Concept and What is: Evolution of Anthropology | Psychology

Anthropology is the science that studies the man, his biological evolution or physical, cultural and social. Although it has been consolidated as a scientific discipline only in the 19th century, its roots are some centuries earlier with the "discovery" of other peoples by the discoverers and explorers. Thus, we can share the story, or evolution, anthropology according to the following periods:

* 16TH-19th centuries gave the "Ethnographic Literature period" when predominated reports on trips where they mentioned the characteristics of people "discovered" as a description of their language, race, religion. The descriptions were usually made by missionaries, travelers, explorers, etc. The physical and social characteristics of different peoples were treated jointly in the theories about "races";

* At the end of the 19TH century the "Social evolution" also called "scientific racism" (by inserting the concept of race top or bottom) or "Social Darwinism". Is developed the concept that societies evolve to a State more "primitive" to other more "civilized", but it is during this period that leaves off the concept of "race" replaced by "culture";

* Still in the 19th century the "French Sociological School" where are defined the rules of sociological method (Émile Durkheim) and concepts such as the search for "Total Social fact", collective representations, etc.;

* At the beginning of the 20th century the study of social and cultural characteristics of the people earned the name of "Social Anthropology" in England, "Cultural Anthropology" in the US and "Ethnology" in France, reaching the level of autonomous scientific discipline.

* In the 20, it is the turn of current theoretical "Functionalism" according to which the social and cultural values must be understood. It is at this stage that the predominant emphasis on field work;

* In the 30 predominates the "North American Culturalism" where there is the emphasis on the identification of cultural patterns (styles) culture;

* 40 years, comes the "Structuralism" (which was part Lévi-Strauss) with the distinction between nature and culture, the principles of organization of the mind, etc.;

* In 60 years, we have the "Interpretive Anthropology" with deep inspiration hermeneutics and development of anthropological interpretation;

* And, finally, in the years 80, the postmodern "Anthropology" or "criticism" with the "politicization" of the relationship "observer-observed" and the criticism of the theoretical paradigms.
Translated for educational purposes.
Culture and Science

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