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Allergies is curable? Is it hereditary?

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Allergies

The allergy is defined as the State of hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to a particular allergen, in which re-exposure to the substance is going to trigger a new reaction, if it were possible, more intense.
The allergen is a substance capable of producing specific hypersensitivity or allergy may be a protein and non-protein, or extracts from certain foods, bacteria, pollens, animals, etc.

Why do they increase cases of allergies?

The style of life in the industrialized countries, the air that we breathe in cities, increasingly polluted, the intake of foods with a high content of preservatives and dyes, cigarette smoking, the increase in drug consumption... favor insight into our body of so many foreign substances, which put on guard to our defensive system par excellence: the immune system. As a result of this activation occurs the development of proteins called antibodies
Between the antibody is Immunoglobulin E (Ig E). The crucial role of such Ig E is to act as protective antibody against certain infections. When the immunoglobulin E is manufactured in response to substances that are commonly found in the environment, rather than going to potentially harmful organisms, fires a counterproductive reaction for our organism. The allergy could be understood, therefore, as a disproportionate reaction of our immune system to certain external stimuli, which would not generate any response in normal individuals.
Several epidemiological studies have concluded that in recent years there has been a considerable increase of the allergic conditions around the world. It is estimated that one of every five people suffers or has suffered from allergic processes.
It is difficult to know the exact number of people who are carriers of allergic diseases, since the skin tests against different environmental so common allergens such as pollens, animals epithelium as the cat or dog, dust mites, etc., can be positive even in subjects that do not show allergic symptoms.

Causes and risk factors for allergy

There are numerous causes and risk factors that may predispose us to suffer from allergies. Below we list the most common:

Genetic predisposition

Probably is one of the decisive factors for the emergence of allergic processes in a child, especially when the allergic background affect maternal and paternal family lines. In the first months of life the child contact most of allergens that will be exposed the rest of his life. Due to the immaturity of their immune system and high absorption of mucous membranes respiratory and digestive capacity, it is then when runs the risk of being sensitized.
For this reason, it is convenient to delay the introduction in the diet of foods rich in protein such as egg, cow's milk, fish and legumes, by its greater capacity to facilitate the development of food allergies.

Personal susceptibility

Increase in the willingness of the individual to synthesize specific E Ig against certain environmental substances (allergens).

Racial susceptibility

20 per cent of the white European population has allergic problems, a percentage much higher than recorded among people who live in the tropics.
There are also certain types of allergies or food intolerances that are observed more frequently in some races than others.

Environmental exposure

Cold, heat, solar radiation, chemicals... Can be allergic disorders are one of the taxes you have to pay the human race in its struggle for progress; an increase of allergic pictures, like for example asthmatic reactions, descendants children of migrants to another country, compared to residents in their land of origin has been. Statistics show that in industrialized areas there are more alergopatias than in rural areas. The emissions produced by vehicles, heaters and industrial activities are responsible for pollutants such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and dioxide of sulphur that, at certain concentrations, are harmful to health and aggravating factors of allergic diseases such as asthma.

Occupational exposure

Work with animals of laboratory, handling of derivatives of rubber, latex; environments with inhalation of vapors, manipulators of wood paintings... Found the development of bronchial asthma of occupational type in relation to exposure to organic and inorganic dusts, irritating fumes, and a wide variety of chemical agents.

Infections such as triggers

There is controversy regarding the possibility of respiratory infections in early life can promote the further development of allergic disorders; It was noted that some infants with episodes of bronchial obstruction (bronchiolitis), may subsequently have asthma of allergic-type with a very high frequency.

Smoking


In allergic patients the repeated exposure to tobacco smoke worsens the irritation that contact with pollen and mites cause at the level of your eyes, nasal and bronchial mucosa. According to research, smokers have a higher level of Ig E, responsible for allergic reactions. Found, in addition, the increase in the frequency of respiratory infections and the risk of bronchial asthma in children exposed to parents tobacco smoking during the first year of life.

