Full course of Introduction to Marketing


Marketing can be analyzed from different points of view, there are discrepancies regarding the scope of the same.

We can distinguish several dimensions to the concept of marketing. The exchange of values comes whereas as the centerpiece of the marketing, such as express Vazquez and Trespalacios (1994, p. 34):

"The common denominator of all its activities, can be defined as the communication established between at least two parties, with the objective that one of them get the other something that values, giving back something that the other party can see. Each can communicate to each other what they have or wish to and deliver it. In addition, there is free to accept or reject the offer of the other party".

The central aspect of the philosophy of marketing is to achieve the objectives of the Organization through long term of consumer satisfaction, consolidating a relationship more efficiently than the competition.

As they say Vazquez and Trespalacios (1994, p. 39):

"The objective is to try to know the generic needs of the consumer or of nature and human condition basic deficiencies, analyzing the desires or ways in which each individual wants to meet a particular need, stimulating the conversion of desires in demand looking for creative formulas to boost the willingness to purchase and avoid the restrictions of the purchasing power".

We can analyze the marketing as an attitude and as a function:
Marketing as an attitude.
The orientation of the company to the market is the crucial point of marketing as a philosophy or attitude. All members of the Organization should be aware of the importance of the consumer in the existence, progress and profitability of the company.
The marketing function.
Activities aimed at achieving the objectives of the Organization discovering the needs of customers and trying to meet them.

At the aggregate level marketing performs two basic functions: adjusts the flows of production and consumption and organizes exchange relations in society. The efficient match between the supply and demand requires the organisation of two types of activities:

I) the material organization of the exchange of the physical flows of goods from the place of production to the place of consumption.

(II) the Organization of communication, i.e. information flows that should precede, accompany and follow to the Exchange, in order to ensure an efficient match between the supply and demand.


The increase in the complexity of the environment and the rapid technological change, economic, social and competitive has led companies to create in the first place, and then reinforcing the marketing function.

In this evolution distinguish three phases: passive marketing, marketing of organization and active marketing.

A) passive Marketing.

Passive marketing organizations survive in an environment characterized by a shortage of supply. The available production capacity is insufficient for the needs of the market, and therefore the demand is greater than supply.

This kind of economic situation is characteristic of the industrial revolution: the needs are basic and familiar and the technological pace of innovation is weak. In this environment, the marketing has a limited and passive role. Strategic marketing is simple since the needs are known and the operation is reduced to the Organization of the exit of the products manufactured.

The shortage of supply makes superfluous the promotional actions and contacts with the market very often just the first step.

The organization is dominated by the production function, priority being the development of the productive capacity and is not considered necessary to investigate the market. At this stage of development, hierarchical position and the functions of the marketing department are very limited, with responsibility for the administration of sales. The responsibilities related to the choice of products depends on the function of production, which is the dominant in this type of organizations.

Passive marketing, therefore, focuses on the production, focuses on the manufacture of the product and the technical perspective of management. This type of company survives while the demand exceeds supply and there is a competitive pressure, being therefore a temporary and dangerous situation by not favoring the adaptation to the environment.

(B) Marketing of organization.

In an environment characterized by the strong expansion of demand and production capabilities, the organization puts the emphasis on the perspective of sales.

At this stage, marketing is to create an effective sales organization and search and organize the outputs of the manufactured products. Companies are concentrated in the central core of consumer needs with products designed for the majority of consumers. Changes in the environment responsible for this orientation are: new forms of distribution, the geographical coverage of the markets, and the physical and psychological distance between producers and consumers.

The functions of the commercial direction focuses on the Organization of physical distribution, the commissioning of the sales network, politics of brands, advertising, promotion and market research. The optics of sales is often considered that consumers are reluctant to buy, so it should be encouraged to buy using aggressive promotion techniques.
Marketing organization survives in an environment with an expanding market, inexperienced consumers and weakly differentiated products. The risk of this perspective is to consider it valid in all circumstances and not the real needs of consumers.

This orientation towards the needs of the seller may lead to a handling marketing and the lack of ethics of marketing activities.

(C) active Marketing.

At this stage, the role of strategic marketing in the company is reinforced.

Characterized by the orientation of the company toward marketing, being the primary objective of organizations meeting the needs of consumers.

This evolution is caused by three factors: technological progress, saturation and maturity of the markets, and the growing internationalization.

