in 1478 travels from Lisbon to the archipelago of Madeira with loads of sugar.

It seems that he married Felipa Moñiz. Of this marriage, was born around 1482 on the island of Porto Santo, the Madeira Archipelago, his successor Diego Colón. 1483 or 1484 he defended his circunavegacion project to the Portuguese, who rejected it. At the end of 1484 or 1485 principles left Portugal secretly and travel to Castilla. Arriving with his son Diego to any port of the Gulf of Cádiz, perhaps Palos de la Frontera, visited the Franciscan monastery of Santa María de La Rábida, where it received material assistance. January 20, 1486, the Reyes Católicos first received Columbus in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid) and then appointed a Board of experts to assess the Columbian project. While many did not give credit to what promised, never lacked protectors. Some of the most consistent were friars with influence to the Kings, as the staunch, good astrologer and understood in navigation, fray Antonio de Marchena. Another religious influential, master of Prince don Juan, and always friendly Columbus was fray Diego de Deza. A third religious, decisive in 1491 and 1492, was the Friar of La Rábida, Juan Pérez. It also had the support of some distinguished courtiers, as it was the case of Luis de Santángeland Gabriel Sánchez, Juan Cabrero . Between the years 1487 and 1488, while waiting the decision of the monarchs in Córdoba , he met Beatriz Enríquez de Arana, a young woman of humble origin, that the 15 August 1488 gave him a son: Hernando Colón. To address their needs, worked with his hands painting maps get dizzy or portolanos and traded with picture books.

The Catholic monarchs decided to support his plan. On 17 April 1492 were signed the Capitulations of Santa Fe or documento-contrato, which stipulated the conditions in which Cristóbal Colón would make the trip discoverer. The document has two parts, a preamble which reads as follows: "Your Highnesses give and grant to Cristóbal Colón in some satisfaction that has discovered the Oceanas seas and journey than now, with the help of God has Fazer by them in service of your Highnesses, are those that follow". That "discovered" is, for the supporters of the theory of Prediscovery, documentary litmus test, since Colon is attributed, before 1492, discoveries in the ocean that is now transferred to the Catholic monarchs, in virtue of which these correspond you giving a number of privileges, which form the second part of the document:
1 °) the office of Admiral of the sea Oceana, lifelong and hereditary, in all what you discover or win, and according to the model of the Admiral of Castile.
2.) the offices of viceroy and Governor on everything you discover or win. Not to speak of heredity. To cover the charges in the Indies, you can propose terna Kings so that they choose.
3 °) the tenth part of all profits obtained in the Admiralty.
4.) that all the lawsuits related to the new lands can resolve them it or its justices. This point was never fulfilled because it was conditional on the Castilian precedents.
5 °) the right to participate with the eighth part of the costs of any Navy, receiving in Exchange the eighth part of the benefits.
With this capital document and other mercedes, turned to the village of Palos to prepare discovering fleet. Three boats, Pinta, Niña and Santa María; a budget of around two million maravedís. and approximately 90 men, recruited with the invaluable help of Martín Alonso and Vicente Yáñez Pinzónbrothers, formed more transcendental discovering fleet history.

On August 2, 1492, Cristóbal Colón sent to ship all his people, and the next day, before the Sun, leaving puerto de Palos. The first scale were the Canary Islands, where they had to fix the rudder of the Pinta. It took two accounts about the distance traveled: a secret or real (only for it), and other public or false, which would be less. On September 13, he discovered the magnetic declination of the Earth; and 16 came to the Sargasso Sea. As of October 1 realizes that something goes wrong. 6, they have already exceeded the 800 leagues and there is no indication of land. During the night of 6-7 October, occurred the first mutiny among the sailors of the Santa Maria. The Pinzon brothers supported Columbus and suffocated him. However, on the night of 9-10 October malaise spread to all, including the own Pinzón. They agreed to sail three days and at the end of that time if they did not find ground return. Did not lack: on the night of 11-12 October the sailor Rodrigo de Triana launched the cry of: "Earth!". The following day landed on the island of Guanahani (which they named San Salvador), current island of Watling, in the archipelago of the Bahamas, and took possession of the new land on behalf of the Catholic monarchs. On 28 October, they sailed to Cuba, and on 21 November it walked away from the fleet Martín Alonso Pinzón. December 6th they arrived on the island of Hispaniola; and 24 ran aground Santa Maria, whose remains and the help of the chieftain of the area, Guacanagarí, built the strong Christmas. After leaving 39 Spanish there, they followed the coast, found Martín Alonso Pinzón (January 6), and sailed to the coast of Samana. From this area, the 16 January 1493, the Admiral gave the order to return to Spain. The trip was quiet until you reach the Azores, where came a strong storm (12-15 February) that forced PT to spreading of the Admiral and arrive at Bayona (Pontevedra). Another storm, near Lisbon (March 4) forced the discoverer to disembark in Portugal. On 15 March, don Cristobal, under the command of the girl, entered triumphant clubs. Martin Alonso did with the Pinta Caravel few hours later. I got very sick, and a few days later died.