Drugs

Any medication can cause an allergic reaction, and is more common in adults than in children. Develops allergy exposure to the same before, and after the initial sensitization and the production of antibodies is always required, a new contact with the drug will trigger the symptoms.

Food


Food allergy is more common in children than in adults, but many of the reactions that are attributed to the allergy may be due to the existence of a mere intolerance.
Foods that are involved most frequently are milk, eggs, fish, vegetables, nuts, shellfish and strawberries.

Food additives

Colourings, preservatives, antioxidants, agents enhancers and aromatic taste, thickeners and emulsifiers sweeteners.

Domestic dust mites


Dust from houses is one of the leading causes of respiratory allergy around the world. It consists of a heterogeneous mixture of flakes of human skin and those from domestic animals, remains of insects, textile fibres, traces of food, insecticides, bacteria, animal hair, feathers of birds, fungi and, basically, a few microscopic parasites called mites. Favors its proliferation with temperatures close to the 25 ° - 27 ° C, in the autumn, and if the relative humidity of the air is high.

Plants and pollens


The botanical species of aerial dispersion are which can cause allergic reactions. Among them: grasses and grasses grown (wheat or barley).
During the spring months, a large number of invisible vegetable particles invade the atmosphere, and can subsequently deposited in the soil, producing reactions both by air and by contact.

Fungi

They are ubiquitous microscopic beings in the environment of the human being; due to its high reproductive capacity, they proliferate easily whenever they are organic material that provide them the necessary nutrients. Fungi reproduce by means of some cells called spores, that to be transported by air can be inhaled by other living beings. Inhalation sustained spores can cause allergic symptoms (rhinitis, asthma) in susceptible individuals.

Animals

Dogs, cats, and other pets such as hamsters and Guinea pigs, constitute one of the main causes of allergy after pollen and mites. Other animals such as birds and horses can also cause allergies.

Insects

Those who produce allergic reactions more frequently are Hymenoptera (bees and wasps).

Physical exercise as a trigger

Running is the exercise that most frequently can trigger episodes of bronchial obstruction and, on many occasions, is the only factor capable of originating an asthmatic crisis in susceptible individuals. On the other hand, people with pollen allergies may aggravate their symptoms with the practice of physical exercise in the open air.

Role of the psyche in allergic conditions

Years ago raised the possibility that asthma was in large part a psychosomatic illness. However, not be has proved the existence of a specific personality that predisposes to suffering from asthma, which is considered a chronic inflammatory disease of the bronchial mucosa. However, the correct functioning of the body depends on the nervous system, which may be affected by certain stressful situations and depressive pictures, that influence the severity of asthmatic crisis episode.

Allergy symptoms

Together with the hotness of palate and ears, nasal, bronchial, and ocular demonstrations triggered by exposure to environmental antigens (pollen, mites, fungi) are the most characteristic symptoms of allergy .
Breathing difficulty and the whistles (wheezing) triggered chest exercise, crying, laughter and the nonspecific irritants (smoke, air pollution, sprayers,...) are unequivocal signs of bronchial hyperreactivity (asthma).
Skin conditions such as hives, certain forms of swelling of soft tissue (angioedema), and some type of eczema and other skin lesions may appear together with other pictures or in an isolated manner.
In the paragraphs below are listed organs and functions that may be affected by an allergy box, with its characteristic symptoms:
  • Breathing apparatus.
  • Skin.
  • Sense organs.
  • Digestive system.

Respiratory allergies

Within the respiratory allergies are bronchial asthma, rhinitis and alveolitis as its most common manifestations:

Rhinitis

Rhinitis is an inflammation of the nasal mucosa. Repeated sneezing, nasal congestion, and abundant mucus secretion (runny nose), usually accompanied by (conjunctivitis) inflammation of the membrane that covers the eye (conjunctiva); Hence the term of rhinoconjunctivitis. You can associate is often the presence of asthma, which is the form of presentation more typical of the allergic patient to antigens environmental.