I technological progress. This period has been a time of innovation, extension, exploitation and modification of the technology. The diffusion of technological progress is accelerated as a result of a generalization and systematization of research. The diffusion of technological progress is generalized across the sectors, enterprises and countries.

II. the core of the market saturation. Increasing competition by larger population segments, and the saturation of demand for products corresponding to the basic needs help modify marketing. Companies must perform market segmentation strategies and differentiated products to adapt them to the needs of specific groups of consumers. The markets are fragmented and the companies are directed to the peripheral segments researching the needs and specific preferences of the different population groups. Competition for the core of the market makes it difficult to obtain returns for companies with little differentiated products aimed at a mass audience.

Companies at this stage, develop segmentation strategies by launching more specific commercial offers to smaller groups of consumers. Segmentation strategies require a more precise knowledge of the market and greater use of market research techniques.

III. the internationalization of markets. The reduction of customs barriers, technical and cultural, are causing a rapid increase in world trade. Trade liberalization increases global competition facing enterprises. The growing internationalisation of the markets produce threats and opportunities for businesses, affecting their competitive position and facing them to a global market.


Deep changes in the environment of many companies and sectors forced companies to revise their strategies and redefine its management. The changes technological, social, cultural, economic and competitive put pressure on companies that have to adopt new priorities.

A) restructuring of the portfolio of activities. Companies, especially the European ones, to maintain their competitiveness and profitability have to orient itself towards higher value-added activities. Companies to compete must improve its organization and improve its technology.
(B) Marketing custom. In advanced societies, consumers demand personalized solutions tailored to their needs and specific problems.
(C) orientation to competition. In the mature and stagnant markets, competition intensifies and the follow-up is more necessary and analysis of it.

(D) development of forecast systems. In a changing and turbulent environment the company must strengthen their adaptive capacity.

(E) global Marketing. The internationalization of the economy and the increased international competition generated opportunities and threats.

(F) responsible for Marketing. Procure a liability for the consequences of their actions in the environment and in different population groups affected.

(G) the market orientation. All the company has to be aware of the importance of the consumer in the existence, profitability and growth of the company.

In recent years it has developed the concept of Strategic Marketing, which completes and precedes the operational Marketing.

The need for information on the opportunities of the market and the environment to enhance the distinctive capabilities of the Organization, make that the business philosophy of Marketing succeed.

Across the enterprise, and not a traditional Department has to orient itself to the market. The classical concept of marketing department is clearly insufficient and must be replaced so that the entire Middle East market.

In organizations, from this perspective, we can distinguish two groups of functions:

A) Strategic Marketing. The competitive environment requires the analysis of the opportunities and threats of the market, as well as the competitive positioning of the Organization in different markets and segments.

The company, based on their distinctive capacities and resources, will formulate a strategy enabling it to adapt to the competitive environment.

(B) operational Marketing. The design has the authority to and implementation of the plan of marketing-mix, for according to the formulated strategy, design, implement and control the offer is done to the market. The importance of these groups of functions depends on the degree of competition in the sector and the type of organization and development.

Depending on the hierarchical level of management or organizational unit to which they belong, their functions will have a more strategic or operational component.

At the top corporate level the role of marketing is the strategic tasks, analyzing and deciding in relation to the various units of business and the attraction of new negocios-mercados, coordination between units of the Corporation, and the orientation of the Corporation to the consumer-oriented.

At the functional level is designed and coordinated the offering is launched on the market, and seeks to maximize the productivity of available resources.


Strategic marketing analysis of the needs of individuals and organizations.

When you buy a product the consumer looking for the solution to a problem or the benefit which can provide you, and not the product as such; Equally, the knowledge of the resources and capabilities of the company constitutes a fundamental aspect of the methodology to achieve sustainable competitive advantages in the long run.

Lambin (1990) defines the function of strategic marketing as:

"Follow the evolution of the market of reference and identify the different productsmarkets and current or prospective, segments on the basis of an analysis of the diversity of the needs to find."

The different productsmarkets represent the company analyzes and whose appeal is necessary to assess opportunities.

For a given enterprise, the attractiveness of a product depends on their ability to attract buyers demand better than its competitors.

