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Concept and What is: psychoanalysis | Psychology

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Psychoanalysis was created by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud, in order to treat psychological imbalances. This theoretical framework was responsible for the discovery of the unconscious - before we pioneered, but in another sense, by Leibniz and Hegel - and from then went on to address this unknown territory in an attempt to map it and understand its mechanisms, originally giving it a reality on the psychic plane. This course also aims to analyze human behavior, decipher the organization of the mind and heal needy diseases of organic causes.

Freud was inspired by the work of Josef Breuer physiologist, for his early work with hypnosis, which deeply marked the psychoanalyst's methods, though he later abandon the therapy and replace it with the free association. It also incorporated the theory knowledge absorbed some philosophers, especially Plato and Schopenhauer. Freud was interested from the beginning by emotional disturbances that at the time were known as 'hysteria', and endeavored, by means of psychoanalysis, find a cure for these mental misfits. Since then he began to use the art of talking cure, discovering the realm where the desires and sexual fantasies are lost in the human mind, repressed, forgotten, to emerge into consciousness in the form of undesirable symptoms, for whatever reason - the Unconscious.

Freud organizes in its theoretical body data known at the time as the idea that the mind was divided into three parts, the functions that could fit you, the personalities who were born in each category and catharsis. This kind of scientific syncretism has led to many new concepts, such as sublimation, perversion, narcissism, transfer, among others, some of them quite popular today, as these concepts led to the emergence of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry modern. For psychoanalysis, sex is at the heart of human behavior. It motivates their personal development and, on the other hand, their deepest emotional disturbances; reigns in the unconscious. Freud, in full Victorian era, became controversial, and his theory was not easily accepted. Over time, however, his thinking has made possible the entry of the sexual theme in environments previously inaccessible to this order of debates.

Psychoanalytic theory is synthesized primarily in three publications: Interpretation of Dreams, 1900; Psychopathology of Everyday Life ", which contains the first principles of psychoanalysis; and "Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality," which are the basic outlines of this doctrine. In clinical care, the patient at rest, is encouraged to verbalize everything that springs up in your mind - dreams, desires, fantasies, expectations, and childhood memories. It is for the psychoanalyst listen and interfere only when deemed necessary, and to realize an opportunity to help the analyzing bring awareness their repressed desires, predicted from the free association. Overall, the analyst must remain impartial.

For Freud all of emotional disturbance has its source in striking sexual experiences, which may prove disturbing, are repressed in the unconscious. This energy contained, libido, is expressed from the symptoms, in an attempt to defend and preserve, this is the way it is to communicate with the outside. Through free association and the interpretation of the patient's dreams, the psychoanalyst reveals the existence of sexual instinct. This transfer of content to the conscious, which causes an intense emotional desopressão, brings healing of analyzing. The mind, divided into Id, Ego and Superego, proves to be a box of surprises in the hands of Freud. In Id, ruled by the 'pleasure principle', are the material and carnal desires, impulses breeding, preservation of life.

In the Ego, or I, governed by the 'reality principle', is consciousness, small dot in the vastness of the unconscious, which seeks to mediate and balance the relationship between Id and Superego the; it needs to satisfy the Id without violating the laws of the Superego. Thus, the ego has to constantly balance on a tightrope, trying not to be overwhelmed by either the insatiable desires of the Id, or the extreme demands of the Superego, also struggling to not let annihilate the conveniences of the outside world. Therefore, according to Freud, man lives divided between these two principles, the pleasure and the Reality in full existential angst. The Superego is the sentinel of the mind, always vigilant and attentive to any moral deviation. He also acts unconsciously censoring impulses here, wishes there, especially what is sexual in nature. The Superego is expressed indirectly, through moral and education.

According to psychoanalysis, the Unconscious is not the subconscious - more passive level of consciousness, its non-reflective stage, but at any time can become aware - and only reveals itself through the elements that structure, such as slips - they are expressed in healthy people, reflecting the conflict between the conscious, subconscious and unconscious; are the famous 'failures of memory' -, dreams, jokes and symptoms. Freud also developed stages of sexual development, each corresponding to the body that is stimulated by the pleasure and the object that causes this excitement.

At the hearing, the desire is situated in the mouth, swallowing food and the mother's breast during breastfeeding. In the anal phase, the pleasure comes from the excretion of feces, the games involving masses, paints, clay, causing all dirt. In the genital or phallic stage, the desire and pleasure are directed to the genitals, as well as body points that excite this part of the body. At this point, the boys elect the mother as the object of his desire - constituting the Oedipus complex, incestuous relationship that also generates a rivalry with his father - while for the girls father becomes the target of desire - Electra Complex.

Other important points of psychoanalysis are the perversion of concepts - occurs when the ego succumbs to the pressures Id, escapes the control of the Superego and can not sublimate, and can thus achieve a social dimension or collective, for example, Nazism - , and Narcissism - the individual falls in love with his own image, cultivating long self-esteem exaggerated.
Translated for educational purposes.
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