What is Romanticism?
Romanticism is the cultural movement that breaks with every stereotypical rule and which prepends the emotions and feelings of the author in the execution of his art. Any rule, especially classical or neo-classical, was challenged to allow that the author and the viewer founded their emotions, as if something has the romanticism that the author makes to get their emotions, but not so the Viewer see them or witness if not to make live them. This movement starts in Germany and England where perhaps its maximum exhibitors are Goethe and Lord Byron in the literature.
Colloquially we speak of romanticism to talk about everything to do with love, especially in its emotional and "Platonic" aspect, which derives in part of the ideas associated with the mentioned movement, and also partly by the romance as a synonym for the medieval chivalry novels.
In the case of Goethe is famous his book called "Werther" a correspondence (a book of letters) where the character leads us down the path of a loving disappointment which leads him to commit suicide. Anecdotally, it is worth mentioning that the book was so successful that many found suicidal hugging the book because they identified up to that point with the character and a curious note, Goethe wrote the book to get rid of the idea of committing suicide because he had received a great loving rejection.
In France will be sticking out three great geniuses of romanticism: Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas and Alexandre Dumas son. My Favorites are the Dumas, mostly the father carrying a passion that overflows in your adventure books: "The three Musketeers", "The count of Monte Cristro" and "Twenty years later". It is a pity that is in question the authorship of many of his books, but so was Dumas father, used the labor of other writers and friends.
In Spanish literature my favorite speaking of romanticism is Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, although something late say many, represents a pure romanticism in the sense of don't worry both politics as happens with other authors like Zorrilla. The first of the romantics and the last of the classics in music was Beethoven that takes us from the fields of battle in his "Heroic" Symphony (dedicated to Napoleon and which then destroys the long dedication to learn that the great general becomes Emperor to let you that simple title) with unusual force to carry out a cry of hope in his ninth Symphonycalled hope precisely or the Coral as a chorus of voices is used to express (being deaf) that only the human voice could do.