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What is Expressionism?
It is a type of art that focuses on express an idea in particular. The term "Expressionism" used it for the first time by the Austrian critic Hermann Bahr and sought to make a contrast with Impressionism. However the movement already had 11 years when he was "baptized" as well. Its beginnings date back to close to 1905 when a group of German artists set out to revive German art, which by then had fallen into a kind of lethargy, with the emergence of many movements around the world.
It is the first "avant-garde" movement in Germany, in France have Fauvism that was born at the same time and thus shares the honor around the world. The Group was called "Die Brücke" (the bridge) and his main concern is to transmit an idea, for which both resort to formal elements of art as aesthetic and plastic but easily resign them to give strength to the idea that it is important.
There is an element that is always present in Expressionism, and this is the deformation, as in Cubism, fauvism and Surrealism. For this reason some movements were called Expressionists but soon was the clear difference. Many see Goya, Daumier, van Gogh and Gauguin to predecessors of the movement, which, in particular, I would say that perhaps van Gogh, but not so much the others, what cannot be denied is that of "The bridge" were heavily influenced by some of the works of these artists, up to imitate them, clear in his own way.
When one sees an expressionist work is with a marking dye, rough and with signs of a criticism, to the company or to the particular behavior of a person (including the artist himself). It is not uncommon that they express concerns and and suffering of the soul, both the artist and others, that itself is always looking for a particular idea on which all work is focused. This makes us understand why various avant-garde movements merge with expressionism.
Within the first in Expressionism are Ernets Ludwing Kirchner, Fritz Bleyl and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Erich Haeckel. In the interwar years, the movement took a distinctly violent tone but this translated into a critique of the war. Georg Grosz, Gutiérrez Solana and the famous Modigliani are representatives of this stage. Many have certain reservations about Modigliani, but for everything there is "Papists".