What is Dadaism?
Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that had its heyday between 1916 and 1922. It emerged in Switzerland after the first world war as a proposal of the writer Hugo Ball, who was joined by who came to be considered an emblem of this movement, Tristan Tzara. Dadaism included the Visual Arts, literature, theatre, and graphic design and was characterized by its policy against the war, the bourgeoisie and their anarchistic nature.
There are two theories explaining the origin of the term "dada": one of them teaches that the movement was born from a group of artists in Zurich that, looking for a name for their movement, were "given" in a French-German dictionary. Given is a French word equivalent to "Toy horse" and it would have been chosen at random. The other theory claims that the term originated from the Roman artists Tristan Tzara and Marcel Janco, who continually repeated "da, da". Da means 'yes', and artists occupied it as a sarcastic way of "Yes, clear". According to the Dada ideal, the term "Dadaism" is not correct, therefore not considered, at all, that Dada is an artistic movement.
Dada was born in Zurich in 1916, when one group of artists integrated by Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, Tristan Tzara, Jean Arp, Marcel Janco, Richard Huelsenbeck, Sophie Täuber, Hans Richter, among others, discussed art and discomfort that felt about the war and what inspired it. To express it, they made presentations at the Cabaret Voltaire, where it would have conceived the idea of Dadaism. Other reports indicate that Dada originated out of an already existing European artistic tradition, who arrived in Zurich by Tzara and Roman artists. They would have sheltered in the neutral Switzerland to escape the events of the first world war. They used abstract art to express their disgust against the political, social and cultural ideas they believed had caused the war. For them, the abstract was synonymous with honesty.
In 1916, Hugo Ball recited the first manifesto and, in 1918, Tzara wrote a Dada manifesto considered among the most important. Shortly thereafter, the cabaret closed and moved to another gallery. Ball left Europe and Tzara was responsible for spreading the Dada to the continent. He became the leader of the movement. After the war in 1918, the artists moved to their countries and many Dada activities continued in different cities.
Dadaism was also important in other places such as Germany, where the demonstration was concentrated more on the political and social in the artistic. Here was where emerged the technique of photomontage, through the work of George Grosz and John Heartfield. It also highlights the first International Dada Fair in 1920 and a series of newspapers Dada. United States, Dada was more developed in New York, which was also a refuge for artists from the war. The artists who led the movement in the country were Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia and Man Ray, whom Beatrice Wood and Elsa von Freytag - joined Loringhoven. In France, the Dada began in Paris in 1920, when the majority of the original artists of the movement gathered in the place. Manifestos, newspapers, protests, performances were produced All inspired by Tzara.
Although Dadá was very broad, it was also unstable. In Paris en1924, the movement began to transform into surrealism, and artists began to change his ideas to other forms of art such as realism and modernism, as well as the same surrealism. Due to the second world war, many European artists came to United States, while others died in the concentration camps of Hitler, who persecuted this type of art. From there, the Dada are made increasingly less active and new forms of art emerged. Until the day of today, Dada has been called an influence to other anti artistic, political and cultural movements. As dato, I tell you that the mentioned Cabaret Voltaire became, in the mid-2010, a museum dedicated to the history of Dada.