Bronchial asthma

Pulmonary disease (reversible) obstruction, inflammation with special sensitivity to internal and external stimuli (bronchial hyperreactivity). Courses with prolonged cough, difficulty breathing (Dyspnea), beeps (wheezing) and feeling of tightness in the chest

Alveolitis

Occurs due to the final portion of the respiratory tree (alveoli), in relation to exposure to organic dusts, fungus (aspergillosis) moldy Hay, straw and grain ("lung of the farmer"), dust from droppings of Pigeon ("pigeon breeder lung").

Skin allergies

Within the skin allergies, when we talk about their symptoms or manifestations, we do it of endogenous, exogenous eczema, urticaria, angioedema, or oedema Quincke and skin reactions by solar radiation. See them in more detail:

Endogenous Eczema

Also known as atopic dermatitis , inflammatory condition of the skin characterized by multiplicity of injuries: reddening, Erythema, scabs, exudation (secretion of liquid), vesicles, signs of scratching and scales. It is a type of chronic eczema with great hereditary component. It appears during the first year of life, and rarely persists after adolescence.

Exogenous Eczema

They are contact dermatitis, caused by substances that cause allergic reactions on contact: metals such as chromium, cobalt and, especially, the nickel.

Urticaria

Skin disease, which affects the dermis, with presence of habones, or hives, which produce an intense itch and change of location. Depending on the duration time can be considered acute (less than six weeks) or chronic (more than six weeks). According to the causes can be immunologic (allergic base) character, or not immune. The most frequent allergic hives are caused by food or drugs (penicillin).

Angioedema or Quincke Edema

Affects the subcutaneous cell tissue (deeper than the epidermis), with local inflammation, and may affect the larynx and cause potentially serious choking pictures.

Skin reactions by solar radiation

  • Phototoxic: by simultaneous exposure to the Sun taking drugs sensitive to sunlight.
  • Fotoalergenicas: by alteration of the structure of the drug by effect of the Sun; Unlike the previous causes lesions in areas not exposed to sunlight.
  • Solar urticaria: appears about thirty minutes after the sun exposure, in the form of habones and fleeting development.

Allergies in eyes and ears

There are allergies that can affect eyes and ears:

Ocular allergies

The conjunctiva is a membrane that lines the inner eyelid area and the front of the eyeball; inflammation of the membrane is called conjunctivitis. If it is cause allergic is often accompanied by nasal symptoms (rhinoconjunctivitis), and is also possible, that there is an association with bronchial asthma in atopic patients.
The most common symptoms of an ocular allergy are: intense itching, intolerance to light (photophobia), redness, tearing, discharge.
Among the most frequent causes of allergy eyes pointed out: pollen, mites, fungi environmental and animal particles.

Other allergic conjunctivitis:

  • Contact conjunctivitis.
  • Keratoconjunctivitis (simultaneous involvement of the cornea).

Ear allergies

The ear is not significantly affected by allergic mechanism, but some patients with atopic dermatitis or seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis may have itching in the ear canal and Eczema (drying).

Digestive allergies

Food or digestive allergies can cause skin lesions (eczema and urticaria), respiratory (rhinitis, asthma) or gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea); or more severe (anaphylactic shock: loss of consciousness, cardiovascular disease, and life-threatening).
Main foods causing allergies in children are milk, egg, and fish; in adults, the vegetables, fruits and nuts.

Food allergies in infants

In the newborn intestinal absorption is increased, which favors the entrance of food substances that can trigger allergic reactions.
In addition, due to the immaturity of their immune system, it is not capable of producing the necessary defenses, why is recommended to prolong breastfeeding as much as possible (at least the first six months) and the progressive introduction of foods with more risk of digestive allergies.

Complications of allergy

Among the complications of the allergy occur more frequently we have asthma crisis, edema of the glottis, and the more severe, anaphylactic shock. See them in more detail:

Bronchial asthma

Either as a result of the progressive worsening of a basal bronchial asthma, or a secondary deepening in contact with an allergen, which triggered a severe asthmatic crisis, for example, by ingestion of aspirin, which can cause severe crisis requiring urgent hospital care in susceptible individuals.

