What was the Spanish civil war?
The Spanish Civil War was a social, political and military conflict that occurs between 1936 and 1939. Many understand the immediate background of this war but not the frame with justice in the global environment. I agree it has very particular characteristics that make it unique but Spain was going through a unique moment in history and few nations have experienced similarly.
By the late nineteenth century the Spaniards had lost all international prominence it had since the discovery of America. They had lost their colonies (a colossal empire that has rarely been seen), financial resources they represented and experienced with a very weak parliamentary monarchy. Upon entering the twentieth century also begins to rule Alfonso XIII of Bourbon, just 16 years. This monarch had a shadow of controversy because despite its democratic ideals comes to supporting a coup of General Miguel Primo de Rivera.
But should not detract merit, achieved in WWI their country to remain neutral, intercede for thousands of prisoners of war (on both sides) obtaining the release of thousands too; intercedes with the Bolsheviks to release the Russian imperial family (his wife was a cousin of Tsarina) without success. He tried to stop corruption but his own allies were corrupt (or at least of the cases were accused of corrupt).
Besides Europe was convulsed and unstable, almost all democratic experiments ended in a complete fiasco, paving the way for totalitarian regimes, as the eyes of bourgeois power spheres were placed into Russia and its socialist experiment left (he never we can speak of a pure communism) with very justified fear. In view of all socialist was achieved extend this experiment and in Spain is reflected riots, assassinations, attacks on churches, strikes and many other subversive acts.
This makes him away from General Miguel Primo de Rivera dictatorship and the fall of the Second Republic was proclaimed and Alfonso XIII was forced to leave Spain, never to return. During these years a soldier, who was highly esteemed by the king, Francisco Franco has gained reputation as loyal to the crown, to the point that I had to be dissuaded not come to the aid of the king when he learns that he has proclaimed second republic.
Either sides will consult on its accession and he is very cautious, because even though deep down he joins a great friendship with the king (who is godfather to their first daughter) also think about which is the best course for the nation and for him (why not say it?). When José Sanjurjo Sacanell tries to give his coup after speaking with him; Sanjurjo follows that if the coup works could count on their support but Franco not give it at the time but during the interview behaves very elusive.
This coup failed Franco is rewarded (at least disguised form) with an upgrade not to participate and to try to attract him to the side of the republic. This flirting with each other resulted in certain contempt for the military, most of whom were from the king. From the Canary Islands commands the coup that initiates the Spanish civil war when in 1936 the leftist coalition wins power. The war that had the help of Russia by Republicans, even though it was relatively fragile and nationalists had the help of Italy and Germany, which first established an air bridge between Morocco (where strong army it was) and Seville.
Italian naval withdraw their support when accidentally an English ship is sunk. The Germans kept and help further with its air force who stars in the first destruction of a city by such force, I mean the unnecessary destruction of Guernica, that while there are doubts whether it was the first town destroyed in this way, He became an icon of anti-militarism.
After three years, the Spanish civil war is won by the insurgents and Franco is named head of state with full powers to the point where it is said that no Spanish ruler had so much power. The repression was very bloody, just to say a figure more than 400,000 Spaniards were exiled after the war and more than 200,000 never returned, between direct and indirect victims is estimated that some 500,000 people died. I do note that the relationship between Franco and Alfonso XIII is more than well documented, but the reason for the breakup is not established with certainty.
The truth is that the latter was besieged betrayed by the former, many interpret Franco distrusted the mistakes of the past by the king or are drunk with power. The truth is Alfonso Spain no longer alive, his remains were exhumed from Rome to rest with the royal family in order of Juan Carlos I, his grandson, when Franco died and the monarchy was legitimized again.