This competitiveness shall exist to the extent that the company has a competitive advantage by the presence of a valued by consumers or differentiation advantage in costs.
In the same sense it defines strategic marketing Luque (1997) as:

"Cables, oriented towards certain consumer groups, taking into account the competition and seeking to achieve a defensible competitive advantage long-term."
Part of the analysis of the needs of individuals and organizations, and market research.
Strategic marketing function oriented the company towards attractive economic opportunities based on their skills, resources, and the competitive environment and offers a potential of growth and profitability.

The strategic marketing management is located in the medium and long term, by defining the objectives, elaborating a development strategy and maintaining a balanced portfolio structure.

Strategic marketing is actively involved in orientation and formulation of the company's strategy.

It provides information on the evolution of demand, market segmentation, competitive positions and the existence of opportunities and threats. It also analyzes the capacities and resources to adapt the company to the environment and in a position of sustainable competitive advantage.


We then analyze the various functions of the strategic marketing:
The formulation of a strategy based on the definition of company, product sold or the service provided and the market it serves.
Implementation of a strategy supposed early on the definition of the Mission of the company, describing its role and its function in a market-oriented.
The answer to three questions allow you to define the Mission of the company:

What is our scope of activity?,

In what fields of activity should we be? and

What areas of activity not should we be?.

The scope of activity should be defined in relation to a generic need, in terms of solution to the consumer and not in technical terms, to avoid the risk of focusing on the product.

The definition of the relevant market must not be made in terms of technology, since the generic needs remain while the technologies are changing rapidly.

The delimitation of the relevant market aims to define the Group of consumers cared for or interested in a product, what satisfies them and how they are satisfied.

The market orientation requires analysing the productos-mercado which the company can attend. Each product is defined by a population group, a function of the product and technology.

The companies must begin by defining a set of functions that can be offered to different consumer groups.

Secondly, should decide the scope of its activities, the extension that are going to cover one or several functions of the product and the technology to be used.
Finally, it is necessary to decide if is an offer to each group of consumers.


The evolution of markets and increased competition for the core of the market companies requires a detailed analysis of the different population groups, their distinctive features and specific desires.

Consumers, increasing their economic possibilities, look for offers differentiated and tailored to your specific requirements.

The segmentation is grouping consumers into sets more homogeneous possible in terms of its response to a commercial, and differentiated offering compared to other groups of consumers.

The process of segmentation is a key element in the formulation of strategies and competitive possibilities for companies.

Market segmentation using multiple variables demographic, psychological, socio-economic and marketing.

Following Kotler (1995), the segmentation of the market is to be effective are accurate to a series of requirements:

I identified. The population group must be identifiable and measurable purchase potential.

II. affordable. The selected population segments have to be effectively reached and served.

III. substantial. The segment must have a size that makes it profitable for the company. It must be a homogeneous group of consumers that worth dealing with a specific program.

IV. different. The segments have to present differences in their behaviour of purchase or use of the product, and its response to the offer should be different to justify a differentiated strategy.

V. possible. The company according to their resources and capabilities has to consider if you can develop an offer differentiated for the various segments.

VI. Defendibles. The profitable long term strategy must allow defend the profitable segments of the competitors. Long term sustainable competitive strategy rests in competitive advantages and the possibility of defending the most profitable segments of the market.


In today's competitive environment acquires great relevance information about competitors and the analysis of the different competitive forces.

The analysis of competition presupposes:

I. the identification of current and potential competitors, their characteristics, structure and evolution.

II. to study the objectives of competitors.

III. to study the strengths and weaknesses of competitors.

The analysis of competition also involves the analysis of the sector. Professor Porter (1982) proposes a scheme of analysis of the sector wider than the immediate competitors.

The notion of extended rivalry is based on the idea that the ability of a company to exploit a competitive advantage in its market of reference depends on not only the direct competition, but also potential competitors, substitute products, customers and suppliers.

I internal competition. The number of competitors, their relative size and their aggressiveness.

II. the threat of new competitors. Potential competitors pose a threat against which the company must protect creating barriers to entry.
Possible barriers to entry are: economies of scale, the differences of products protected by patents, brand image, capital needs for access to the market, the cost of change of supplier, access to the distribution channels and the advantages of experience and cost.
The deterrent depends on the reputation of the company's aggressiveness with respect to new consumers, the level of commitment to the market, the availability of financial resources and the ability to retaliate.