Warning signs

The person must be sitting to breathe, are unable to speak or drink fluids because of fatigue, has difficulty sleeping night, an intense sensation of shortness of breath, with the accelerated heart rate. Before these symptoms should go to urgent hospital assessment.

Edema of the glottis, angioedema, or angioneurotic edema

They are often due to allergic reactions secondary to taking drugs or food, as well as by the bite of certain insects (wasps or bees), especially if the bite is on areas of the face or neck. Produces an inflammation of the mucous membranes lining the mouth, uvula, throat and larynx even, and may result in respiratory compromise by closure of the airway. Precise urgent medical care, with subcutaneous epinephrine.

Anaphylactic shock

It is the most serious manifestation of the allergic pictures. Accurate awareness previous, i.e. have occurred prior the substance contact, so before a new contact it triggers the allergic reaction.

Most frequent causes

Drugs (Penicillins, pyrazolones, aspirin, iodinated contrast), insect bites, food (egg, milk, nuts, fish, vegetables or seafood), physical factors (cold, exercise) and, less frequently, by contact with latex, antiallergic vaccines...

Symptoms

Feeling of shortness of breath, cough, shortness of breath (wheezing, whistles), including edema of glottis, palpitations, drop in blood pressure accompanied by dizziness and loss of consciousness, swelling, rashes, abdominal pain with vomiting and diarrhea, anxiety and confusion. It also requires urgent medical attention.

Diagnosis of allergy

There are several ways to diagnose an allergy, these are the most common tests used to detect it:

Clinical history or anamnesis (interrogation)

The detailed medical history is the main instrument that the doctor has to obtain a reliable diagnosis; the rest of tests will be used to confirm a suspicion. Data which should collect the patient's history are: age, sex, times of the year in which are the symptoms, variations that occur with changes in climate and in the different seasons of the year, the geographical area of residence, housing characteristics, as well as personal and family history and symptoms.

Physical examination

It must observe the skin for signs of atopy, perform cardiopulmonary auscultation to detect breathing sounds suggestive of bronchial asthma, explore nose and ears (rhinoscopy and otoscopy), and PEAK FLOW (peak expiratory flow) to determine which consists in measuring the speed with which air comes out of the lung, and is the best parameter to check the evolution of the asthmatic patient.

Skin tests

They want to play at the local level an allergic reaction in the skin through inoculation of tiny amounts of the allergen to which the patient is sensitive. In a few minutes after the skin prick, there will be a positive demonstration of allergy reaction. Will be a battery of standard tests: dust mites, pollen, fungi, antigens of pets; and some suspected foods are included in children's processes.

The two most common techniques are: puncture (deposit a drop of the allergen into the skin and click on that area) and intra (the allergen is introduced into the skin using insulin syringes). Both are performed in the anterior aspect of the forearm.
Other skin test is the test of the patch: a patch with the substance is placed in a healthy area of the body (back or front of the forearm) to study, remains 48 hours and is interpreted at 72 hours. It is suitable for the study of contact dermatitis.

Determination of antibodies in blood

It detects antigens responsible for the disease in blood. Quantification of immunoglobulin E, to determine the degree of Allergy and what is allergy.

Challenge tests

Reserved for those cases where the previous tests have been negative:
  • Environmental allergen provocation: conjunctival, nasal (by instillation of allergens) and bronchial (inhalation of allergens).
  • Drug-induced aggravation: litmus test for diagnosis of drug allergy.
All these tests involve a risk and be carried out by trained personnel and in the health centre equipped with means to respond to a severe allergic reaction.

Other tests to diagnose allergy

  • Histamine release test.
  • Quantification of the complement.
  • Sweat tests.
  • Quantification of other immunoglobulins, etc.

Allergy treatment

There are several options to relieve the symptoms of allergy. The specialist will be to decide what is best suited for your case in particular. Sometimes it will be necessary to follow the allergy treatment scheduled for several years, and check if there are developments in the symptomatology and was required to change it.

