What is the Self-knowledge?
The word "self" means if same and 'knowledge' means knowing about something, is interpreted as the ability that you have known as well same. I have traditionally known with the name of "introspection", although there is a slight difference between the two concepts: self-knowledge basically refers to the body of knowledge which the person himself has, introspection is a method to acquire such knowledge however many people who understand about the topic merge both terms.
Some authors argue that self-knowledge is related to self-image (which formerly called self-esteem) and in reality they are related but self-image for many people is a deformation of the personal reality because they have not established a genuine knowledge of themselves. This means that there may be self-esteem without self-knowledge and that in a process of introspection would allow the person form a true repository of knowledge to reinforce the self-esteem with self.
This implies a great personal maturity because obviously some aspects of ourselves is not going to please, this small conflict can be enlarged by cultural and social factors, in many cases is resolved with a denial that the person does to protect itself manifesting the lack of maturity. Self-knowledge should be a thoughtful process to highlight our strengths and correct the negative aspects.
It must also be retrospectively because in the past of our actions is the answer to what we do in the present without leaving to one side the same present to generate new experiences that form us and enrich the self-knowledge.
I want to clarify that the terms self esteem and introspection are closely related to psychoanalysis as that self-awareness and self-image are terms related to more modern educational theories of learning and especially with Behaviorism and constructivism; Hence the difference in the approaches of these terms so similar.
It is also important to note the universal character of self-knowledge and your search: since its inception the human being has been interested and intrigued to be known beyond the surface: the tempo dedicated to the God Apollo in Greece could read the inscription "Know yourself", i.e. in the same cradle of our culture was given great spiritual importance to the concept. Also in Eastern cultures this effort you can clearly see by the inner knowledge given the countless introspection techniques developed, such as the various forms of meditation that we know.