III. the threat of substitute products. Products that perform the same function for the same group of consumers, but which are based on a different technology. Prices of substitute products impose a ceiling at the price that companies in the market can be used. The company should be aware investigating products that respond to the same generic need or perform the same function.

A system of monitoring of technological developments is necessary.

IV. the bargaining power of customers. The bargaining power of customers affected significantly to the profitability of the companies.
The importance of this bargaining power depends on the differentiation of the products, the costs of change of supplier and the threat posed by customers integrate to the origin.

V. The bargaining power of suppliers. Powerful suppliers can affect the profitability of its customers if they do not have possibility to affect their own prices rises in costs.
High bargaining power of suppliers depends on if the Group of suppliers is more concentrated than the Group of customers, the company is a major customer of the supplier, providers have differentiated their products and providers constitute a real threat of integration towards the consumer.


Needs to provide benefits to third parties.

Entering certain markets is restricted by public authorities, trade unions or different groups of pressure. Kotler called megamarketing strategically coordinated implementation capabilities economic, psychological, political and public relations in order to win the cooperation of certain groups to operate in a specific market.

The traditional view is considered unalterable, being the uncontrollable environment of commercial environment. Some authors question the division between aspects of the environment that are controllable and uncontrollable, considering the possibility of influencing the environment.

Kotler developed the concept of megamarketing with emphasis on the analysis of the obstacles that oppose a market access (posts by actors such as public administrations, the Government, the groups of people that dominate a particular field of activity and interest groups), and the development of strategies to neutralize his opposition or to get their support.

The concept of marketing evolves to incorporating a proactive attitude to aspects of the environment considered previously non-controllable.

Strategic alliances.

The intensification of competition forces businesses to the establishment of networks of enterprises, strategic alliances and cooperation mechanisms.

Coalitions of marketing can allow you to achieve economies of scale or learning, and gain access to local markets.

Alliances between companies are one of the strategic options existing to achieve organizational goals, both in the field of entry into new markets or business, as in the improvement of the competitiveness.

The possible advantages that provide strategic partnerships are:

I reduction of costs. Through economies of scale or scope.

II. avoid, share or reduce the risks. The cooperation of several companies allows to share the risks.

III. obtaining synergies and taking advantage of complementarities. Cooperation between enterprises presents the opportunity of combining distinctive competencies and additional resources.

IV. access to technological knowledge. Strategic partnerships as an alternative to acquire knowledge or skills.

V. political factors. Strategic partnerships can facilitate access to local markets or improved relations with the authorities.

VI. partnerships can be used to restrict or limit competition. Alliances depend on the actions of the two partners, and therefore generate a climate of trust and establish effective cooperation mechanisms is required.

The structure of the Alliance which increases interdependence strengthens the relationship.

Partnerships enable sharing costs and risks, obtain economies of scale and increase bargaining power.


The company is an open system in strong interaction with their environment. Strategic planning requires the analysis of the external environment.

Changes of the environment variables determine the activities of companies.

Variables or principal to consider environmental aspects are:

I demographic. Aspects such as the size of the population, the death rate and birth rate, age structure, family formation and population movements.

II. economic. Income, economic growth, inflation, unemployment, interest rates, fiscal policy, exchange rates and the balance of payments.

III. Socialcultural. Aspects such as changes in values, the incorporation of women to work, changes in expectations and lifestyles, trends in education, social groups, etc.

IV. legal and political. Legal changes, jurisprudence, international treaties, the political system, autonomy, freedoms, legal guarantees and power groups.

V. technology. Inventions and innovations, the diffusion of innovations, patents, research and development.

VI. environmental. Restrictions on supplies, allocation of resources and degradation of the environment.

Companies are affected by changes in the environment, which constitute a general background that determines the activities of the organizations.

Companies need information of the environment with the aim of knowing the interrelationships of variables, its influence on the market of the Organization, to take advantage of opportunities or positive trends and avoid potential threats.

In a hostile, changing and difficult to control environment it is necessary to anticipate the problems exploring the future.


The analysis of strengths and weaknesses of the different areas of the company in relation to other companies.

Strengths allow you to maintain the competitive advantage.

The weak pose a threat to the business strategy.

The analysis of internal conditions begins with the General objectives of the company and organizational culture, that is, the set of values, beliefs and attitudes shared by the people who make the organization.

