Tuesday, March 03, 2015

Meaning and Definition of cello | Concept and What is.


What is the cello?

The cello is a bowed string, the violin family instrument. It is the bass of the family of chordophones, i.e. of the musical instruments that produce sound by vibration of strings. The cello is almost the same as a violin in terms of its form, but it is larger and is played seated keeping it supported in the ground using a retractable plug (a mast that extends towards the floor, since formerly he held with the legs). It is an unmistakable sound and of great importance in an orchestra instrument.

The cello was born shortly after to the violin in the 16th century. It was very similar to the current, but larger. His popularity was demorosa by the fact that suffered modifications for a long time and had strong competition from the viola da gamba; even some musicians did not want to use the cello and wrote special scores only for the viola da gamba. Already in the 18th century it replaces the viola da gamba and becomes a basic instrument for orchestras. In the 19th century it was at its peak with compositions of many big Brahms, Dvořák and Saint-Saëns. In the 20th century begin to appear women cellists; years ago, it was considered little elegant and inappropriate for a woman to touch it because of the position of the instrument between his legs. The cello became one of the most important instruments and is used today even in the metal style.

The cello parts are the same as the violin, but we are talking about a much larger instrument. Like the violin, it consists of a box formed by the bottom, top and rings. Its shape is curved and elegant curves. On top are the FS, which are holes that form on each side. In addition, is the tailpiece, which retains the strings and the efes, bridge, which keeps strings in high. Inside the box are the harmonic toolbar (along the box) and the soul (under the right foot of the bridge), which are responsible for the sound of the cello. The handle contains the fingerboard, which as in the violin, has no frets. The range ends at headstock. Between the two lies the saddle, that greets the ropes before being rolled and tightened by four pegs in the pegbox. The latter has a termination snail called scroll-shaped.

The cello bow consists of hairs that horse van tensioned in a stick of Pernambuco wood stick. In relation to the bow of the violin, the cello is thicker and shorter. The vibrations of the strings of the cello are produced by rubbing them with the bow; You must be stronger than the violin. As horse hairs cannot produce a good sound on their own, applies them resin to generate a better grip on the ropes and obtain a good sound.

The way of playing the cello is sitting and supporting the instrument between the knees and a retractable plug. You must grip the handle with your left hand and with your right hand slide the arch. The mast must be to the left of the neck. Another form of touch it is with the tip of the fingers; the technique is called pizzicato. Whereas first form, while sliding the arc, with the fingers of the left hand is should press the strings to produce different tones.

There are techniques both for the left to the right hand. In the case of the left hand techniques are: harmonics, which occur when touching the string with a finger; the vibrato, which is a wave-like movement spontaneous left hand that gives expression to note which is represented; and the glissando, which is a change of position of a finger that is maintained by pressing while slipping the bow; that results in that touch all the notes between the initial and the final.

The right hand techniques include col legno, which is hitting the strings with the wood of the bow; Détaché, to move the arch by issuing a single note (if you change note, does not move the arch); double ropes, sliding the arc on the two strings at the same time, achieving polyphony; Legato, to play different notes on a single slip of arc; Pizzicato, pinching the strings with the fingers; spiccato, giving small jumps with the arch while it goes through the ropes; Staccato, pressing the rope evenly for the note; Sul tasto, sliding the arc from the farthest bridge part. and sul ponticello, passing the bow closer to the bridge.

Some prominent cellists are: Pau Casals (better known as Pablo Casals, considered as the best performer of the cello's history by many), Paul Tortelier, Mstislav Rostropovich, Jacqueline Du Pré, Lluis Claret, Yo-Yo Ma and Christine Walewska, among others.
Translated for educational purposes.
Meanings, definitions, concepts of daily use

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