Wednesday, March 25, 2015

Concept and What is: Mental Deficiency

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The complex known as mental disabilities points to problems which are situated in the brain and cause low knowledge production, causing the patient a learning disability and a low intellectual level. However, with the exception of cognitive spectrum, this deficiency does not reach other brain functions. Among the most common causes of this disorder are genetic factors, complications throughout pregnancy or during childbirth and post-natal care. The great puzzle that arises before the researchers is how to detect still in life within the uterus these features, since in most cases studied was virtually impossible to locate the problem. However, more than 200 diseases have as a consequence likely the outbreak of a mental impairment.

As mental deficiency is among the syndromes considered abnormal, it is important to define what's normal for the experts, what standards they adopt benchmarks to establish the presence of this problem on the patient. The factor most associated with the design of normality is the ability of the individual to suit the object or its universe. But generally this psychic disturbance is regarded as a relative condition of the mind, because some more moderate limitations will only be defined as Mental Deficiency, if a particular culture or society assign them a pathological degree, in comparison to other individuals ' mental performance of the same social group.

Patients with this disorder have been called even exceptional disabled, and today are named for people with special needs, which reflects to some extent the evolution of societal views on these subjects. Their treatment must include simultaneous monitoring of the doctor, the physiotherapist, occupational therapy, the audiologist, psychologist, self-regulated, among others. Thus, it is possible to mitigate the consequences of this problem. Early diagnosis is also fundamental to offer the patient a better quality of life and more efficient results – these premature detection techniques, performed by various professionals related to the fields of rehabilitation and child care, branch of medicine that teaches you how to create and develop morally and physically children, are known as evaluation of Early Stimulation and Development.

As the child with mental disabilities has its intellectual functions compromised, she may also have difficulties in their development and in their behavior, especially in the aspect of suitability to the context to which it belongs, but also in the spheres of communication, be careful yourself, talents, family interaction, social health, academic performance, security, leisure and professional field. This disorder manifests itself in the patient always in the previous stage at eighteen years of age. So it is clear that, unlike Dementia, Mental deficiency is characterized by developmental disorders, not by cognitive degenerations.

It is important not to confuse Mental disabilities with Mental illness. Special needs carrier keeps the perception of himself and of reality that surrounds it, being able to take important decisions about your life. Already the mentally ill has compromised his judgment, featuring a completely different state of mind from mental deficiency, although 20 to 30% of disabled people are some sort of connection with any kind of mental illness, such as panic disorder, depression, schizophrenia, among others. Mental illnesses affect the behavior of the patients, because harm other brain areas, not intelligence, but the power of concentration and mood.

Although it is possible to identify most cases of mental deficiency in childhood, unfortunately this disorder is only perceived in many children when they begin to attend school. This happens because this pathology is found in varying degrees, from lighter ones, passing by the moderates, even the most severe. In subtle cases, the intelligence tests targeted to small is nothing reliable, it then becomes difficult to detect this problem. Educational centers intellectual demands increase and then mental deficiency becomes more explicit.

A myth around the Mental Deficiency, and that influences the diagnosis, is to believe that the child bearer of this problem has physical appearance different from the others. As stated above, the lightest grade does not appear to be disabled, so one should not expect to find this clinical sign to characterise the patient as having special needs. You can find an exception in accusing a more serious disorder and severe, as in Down syndrome, that feature in common similar physiognomies.
Published for educational purposes
Culture and Science

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