Following the success of the discoverer, don Cristobal told the Kings, who were in Barcelona, went to their meeting and was received by them with full honors. On September 25, 1493, the Admiral sailed from Cadiz in command of 17 ships and 1,200 men, carrying the first seeds and cattle. Out of the Canary Islands, Colon put heading more South than on the first trip to the place called the entrance of the Indies, in the Lesser Antilles. After discovering the island of Puerto Rico, reached the Fort of Christmas and found that it had been destroyed and the dead Spaniards. He founded the first city in America, the Isabela. He toured the South coast of Cuba, arrived in Jamaica, and at the end of 1494 was discovering South America (Cumaná), but he hid it until the third trip. 11 June 1496 he arrived at Cádiz dressed in a sackcloth of Franciscan Friar.

It took long to organize the third Colombian fleet. Indies already did not attract much and missing crew members. Eight vessels and 226 crew comprised the fleet, which left Sanlúcar de Barrameda between February and 30 may 1498. From the Canary Islands, continued to Cape Verde and one latitude further south than previous navigations, what he did suffer a calm area. He discovered the island of Trinidad. Path of the Spanish sighted isla Margarita, where they fished pearls, to reach the new capital of the Indies, Santo Domingoon August 20. Most of the Spanish, led by Francisco Roldán, had rebelled against the authority of the Colon. The arrival of the viceroy did not resolve the problem. Complaints against the Colon family, compounded with some other proceeding doubtful of the Admiral, as hiding the Kennel of pearls of Margarita and Cubagua, they came to the Court and the Kings decided to dismiss him.

The 23 August 1500, Francisco de Bobadilla was entering the port of Santo Domingo to replace the viceroy and Governor. There was some resistance from the Colon, which explains something Bobadilla hardness. At the beginning of October 1500, Christopher, Bartolomé and Diego Columbus returned to Spain loaded with chains. The monarchs not replaced it in their lost crafts. They promised they would, while they charge you the fourth voyage.

With four ships and 150 men departed from Cádiz on May 11, 1502. The objective was to find a passage that would reach the spices because Colon still believing that the Antillean area was the prelude to Asia. To cross the ocean, followed a route similar to the second trip. He wore no stop in Santo Domingo. It passed through the Caribbean to the cabo de Honduras; She followed to the Gracias a Dios and toured the coast of Panama. Not found or step, or gold, or spices, suffered the loss of two boats. 1 may 1503 putting heading to Hispaniola, but was forced to anchor in Jamaica, in the Bay of Santa Ana, where he had two ships aground and wait. The feat of Diego Méndez and Bartolomé Fiesco managing to get in two canoes from Jamaica to the Spanish managed to save them. June 28, 1504, they left Jamaica and on 12 September, in two ships, they were heading to Spain. After arriving to Sanlúcar de Barrameda the 7 of November of 1504, failed and sick, she followed to court and unsuccessfully claimed rights.

Cristóbal Colón died May 20, 1506 in Valladolid.

Chronology

1466-1469
Columbus begins his travels of cabotage in the region of Genoa (Italy)

1470
September: Together with his father Domenico in Genoa signed a document which claims to be older than 19

1474-1475
At least once he sailed to the island of Chios as dealer

1476
August 13: the ship that travels sinks off the coast of Portugal and Colon is brought to Lisbon

1476 1477
Columbus in Lisbon working as a cartographer and commercial agent
He travelled to England and shipped in Bristol with destination to Iceland

1479
September-October: She marries Felipa Perestrelo e Moniz, and resides in Madeira and Porto Santo

1480
His son was born Diego Columbus in Porto Santo

1482
War between Spain and Granada
Columbus traveled at least twice to Guinea

1484
Interview with King Juan II of Portugal. Your plan is rejected by a Royal Commission

1485
January: dies his wife Felipa Perestrelo e Moniz
You reach the monastery of La Rábida, Palos de la Frontera, with his son Diego