Antihistamines

They prevent the release of histamine (substance responsible for allergic phenomena). Note: involvement of the skin with itching, rhinitis and conjunctivitis.

Types of antihistamines

  • 1st generation: older, sedative effect (they produce sleep) and increase in appetite: Azatadina, diphenhydramine, Dexchlorpheniramine and Hydroxyzine.
  • 2nd generation: do not produce sedation. Cetirizine, Ebastine and Loratadine. Avoid prolonged treatments and topical preparations because of risk of photoallergy. Most are administered orally, some via subcutaneous and intramuscular (dexchlorpheniramine, used in urgent situations, acute urticaria or angioedema). For rhinitis and conjunctivitis there are prepared in the form of spray and eye drops.

Corticoids

Two therapeutic groups: cortisone and derivates management systemic, via oral or injectable, and secondly, and more modern, the topical nasal or bronchial. Preparations systemic via are indicated in cases of intrinsic asthma, with adjustment of dose orally and appropriate treatment time. Nasal corticosteroids (spray) in rhinitis, in aerosols in case of bronchial asthma. The latter shall be used for the greater presence of antigens seasons (spring on the pollenosis, autumn and spring in allergy to mites...). Topical corticosteroids: creams, lotions, ointments, ointments. Skin conditions.

Cromolyn sodium and derivatives

Stabilizes the membrane of mast cells (cells involved in the allergic pictures) and prevent the release of chemical mediators (substances such as: leukotrienes, histamine, bradykinin). Via inhalation, bronchial or nasal. The component of bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma control.

Bronchodilators

Medication to dilate the airway through regulation of the autonomic nervous system (sympathomimetics and parasympathomimetics). Is administered via inhalation, aerosol; they have an immediate effect on the feeling of shortness of breath. Of choice in patients with respiratory diseases, (bronchial asthma).

Agranulocytosis

Action complementary to the previous bronchodilator.

Anti-leukotrienes

They are used in bronchial asthma; It has an effect added to the use of Beta-Adrenergic bronchodilator and corticosteroid.

Vaccines or hiposensibilizantes extracts (immunotherapy)

The only treatment available to try to cure the allergy. It consists in the administration of increasing doses of Antigen to which the patient is sensitized to achieve a posterior tolerance to this agent. Indications: allergic generalized by a bee, or WaSP bite reactions bronchial asthma for pollen allergy when the symptoms are modified and are not controlled, asthma allergy to antigens perennial (not seasonal), allergic to antigens in people in contact with them (veterinary allergic to animals, sensitive Baker to wheat flour).

Treatment of allergy in special situations

  • Gestation: low-dose steroids. Dexchlorpheniramine.
  • Nursing: night shooting of antihistamine, Loratadine. Contraindicated first generation antihistamines.
  • Anaphylaxis - Shock anafilatico: keeping the airway, administering oxygen, replace fluids with sera, use adrenaline subcutaneously or intravenously depending on severity, dexchlorpheniramine. If bronchospasm (closing of the bronchi) use bronchodilators, inhaled, intravenous or subcutaneous, and hospital stay.
  • Asthmatic crisis: the severity of the table is measured by the peak expiratory flow. Used oxygen, bronchodilators, inhaled or spray, steroids, intravenous, and, in severe cases, with vital commitment, adrenaline.
  • Other complementary treatments: respiratory exercises are essential in patients with asthmatic crisis. The techniques of self-control and relaxation and balneotherapy are also recommended.