Analysis of resources and capacities of the organization requires the study of a number of factors relating to specific areas of the Organization:

I production. Analyzing the internal situation of technologies, economies of scale, experience curve, production capacity, human resources and materials you raw.

II. Marketing. Penetration of the market, product portfolio, quality of service, image products, innovation, costs and prices, distribution, logistics, sales and marketing information system.

III. funding. Analyzing the financial resources of the company, the cost of capital, solvency, liquidity, profitability and indebtedness.

IV. structure of the organization. The analysis of the company in relation to the organizational structure, the directive capacity, corporate culture and corporate identity.

The definition of a strategy and its implementation requires a deep knowledge of the resources and capabilities of the company itself and its distinct advantages, as well as areas and factors that require a significant improvement to maintain the competitive advantage.


The information and knowledge provided by the previous analysis lead to classify the different productsmarkets depending on the attractiveness of the market and the competitive position of the company.

Based on the goals to reach, it will be necessary to analyse the different marketing strategies specific to each unit of strategic activity.

This is an analysis of the portfolio of productsmarkets provided the multiproduct company to allocate scarce resources between the different productsmarkets that can act.

The procedure examines the strategic position of each activity on the basis of the intrinsic appeal of the segments of the market of reference is where exercise activities and the competitive strength of the company in each market under consideration.

The company is facing decisions of:

I products that invest to strengthen its strategic position.

II. Select market segments to market their products.

III. products and markets that the company should leave or retire.

The elaboration of a strategy requires you to specify the nature of the defensible competitive advantage that will serve as a support for strategic actions. Porter (1982) considers that there are three large possible basic strategies against competition:

I cost leadership strategy. This strategy is based on productivity and involves close monitoring of costs.

II. strategy of differentiation. The company has market power by distinguishing the product or the company, important qualities to the consumer and that differentiate you from competitors.

III. growth with diversification strategies. A strategy of diversification is the entrance into new sectors.

The diversification strategy is called concentric when the company comes out of its sector to add new activities of the existing.

On the other hand a pure diversification strategy involves entry into new activities unrelated to the current activities of the company.


Strategic planning requires its implementation through active actions of marketing management.

The operational management of marketing arises over a time horizon of the medium and short term and represents an eminently tactical activity. Such as manifest Luque (1997):

"Operational marketing refers to the activities of organization of sales and communication strategies to publicize the particular characteristics of the products offered to potential buyers. Is management willing conquest of markets in the short and medium term, more similar to classical business management on the basis of the four > "."

The operating marketing manages the decisions and implementation of the program of marketing-mix and focuses on decisions relating to the product, price, distribution and communication.

The best strategic marketing plan cannot succeed without an active commercial management of the company to conquer the markets.

The basic functions of the operating marketing focus on activities:

Development of trade policy.

On the basis of the strategic objectives formulated establishes specific business objectives that guide operational marketing. Different business objectives are closely related and hierarchically ordered.

The establishment of business objectives that are intended to achieve with the business operations of the company must be clearly defined and possess the following qualities, Serrano (1994):

A) coordinated. Business objectives must be formulated so that they will contribute to the achievement of the objectives of higher level.

(B) defined in time. The time horizon of the objectives is essential.

(C) quantitative. Business objectives should be able to measure to facilitate its management and control.

(D) possible. The objectives must be compatible with the environment and be attainable for motivating staff in their achievement. Goal-setting is vital to the planning and management of the business operations and they are an essential element to establish a control system.

On the basis of specific business objectives, marketing direction produces commercial offerings that the company offers to the market. With the help of commercial information system, marketing direction produces a commercial offer that define the specific characteristics of the product or service, set the price, the distribution and mode of communication with the market.

The product from the point of view of marketing is much more than the physical product. From the perspective of consumer product incorporates not only physical but also psychological and sociological attributes. Consumers tend to be attributed personalities to products.

Therefore, the product management involves decisions regarding the image and positioning of the same. Corresponds to the operating marketing management of the range of products and maintenance, modification, abandonment or launching new products.

The rapid changes of the environment, and of habits and demands of consumers, demand management product portfolio and an emphasis on research and development of new products.

In a modern economy, the product incorporates various complementary services that have to be managed, and services tend to tangibilizarse incorporating physical elements.

On the other hand, what truly matters to the consumer is not the product itself, but the benefit that it brings him and the problems that resolves it.


