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What is a myth?
A myth, in different contexts can mean several things. In the field of Mythology, it consists of a history of sacred character relative to the origin of the world and the universe. The sacred character of the story is given by the belief in it, with a religious connotation. We usually refer to this story or history when we talk about myths. Another possible context is the popular usage, where we refer to a myth as something false but widely disseminated as truth; This meaning of the word is close to what is known as an urban legend, what we'll see in another article.
Although today we associate with the myths inherent falsehood, the truth is that these accounts, at least in the context of Mythology, are possessors of profound truths and teachings for the human being. symbolic of a truth wraps, can be considered although it is also true that in ancient times used to be them be attributed to these stories factual character, as if they had really happened. One of the great explorers of the relationship between the great myths and spirituality was Joseph Campbell and his work is clearly expressed as they have fulfilled an important role of conciliator in the psyche of the human being through the history; the myth takes concepts opposed as death and birth, destruction and creation, to mediate and transcend these poles in order to meet the need for unity in the mind of the individual.
In addition, postulated that myths are used to transmit roles and symbols of archetypal characteristics (i.e. present in way deep and universal in people's minds). For example, a classic story represents the "way of the hero", which speaks of the person who withdraws from the world to acquire strength and knowledge, which later will bring back from his trip to help others. This myth is present in one form or another in every culture, and not only in antiquity; George Lucas, a friend express of Joseph Campbell was inspired by this mythological tale for his "Star Wars" film work. Some scholars speculate that this is the reason why the film has permeated so deep in the collective consciousness.
Now we will briefly mention some of the most famous or known in Greek mythology. The myth of the cavern of Plato, graphics to the man in relation to knowledge of the reality: relates as men remain inside a cavern since birth tied to chains, observing the reflection of objects and people that pass through a corridor, at the bottom of the same everything illuminated by a fire; outside the cave this nature, representing reality, the world of ideas, and the shadows are a projection of the reality that human beings take for reality itself. The myth of narcissus, counts as the beautiful character, after rejecting the love of a nymph called echo, is punished by the goddess of vengeance Nemesis and obsessed with its image reflected in one source, that finally led him to throw himself and sinking in the water. The myth of Prometheus, tells the story of a Titan (powerful deity) who steals fire in the stalk of a fennel (a herb) to the gods to mortals.