Allergy prevention

To prevent the onset of allergy, or their symptoms when the person has already developed the condition, more importantly avoid contact with allergens, i.e. all substances that trigger the overreaction of the immune system. However, this is not always possible, since we live surrounded by substances potentially allergenic; We must, therefore, follow a series of recommendations to minimize contact with all those substances that can cause allergic reaction, especially when we already know what are. Parents, can also take precautions to protect their children while they are young, and thus reduce the risk of becoming allergic.
These are the most useful tips to prevent the different existing allergies:

The pollen allergy prevention

  • Avoid those places that focus more amount of pollen: parks, gardens and rural environments... If it is not necessary, do not go to walk the very windy days because the wind drag large amounts of pollen. If you have to leave, use sunglasses to protect your eyes, and even a mask. If you are traveling by car, do it with the windows closed.
  • The highest concentrations of pollen are produced in the early hours of the morning (between the 5.00 and the 10,00) and late evening (19.00 to 22.00), so you don't exercise or other activities outdoors in that schedule, and keep window closed.
  • It is convenient to have a dryer at home, or at least placed a clothesline in the interior of the House so that clothing does not remain outdoors and be filled with pollen.
  • When you get home, shower, wash your hair and change your clothes, to remove all traces of pollen that are have been able to remain attached to clothing and skin.
  • Don't be in house plants that you are allergenic.

Prevention of allergy to dust mites

  • The decoration of the House is very important in this type of allergy. Many less furniture and, especially, ornaments, less surfaces likely to accumulate dust and mites (one gram of dust can contain hundreds of mites).
  • For the same reason, you should avoid the carpeted floors, rugs, Large curtains, stuffed animals, upholstered chairs...
  • The clothes must stay in closed cabinets, not hung for days in a coat rack, or on top of a Chair.
  • Wooden floors and, above all, the ceramic, are the best. It is better that the cleaning is done by a nonallergic person; If this is not possible, put on a mask, becomes cleaner and mopping it floors then.
  • Best smooth walls and to be cleaned easily. To save the books, used cabinets or closed shelves.
  • It airs the House frequently to avoid moisture, since these microscopic animals proliferate at temperatures above 20 ° C and humidity between 70% and 80%.
  • Pillows and mattresses are genuine reservoirs of mites, so it is necessary that they are made with synthetic, or sheathed materials in non-permeable materials. You must wash bedding frequently, with water more than 65 degrees. You can also use covers anti-mite to protect mattress, pillows and sofas, which are the favourite places of these microscopic beings.
  • In the bedroom, it eliminates ornaments such as pictures, posters, dolls and stuffed animals. In the rooms of children, toys should be stored in cabinets or drawers after use. If possible, keep the temperature of the room between 18 and 20 ° C.
  • Avoid dusty places.

Prevention of allergy to animal hair or dandruff

  • Do not have pets at home, and have minimal contact with the mascots of your family and friends, especially if it's cats. If you visit someone who lives with cats, it is necessary that they have sucked the House before your arrival, and you touching cats not staying in the same room with them. When you get home check to wash all the clothes that you've put, as it will surely be impregnated with your dandruff, since it is very difficult to remove, even with appropriate hygienic measures.

Prevention of skin allergy

  • It uses garments made with natural like cotton or linen fabric, and avoid wool and synthetic fibers.
  • You must wash the clothes, even the bed and toilet, with detergents which do not contain irritants.
  • When you bathing you, do it with warm water and do not stay long soak.
  • Your body hygiene, uses products not allergenic, complying with the pH of the skin.
  • You must dry your carefully, using soft towels and without rubbing the skin, but checking that there are no wetlands. It is advisable that you then carbohydrates with a cream suitable for your skin type.
  • Avoid sudden changes in temperature and humidity. Sweat can aggravate the symptoms.
  • You do not rasques you or friction skin if you you chop, you can cause you injury that aggravate the injury.
  • Avoid exposure to the Sun if you leave stains on the skin, and use appropriate clothing and a sunscreen if you're going to stay in the open air, even when it is cloudy.
  • In the case of the contact dermatitis, avoid all substances that trigger the symptoms. Check the composition of cleaning, grooming, makeup products if they contain allergens.