The management of trademarks, containers, labels and packaging are important aspects of the management of the product. A proper strategy of brands is essential to position the product and create an image that facilitates the loyalty of consumers.

The management of the portfolio of brands and different strategies for brands is another responsibility of the sales department.

Some brands easy to remember, easy to pronounce, with evocations of positive and registered facilitate business management.

The marks are valuable business assets which must be managed and an essential instrument for the establishment of long-term consumer relationships and maintenance of fidelity.

The price management based on knowledge of the costs of the product, the sensitivity of demand with respect to price swings, global and commercial strategy of the company and the prices of competitors.

Decisions regarding the price need a deep understanding of the various population groups and their price sensitivity.

The existence of population groups with different sensitivities to the price enables the use of tiered pricing. The management of prices can be different prices depending on:

A) the geographical area. Different geographical areas in which the company operates may have varying degrees of competence and different population groups so it may be advisable to use of different prices in different areas.

(B) the time. The demand especially in services management can advise the implementation of different prices depending on the season of the year, the day of the week or time.

(C) demand. Different population groups can accept different prices. Pricing strategies can be based on the satisfaction of clients, reducing their perceptions of uncertainty and considering the establishment of long-term relationships. The competition, the stage in which the product is within its life cycle, the image that you want to convey and business objectives will condition the pricing policy. Business address shall take decisions with respect to margins and policies of discount, rebates, bonuses and credit buyers.

The availability of the product for the consumer requires the development of a comprehensive set of distribution activities. Distribution policies management tries to locate the products and services offered on the place, time and form desired by consumers.
The hedging strategies of markets, the channel selection, the selection of intermediaries, the location of warehouses and logistics are aspects of the management of the distribution policy.


The main decisions in the process of design and selection of the distribution channel are related to the length of the canal, the number of intermediaries to be used, the specific type of intermediary and the responsibilities of each Member of the channel. Based on the objectives and on the basis of the characteristics of the environment, business address selects the distribution channel and specific intermediaries of the different steps in the distribution network.

The major cost that represents for many companies and the need for access to markets at the time of the time, and the conditions that customers demand, make an essential activity of physical distribution. Physical distribution requires decision-making and the management of orders, the Organization and location of warehouses, stock and transport management. The decisions in this area take into consideration costs, delivery time, capacity, availability and service strategy to established customers.

Of special importance is the management of relations with the distribution. The establishment of information channels and the collaboration of the different levels of the chain of value of the product are essential, to respond in a flexible and fast to the changing demands of consumers. Cooperation between the different levels of the production chain is also an essential factor in reducing costs and delivery times decreased.

Finally, the fourth area of decision to which we call reinforcement of the offer focuses on to publicize, inform and convince the market characteristics of the offer.

To sell it is not enough to offer a product at an attractive price through a well-structured distribution channel, it is also necessary to publicize the offer, to highlight its distinctive compared to the Group of buyers qualities to be directed and stimulate demand through appropriate promotional activities.

The main activities included in this policy of promotion are advertising, sales promotion, public relations, and personal selling.

Advertising is a communication that is paid by the company that is presented as information emanating from an announcer and designed to support the activities of the company directly or indirectly.

Advertising informs and persuades the potential market on the benefits of the product, brand or company through the inclusion of commercial messages that are controlled by the company, in media is remunerated to that.

As says the master Ogilvy (1989): "do not think that advertising is a form of art or entertainment, but a means of communication. When I write an ad, I don't want to say me what creative. I find it so interesting that obliged to buy the product".

The direction of marketing has to make decisions in relation to the advertising budget, type of advertising and image that you want to transmit. When the company decides to use an advertising agency for the accomplishment of ads requires a selection of the advertising agency, and a close contact to the correct selection of axes of communication, advertising pieces, media planning and planning of advertising campaigns.

Are sales promotion activities that seek to provide incentives for sale and increase the value offered to the consumer. Sales promotion tends to constitute an action limited in time and which generally aims to increase sales in the short term.

It represents a significant part of the budget for strengthening activities of the offer. The use of promotional tools needs creativity along with a careful management and planning. Giveaways, gifts and discount coupons constitute promotions that can be addressed to consumers, intermediaries, the sales force and prescribers.

Public relations are directed to multiple potential audiences of the company, to get a public image for the same assessment. The management of communication with the different sectors of public opinion and the creation of a climate of confidence within and outside the company are areas of public relations management.

