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Concept and What is: Criminology

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Criminology is the name given to one branch of knowledge, empirical oriented (i.e. built through perceptions and experiences) that focuses on criminal action, on its author, on its victim and on possible ways to combat the delinquent Act referred to. It features interdisciplinary characteristic (communicates with other areas of study to form the structure of your article). Thus, much of its content is borrowed from different branches, including biology, psychopathology, sociology, politics, among others.

Its origin dates back to the 18th century, with the advent of what is conventionally called "Classical School" of Criminology, through the work of Cesare Beccaria (Dei Delitti e delle Pene) and other philosophers, inspired by Rousseau's doctrine, mainly, claimed that the origin of the crime is in society and in their values and standard deviations.

Later would arise in the area of Criminology the second line of thought of this science, known as "Positivist School", especially the Italian chain, largely due to the well known studies of Italian Cesare Lombroso (born Ezechia Marco Lombroso), physician, scientist, surgeon and founder of the Italian school of Positivist Criminology. At the root of his thought taken from the concepts buried Psychiatry (so new at the time), the Social Darwinism and eugenics. In short, it was to eliminate the criminal gene, and then, the bookstore the crime society, a simple connection between cause and effect: by eliminating the cause (a species prone to crime), would eliminate the phenomenon (the crime).

The frame of the positivist Criminology is "L uomo ´ Thug" by 1876, Lombroso, highlighting the figure of delinquent nato, emphasizing the criminal's genetic condition, which is immediately identified by physical defects or inadequacies.

Bringing a different perspective to the two conflicting currents of Criminology, we have the rise of a third school in criminológica area, the so-called "Sociological School", arose in the late 19th century. It would if social conditions emphasis of the criminal, crucial to its formation. Factors such as living in ghettos, real alien subcultures generators to the values of formal society, or so, low educational level, or the precarious economic conditions, and even the high alcohol consumption were the ideal fuse on modeling the criminal.

Currently, discussions of Criminology hover under the bio-psycho-social conditions of the criminal, involving some of the three schools. At this stage, the Criminology approaches the Endocrinology, associating the production of the hormone testosterone to aggressive behavior, allying the disorders of urban violence, as well as the social and economic difficulties.
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