Prevention of allergy to insect stings

  • Not it is a common allergy, but can be serious and lead to complications, such as episodes of anaphylaxis. Normally, the allergic reaction is caused by insect bites so common in our midst like wasps, bees and mosquitoes, so avoid places where they proliferate is the most effective preventive measure. Therefore, if you're allergic to stings, you may deprive you of leaving the field in spring and summer. Also away from parks and gardens, and swimming pools that have green space and vegetation.
  • Don't walk barefoot. It is best that you avoid sandals and use closed footwear.
  • Place mosquito nets on the windows of your home. If you have a terrace, do not place plants in it because they will attract insects.
  • In spring and summer, try to stay indoors. The terraces outdoor where people eat and drink tend to be very haunted places by wasps and mosquitoes.
  • Do not put you colorful, such as yellow or orange clothes or perfume strong, if you're going to walk down the street.
  • Procures another person to be responsible for littering to the container, because the insects are usually swarming where there is organic remains.
  • If your allergy to insects it is severe, you should always carry self-injectable epinephrine, and go to a medical center immediately after the bite.
  • If you have symptoms such as shortness of breath, hives, dizziness, nausea, low blood pressure, swelling of the throat or important language, itching or inflammation, may be a severe allergic reaction (though it has never before happened to you) and you should consult a doctor.

Prevention of food allergy

  • You must know foods that produce you allergy to prevent their consumption. Discuss it with your doctor and get a test to detect them. Remember that among the foods that cause allergy more often they are: milk, eggs, fish, shellfish, nuts, chocolate and citrus.
  • When you eat away from home, it is necessary that you reports on ingredients in stews and sauces.
  • Read carefully the labels on packaged foods to make sure that it does not contain even trace amounts of foods to which you are allergic. Some preservatives, flavor enhancers and colorants can also be allergens.

Prevention of allergy to medications

  • Some medications can cause allergies, respiratory, such as aspirin and your derivatives, Salicylates (present in creams to relieve muscle aches, among other products), anti-inflammatory drugs, and some drugs used to control blood pressure.
  • Always warns health professionals if you are allergic to any medications, because other drugs may share the same substance allergen. You should also tell them if you are allergic to certain foods because some vaccines, for example, contain components of the egg.

General Tips for preventing allergies

  • Do not smoke and do not frequent places where to concentrate smoke, because this substance increases the allergic response and reduce the factors of Defense of the respiratory mucosa against infections.
  • Avoid sudden changes in temperature and, in times of epidemic of flu or colds, seeks not to remain long time indoors where there are many people (shopping malls, cinemas, restaurants...), or have contact with people who have some type of respiratory infection.
  • It protects your skin from the Sun. Use a protective cream suitable for your skin type if you are going to expose you to sunlight, although it is not summer.
  • Strong odors given off by some products can also cause allergy and aggravate the symptoms and discomfort. If you're allergic, be careful with foods like spicy sauces and vinegar, perfumes, lacquers, deodorants, acetone, alcohol, and cleaning products for the home, among others.

Prevention of allergy in infants and children

When there are family members allergic (especially if it is the father, mother, or both) increases the chances that the new baby will develop some type of allergy. However, some precautions may contribute to delay, or even prevent, the development of allergies in children.
Takes note of How to prevent allergy in infants and children:

No to tobacco

It should not be exposed to children to smoke tobacco, during pregnancy or after birth. Pregnant women should not smoke, and people living with her must not do so.

Breastfeeding

It has shown that breast-feeding a baby delayed exposure of the intestine, still immature, a series of foods (cow's milk, egg) potentially inducers of allergic reactions. It is recommended, therefore, keep breastfeeding during the first six months of life, and delay the introduction of fish, eggs and pulses up to nine, twelve and fifteen months, respectively.

Measures dietary

Measures favoring delaying the appearance of possible allergies in childhood in children with high risk for allergic family history. In cases in which breastfeeding is not possible, use special hypoallergenic milks (low risk to trigger allergy). It is important to wait until the last six months of life to incorporate solid foods to the diet of these children.

Avoid the self-medication

The indiscriminate use of drugs can lead to the emergence of important undesirable reactions.

