Tuesday, March 10, 2015

Concept and What is: Learning | Psychology

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It is a fact that learning starts with the ability to identify objects, symbols and sounds and proceeds immediately with the development of language.


"At least some of the human genes that participate in the creation of language must be active in the formation and operation of a small section of the human brain named after the scientist Paul Broca; the structures in this region are closely related to the ability to speak and understand language, and nearby structures responsible for repetitive movements of arms and fingers. "

From the mechanism mentioned by Pollack, people who can not communicate through the spoken language develop the ability to communicate through gestures. The alphabet of deaf-mutes is a second way to promote communication in this category of people. On the other hand, an injury to the Broca1 region can have both capabilities are achieved and, consequently, destroy the affected communication mechanism.

The importance of mirror neurons is such that the renowned expert in brain abnormalities Vilayanur Ramachandran (Brain and Cognitive Research Center of the University of California) attributes the failure of this system is directly related to the origin of some major symptoms of autism (as related social interaction).

Turning to the issue of language, this development through language learning aims to achieve the knowledge of the culture in which each of us is inserted and thus, systematize the formal learning process.

The understanding and internalization of the culture in which each is inserted is the fundamental assumption of learning. According to Vygotsky (1978), all higher psychological functions are generated in the culture of our learning and respond not only to a genetic design, but mainly a cultural design. So in watching our organic and psychological system, are "designed" are to capture fast, clear and concise information about our culture as well as their habits and customs.

However, every human being is one and carrying only personal experiences; This, in turn, makes learning a unique and different for each individual case. Yet all have general learning schemes (organic system), which is the groundwork of Schools and Academies.

With a close eye on the structure and evolution of animal species, it is noticed that, as rises in the evolutionary scale, more complex will become the experiences of individuals with the environment where they live, exclusively being human the symbolization and conceptualization skills (learning itself).

This process of learning happens from experiences that can be organized into five levels of increasing degrees of complexity organized according to a hierarchical character according to the diagram below:

Hierarchy of learning processes

The possibility of the existence of each of these experiences is related to the experience of the previous level, revealing thus their hierarchical character.

We can crudely, understanding the brain as an electrical circuit quite complex that acts independently, but harmonic, of all its regions as well as with the bodies and related actions. This independence and harmony is to create, in humans, the previously highlighted hierarchies and consubstanciadamente, learning ability and association between categories of knowledge we have as thinking beings.

The above-mentioned relationship happens initially in natural neurons, where the processing power (reception and interpretation of information) supposedly lies in the electro-chemical characteristics of the connections between them, or synapses. Thus, natural neurons perform a dynamic of the input pulses and processing depending on whether the result is excitatory or inhibitory emit an output pulse. Briefly: collection and interpretation of information resulting in a response (in this case, learning).

Learning experiences based on hierarchy. Occurs in dialectic spiral, with overlapping functions and interconnected to be defined to be followed by the design of Fernandez (1991).

SENSATION

It is the most primitive level behavior, referring only to the activation of sensory structures. It is from the sensations that the individual can perceive the world around him. This mechanism is activated from the five senses: sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste. Each direction is developed according to each individual's mental age, as well as the brain structure. Different sectors of the brain controlling every sensation dependent on each body and return the appropriate response to each sensation.

PERCEPTION

Constitutes the awareness on the sensations in progress (interpretation of the stimulus and response preparation). The efficiency depends on the perception that the neurological apparatus is capable of converting suitably sensations into electrical impulses. Despite being a neurologically higher than the sense behavior, from a psychological point of view is still extremely rudimentary. However, based on the perception that the individual will form images.

IMAGE FORMATION

Refers to feelings or information already received and perceived (interpreted). Is related to memory processes as corresponds to a record of aspects of life experiences, even if they do not put words (nonverbal aspects). The formed images are not restricted to the visual level; are perceptions records arising from any of the sense organs. Included are here beyond everyday images, nonverbal social sounds (car noise and machines, animal sounds, etc.), characteristic odors of various things, the typical flavors of different foods, textures of objects, as well as also the social perception, ie, facial expressions and body perceived in various situations. In trauma caused at any stage of learning, the image is one that always will be performing at critical moments to recall the trauma suffered. The popular knowledge is very clear about this: scalded cat ...

Symbolization

Ability described as unique to the human species and corresponds to the ability to represent an experience of verbal or non-verbal. The non-verbal symbolization occur through visual or auditory symbols in artistic, musical, religious and patriotic demonstrations. Included in this category the capacity to assess and recall situations, issuing judgments like: near - far - big - small - high - low - full - empty - fast - slow, etc. The verbal symbolization are related to words. The human being has three verbal systems: spoken, written and read. Both in the history of species and in the development of each individual, the first of these systems to install is spoken. One of the probable reasons for this should be the ease of acquisition of this system, since it is related to hearing and can not be "turned off" or requiring a focused attention, as with the display. Furthermore, psiconeurológica maturity required here is lower than in systems read and written. These considerations lead us to understand why the spoken language occupies a prominent position in our lives, prevailing not only in childhood.

However, the written language will play a crucial role in the interaction process of every other information (Smith, 1979). As you begin to realize the formal characteristics of writing, the child builds two hypotheses that will accompany her for some time, during the literacy process: First, it takes a minimum number of letters - two to four - that is written something. Second, it takes a minimum of varieties of characters for a series of letters "help" to read.

Some modifications related to these verbal systems can be seen in special circumstances, such as sign language used by the deaf (pounds) or Braille, writing code used by the blind. The achievement of the ability to symbolize gives way to the field of conceptualization.

CONCEPT

Complex mental process that involves abstraction capabilities, classification and categorization. It should be noted that conceptualize and abstract are not synonymous. Abstraction opposes the embodiment, assuming a greater degree of detachment from the observable fact. Nevertheless, the experience can be abstracted and at some point was certainly observed. However to conceptualize, it is also necessary to classify and categorize.

Notes:

1: Important to remember that Broca's area is part of an essential learning structure: the system of mirror neurons. In short, according to neuroscientist Giacomo Rizzolatti (University of Parma in Italy), this system gives the brain a direct experience, that is, understanding the actions, intentions and emotions of another person. They may also be responsible for the ability to imitate someone else's action and thus to learn, making the mirror mechanism one intercerebral bridge of communication and connection many levels.

Sources:

SOARES, Dulce Consuelo A. Brain x Learning. Available in http://www.profala.com/arteducesp67.htm

SMITH, E .; Teberosky, Ana. Psychogenesis written language. Buenos Aires. Avg Art: 1979

Fernandez, A. Intelligence Imprisoned - clinical pedagogical approach to children and their families. Porto Alegre. Art Med, 1991.

Piaget, Jean. Biology and Knowledge. 2nd Ed Voices:. Petropolis, 1970.

POLLACK, Robert. Signs of life. The language and DNA meanings. Rio de Janeiro: Rocco, 1997.

Vygotsky, L. The Social Formation of Mind; [Organizers Michael Cole ... [et all; translation Joseph Cipolla Neto, Luis Silveira Menna Barreto, Solange Castro AClose] - 5th edition London: Martins Fontes, 1978.
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