1486
The Catholic monarchs are Cristóbal Colón

1486-1487
Conference of the Board of Cosmographers, which rejects the Columbian plan

1488
Born in Cordoba Hernando Columbus, son of Cristóbal Colón and Beatriz Enríquez de Arana
Send your brother Bartolomé Colón with its plans to the Kings of France and England

1491
Cristóbal Colón visit to the Catholic Monarchs in the Santa Fe camp

1492
Columbus landed on Guanahani
January 2: conquest of Granada by the Catholic monarchs
The last Muslim King, Boabdil, abandons the Iberian Peninsula after more than 700 years of occupation
End of the Reconquista
March 31: edict of prescription against the Jews
April 17: will sign the capitulations of Santa Fe between Cristóbal Colón and the Catholic monarchs
August 3: begins his first Atlantic crossing from the port of Palos de la Frontera (Huelva)
August 9: up to Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, where pt is repaired
12 August: arrives at the island of la Gomera (Canary Islands)
September 6: sail from la Gomera
October 12: arrives at the island of Guanahani (possibly in the Bahamas)
15 October: up to the Fernandina island
October 15: arrive at Isabela
October 28: up to the island Juana (current Cuba)
December 6: up to Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic)
December 25: the Santa Maria ran aground in Haiti and his remains are used to build the strong Christmas, first Spanish settlement in America

1493
January 4: aboard the girl leaves the Fort of La Navidad on the island of Hispaniola (today Haiti and Dominican Republic) and begins his journey back to Spain
February 19: the Portuguese Navy tries to apprehend in the Azores Islands Columbus on his return trip, to avoid that it report the other route to the Indies who believes having discovered
March 1: the Caravel La Pinta docks in the port of Bayonne (Pontevedra) back from America
The scoop of the success of the expedition of Columbus was given
March 15: returns to Palos de la Frontera after his first trip
April: the Catholic Kings receive him with honours in Barcelona
May 2: Bull of the Pope Alejandro VI setting the areas of demarcation of Portugal and Spain
26 September: second trip
Cristóbal Colón set sail from Cadiz
November 12 - November 15: arrive at Dominica, Marigalante, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Santa María la Antigua del Darién, Santa María la Redonda, eleven thousand virgins, and San Juan Bautista, current Puerto Rico
November 27: find the ruins of the Christmas

1494
January 2: Foundation of Isabela
May 13: up to the island of Jamaica
June 7: Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal, setting new zones of demarcation
March 10: returns to Spain
June 11: landed in Cadiz

1497
January: ago testament
April: we start preparations for another expedition

1498
May 30: began his third trip in Sanlúcar de Barrameda
July 31: up to the island of Trinidad
August 2: navigates through the mouth of snakes where notes the strength of the current of the Orinoco River that flows there and sweetens the water
August 4: enters the Gulf of Paria, is to the Orinoco delta and puts the foot on the American continent
August 5: in his third voyage to the new world landed for the first time in the American continent in the place where in 1738 will be based the future population of Macuro, on the Peninsula of Paria - Sucre - Venezuela
August 14: up to the island of Cubagua - new Esparta - Venezuela
August 15: the island's car and the assumption Island (Marguerite) - Venezuela

1499
January 26: Vicente Yáñez Pinzón above to the Brazil coast
May 10: published the first geographical Américo Vespucio cards
May 18: Juan de la Cosa and Alonso de Ojeda set sail from Cadiz heading to the new world, where Ojeda above to the Leeward Islands (Netherlands Antilles) and De la Cosa explores the shores of Guyana and Venezuela
May 21: the Catholic monarchs granted freedom to those who travel to America

1500
August 27: Bobadilla reach Hispaniola as Governor
September 23: Bobadilla stopped the Colon brothers and early October are sent to Spain
November 24: Columbus and his brothers, chained, landed in Cadiz
17 December: received in Granada by the Catholic monarchs
February: sale to the Spanish Governor Nicolás de Ovando

1502
May 11: in Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Cádiz, Spain), Columbus set sail to his fourth voyage to America
15 June: up to the islands of Martinique and St. Mary

1503
10 may: Cayman Islands top
24 April: cover what would be the first Spanish settlement on mainland American Santa María de Belén, on the shores of Veraguas (Panama)

1504
November 7: Columbus landed in Sanlúcar de Barrameda
November 26: die Isabel the Catholic in Medina del Campo

1506
20 may: dies in Valladolid
Translated for educational purposes.
Biographies of historical figures and personalities

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