Frequently asked questions about allergy

Six and a half million Spaniards suffer from some sort of allergy in their lives. If you're one of them here you will find the answer to frequently asked questions about allergy, most of them relating to the evolution of the disease itself or the effectiveness of existing treatments to control.

Is allergy inherited?

People suffering from allergies, can effectively, transmit to their descendants predisposition to develop allergy. When one parent is allergic, your child will have a 40% chance of becoming allergic to turn around and, if both parents are not, the risk is 70%. A number of measures can, however, be taken to delay, or even prevent, that the child develops allergy, since exposure to certain environmental factors can accelerate the onset of this disorder (see prevention of allergy).

What is the difference between an allergy and a cold?

Sometimes allergy symptoms are similar to those of the common cold, so it is not easy to distinguish which of the two conditions is about. What can help us determine what allergy is that this disorder is often accompanied by nasal itching, abundant and continuous sneezing, watery mucus (in cold mucus is thicker), and ocular involvement. Cold, go away within a week or ten days, allergic rhinitis is recurrent.

Allergy cures?

So far it did not cure the allergy, and treatments are intended to relieve the symptoms. The most commonly used in the treatment of mild allergies are antihistamines, which offer very good results in the case of the second generation, have few side effects and do not cause drowsiness to the majority of the patients.

How are antihistamines?

Antihistamines relieve the main symptoms of allergy, such as itching and secretion nasal, sneezing and conjunctivitis, and are effective in the treatment of all kinds of allergies because they act by blocking the (molecule involved in allergic hypersensitivity reactions) histamine H1 receptors, preventing in this way showing the symptoms of allergy.

And vaccines?

Commonly referred to as allergy vaccine is to administer to the patient an extract of the allergen responsible for the disease, by dose gradually increased at regular intervals of time, with the purpose of inducing the tolerance required to control the allergic response. In cases in which it is stated, is considered the only treatment capable of modifying the natural course of allergic disease.

How can I relieve nasal congestion?

Some antihistamines include decongestants in its composition; In addition, you can also use natural products as saline sea water solutions, which are usually sold in the form of spray, and moisturize and cleanse the nasal mucosa, facilitate the removal of secretions and help you breathe better. You can find other recommendations to clear your nose in our section treatment of nasal congestion.

What is anaphylaxis?

It is the manifestation of more serious and intense allergic frame, although it is not common. There must be a prior awareness of the patient before the allergen that causes the allergic and reaction, with a new contact with this substance, the body reacts immediately, and they can alter blood pressure and the pulse of the patient who, may even lose consciousness. More severe cases may trigger what is known as anaphylactic shock, which can result in death of the affected. Insect bites and the consumption of certain foods (nuts, seafood...) or medications, can cause this reaction excessive in people sensitive to these allergens.

Why is increasing the number of allergies?

The incidence of allergic disease is increasing in developed countries because of several environmental factors related to the style of life of the population. These factors include air pollution, since high levels of pollution interact with substances such as pollen, one of the most allergenic, facilitating the arrival of pollen grains to the Airways, and favoring the development of allergy, even in people not predisposed. In Spain, more than 21% of the population suffers from some kind of allergy, and half of these people are allergic to pollen. Other factors associated with this increase are the use of air conditioning, which increases the humidity inside dwellings, which favours the proliferation of dust mites and fungi; and live with pets (cats, dogs, birds), which also contributes to allergic sensitization.

What is atopy?

This is a genetic predisposition to produce immunoglobulin E against common allergens in the environment. When the immunoglobulin E response to substances that are commonly found in the environment, rather than be used against potentially harmful organisms for the organism, an allergic reaction is triggered.

How do I know if the day will be good or bad for allergy?

The SEAIC aerobiology Committee puts at your disposal, on the www.polenes.com website, a map where you can find different types of pollen concentration levels, for which, if going to travel or just before leaving home, you know if the day you get to sneeze and you should arm yourself with kleenex or if it is advisable that you take beforehand your treatment for allergy. A very useful and reliable tool for the sighted
Article contributed for educational purposes
Health and Wellness

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