Finally, personal sale allows a communication adapted to the partner, which may be the most effective persuasion since carried out personally. Decisions relating to the strength of sales include the recruitment and selection of vendors, their training, sale system, the management of groups of vendors, allocation of territories, routes, visits plan, compensation, motivation and control.

The decisions of marketing-mix to make them efficient require an adequate system of commercial information and the necessary coordination between the variables. Commercial variables are not independent, they interact, so you need a management joint that you boost your results and encourages synergies.

The possibility of achieving economies of scope between the components of the marketing mix is an important aspect that the direction of marketing has to analyze carefully to gain sustainable competitive advantage.


Trade policies must be coordinated and integrated into specific action programmes that allow the achievement of the proposed objectives.

The marketing plan involves the preparation of a written document that serves as a tool of communication, reflection and control.

Therefore implies the development of marketing plan the participation of many people from the Organization and a broad process of discussion and coordination.

Decision making in advance is embodied in a working document that facilitates coordination.

The marketing plan specifies trade policies to develop in the time horizon of the plan, on the basis of the business objectives.

The marketing plan is usually formulated for a year and it specifies the different actions that are going to develop for the achievement of the objectives.

Actions are organized, linked and coordinate each other analyzing interrelationships and their compatibility with the environment and the business strategy.

The precise formulation of plans of a temporary program that set the dates of the various actions and string them in time.

Moreover in addition to being specific plan has to be flexible and should analyze the circumstances that might force us to alter the planning and therefore make an estimate of the risks. In this way, the plan contains alternative actions in anticipation of eventualities.

Human, financial and material resources that require different actions are specified in the programme of action.

Of particular relevance is the assignment of responsibilities to the various planned actions, and the distribution of tasks in such a way that there is an effective and coordinated between all elements of the organization.

The marketing plan should take into account corporate culture and human resources planning, selection, training, motivation and organization. Finally, plan fixed the way that you are going to measure results and carry out the monitoring and control of the implementation of the plan. Once set in motion actions foreseen in the plan results are measured and compared with the commercial objectives. The difference between the measured results and objectives represent the positive or negative deviations from the forecasts. Deviations, especially the significant, require an explanation and corrective measures study.

In short, a good control system allows:

A) reveal the variations with respect to the expected results and take corrective measures.

(B) to identify problem areas and areas.

(C) information to improve decision-making on several occasions.

(D) it is an essential element in the system of motivation, control and remuneration of staff.

(E) provide the information and management of managers.

(F) achieve that the entire Middle East customer.

Changing and strongly competitive business environment requires these market-oriented, everyone in the company must be aware that the profitability of the company and its survival depends on customers.

All employees need to be immersed in the task of building relations with customers.


The market orientation should guide the performance of marketers, being particularly relevant factors linked to speed the collection and dissemination of information on the environment, related to the ability to operate quickly in changing markets.

The market orientation means lead to organization-wide information on customers, competitors and potential; all departments involved in the decision-making process and instill a sense of commitment to impeccable service to the markets of the company.

The joint opportunities analysis, is necessary so that individuals from different departments to share ideas and work together in the search for solutions, enhancing joint action.

When relations are reinforced the communication is more effective, stronger coordination and commitment is greater.

In the same sense, says Regis McKenna (1994), that:

"Marketing is the integration of customers in the design, development, manufacturing and sales of the company processes. In order to achieve a distinctive position in any industry, company-wide must take responsibility for the marketing."

A true relationship marketing strategy contains five distinct factors:

A) long-term relationship with the customer. It's maximizing the customer value during a long relationship with the company. Relationship marketing put singular sale within the broader context of a global customer relationship with the company.

(B) flow of communication in both directions. The company establishes a system to communicate with customers and receive feedback, advice and complaints.

(C) whole economies. Relationship marketing focuses on expanding relations with its clients, rather than expand the number of customers. Companies focus on the most profitable customers and create long-term relationships with them.

(D) adaptation strategies. The Organization has to have sources of information superior to adapt to the change of the environment and consumers.

(E) focus on the productivity of marketing. It is to assess the effectiveness of the actions of marketing through an objective basis. In recent years, various authors have researched and developed a specific marketing tries to get all the company staff to orient the customer.

It is called internal marketing, which is the task to recruit, train and motivate staff to serve you well to clients.


The internal marketing operates as a process that aims to:

Understand the different activities of the business in the context of an environment that supports the customer knowledge to) get all employees at all levels of the organization.

(B) prepare and motivate all employees to act in a customer oriented way. The external client satisfaction is the most important criterion for the quality of the service provided by the organization.

Provide a high level of service to the external client is not possible without highly motivated, satisfied, and integrated staff

Hormigo Hernandez and Martínez Garcia-Tunon (1996) designed a method that allows to know the degree of satisfaction of internal customers based on seven factors:

(A) structure, organization, objectives. It measures the degree of knowledge and involvement of the internal client with the objectives, policies and structure.

(B) integration, cooperation. The degree of integration, support and cooperation among internal customers.

(C) responsibility, management style. The degree of friendliness, style direction, responsibility and autonomy.

(D) career progression, recognition. The perception of the reward and recognition, and the expectations of promotion and career progression.

E) decision-making. Evaluates attitudes towards risk and the quality of decision making.

(F) security, challenges. The working conditions and the behavior of the internal customer the challenges.

(G) development. The degree of satisfaction of internal customers, acceptance of the post of labour and self-realization.

Maintain the relationship between the Organization and the customer.

Marketing doesn't end when the sale is made, you have to bear in mind that after the sale, the relationship between the company and the consumer should continue. The need to maintain customer loyalty and achieve a lasting relationship is emphasized by the relationship marketing.

Relationship marketing is a system of marketing management that strives to create a lasting, constructive relationship with buyers, in contrast to traditional marketing where the company has a shorter-term perspective.

In relationship marketing Center of the benefit is customer and attracting new customers is an intermediate objective.

The main objective is the maintenance and development of existing customers in order to create a mutually profitable long-term relationship.

The analysis and management of the customer portfolio is especially important in this context.

For the company that markets a product, especially if it's often buy products, consumer satisfaction is a necessary condition for the survival and the success of the company in the market. On the other hand, consumer dissatisfaction can rig as well as the loss of the client, the spread on the market of a negative image of the product and the company.

It is vital therefore, research and management of the post behavior buying consumer. Complaints from consumers become the last chance to get the full satisfaction of the consumer and the development of the intention of repurchase.


Based on the information and experience, the steering is facing multiple alternatives or options should be evaluated.

Alternatives or selected courses of action involve the execution of certain actions and results.

The control function is responsible for measuring the results of the actions and compare them with the objectives. The result of the comparison provides new information that allows to take new decisions and courses of action correction if necessary.

From the functional point of view the marketing management performs tasks of analysis, planning, organization, implementation and control:

1) analysis. The information is the instrument with which the directors to improve decision-making. In a changing, competitive and turbulent environment, the information becomes an essential factor to meet the demands of the market quickly. The need for a continuous adaptation of the company to the environment requires an effective trade information system.

Business information system, linking the organization with its environment of market, includes the specification, collection, analysis and interpretation of information, to help the management to understand the environment, to identify problems and opportunities, and to develop and evaluate courses of action marketing.

The analysis of the environment allows you to enhance the opportunities of business of the companies, developing sustainable competitive advantages. Similarly, it is necessary to know the strong and weak points that owned by the company, in order to manage the resources available, that the direction of marketing is to engage competitively selected market.

(2) planning and organization. Planning specific trade policies and selects the lines of action that guide business.

(3) execution. The internal organization of the marketing services must meet the following requirements:

I consistent with the type of organizational structure adopted by the company.

II. must allow the objectives and strategy of marketing with the maximum of efficiency.

III. the functional distribution of the activities must be reconciled with an orientation towards products, geographic areas and markets.

(4) control. The purpose of all control is to ensure effective achievement of the objectives. The introduction of a control system allows quick and adequate visualization of the situation, at the right time, with the lower investment and effort. It is possible to distinguish four possible levels:

I control the annual plan that verifies the results obtained in relation to the provisions of the marketing plan.

II. control of profitability, which seeks to measure the profitability of different products, territories, customers or distribution channels, to determine that activities promote and which should be reduced or removed.

III. control of efficiency, which seeks to measure the efficiency obtained by the company through sales force, advertising, promotion, and distribution.
IV. strategic control focuses on the review of the effectiveness of the strategic function.
Published for educational purposes

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