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What is anoscopy | Medical tests

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Anoscopy

Anoscopy is a technique that allows to visualize the interior of the year, anal canal, and the lower part of the rectum, i.e. the last 10 cm of digestive tract. Thanks to this study local diseases Diagnostics can be, and you may decide what treatment is necessary. This used an anoscope, a tube of about 8-10 cm long and about 3-4 cm in diameter. At the beginning of the 20th century the anoscope study was based on direct visualization through him, but anoscopy has evolved and now advanced display methods are used.
It is today commonly used cold light to perform anoscopy. This is a lamp with halogen light that emits no heat, and therefore can be introduced a little through the anoscope. This lamp is accompanied by a camera with optical fiber cable to view in detail the walls of the rectum and the anal canal. At the same time performed anoscopy can take photos or record video.
The technique that is used quite frequently is the high resolution anoscopy. It is a method of study similar to colposcopy which is used for study of the cervix in women. It involves the application of a substance on the walls of the rectum and the anal canal through the anoscope. Then uses a light that produces a fluorescence in pathological areas to study, usually malignant areas caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) virus.
In addition to these studies, the anoscope allows you to perform other tests, such as sampling for microbiological cultures, studies of biopsies, and do simple procedures like putting elastic ligatures. While it seems a test quite invasive, at no time it cause pain to the patient, and the introduction of the anoscope is minimal (a few centimeters). Its easy implementation and their effectiveness, is considered a test of essential for the diagnosis of rectal tumors and other pathologies of the anal region.

When doing an anoscopy

Anoscopy It is done when you want to visualize the inside of the rectum, anal canal, or year to confirm a specific diagnosis. It also allows to take biopsies of the walls of these structures, and if it is necessary to certain diseases can be treated. Anoscopy frequent indications are:
Anal pain: one of the most frequent causes are hemorrhoids and fissures. When they are not from the outside and are not felt with a digital rectal examination, can be evaluated perform anoscopy to check if it is inside.
Anal bleeding: anoscopy should be performed to identify the source of bleeding. It may be due to hemorrhoids, fissures, wounds or cancer, mainly.
Feeling of occupation or heaviness in the year: may be an early symptoms of rectal cancer, or also the main symptom of hemorrhoids, polyps, or an abscess.
Take biopsies: If there are suspicious alterations in the inside surface of the rectum or anal canal. The best test to direct the taking of biopsies is of high resolution anoscopy.
Anal sex: anal sex is associated with infection by HPV in the rectum and year, and therefore with a high risk of developing local epithelial cancer. The risk is increased in patients with HIV or who have suffered other sexually transmitted diseases.
Linking hemorrhoids: ligatures with bleeding Internal hemorrhoids banding can be.

Preparation for anoscopy

If you are performing an anoscopy these are the issues you should keep in mind to go well prepared to test:
Duration: anoscopy has a variable duration according to the technique you are going to be made. Usually lasts a few minutes (if only it is necessary to visualize the area), or more than 20 minutes (if it must be high resolution anoscopy or take biopsies).
Income: anoscopy can be done programmatically; Sometimes this is done in the same query. You can put yourself to the test and go your home a little while. However, if it is of high resolution anoscopy is usually done in a well equipped room, and so tend you to quote the other day.
Is it necessary to be accompanied?: no. Anoscopy is a technique very little invasive. It does not produce pain and rarely leave any discomfort which, in any case, will not limit you to drive or walk to your home or work.
Drugs: sometimes it is necessary to take laxatives or get an enema before, before the test, since it must be done with the empty rectum. You should tell your doctor all the medicines taken regularly and will decide which suspend or maintain. It is advisable to avoid taking drugs that hamper the clotting of the blood the week prior to the anoscopy is to be biopsy, such as aspirin, ibuprofen and other NSAIDs.
Food: it is not necessary to remain in fasting prior to testing. The days before and after to anoscopy is recommended taking a diet rich in fiber and staying well hydrated to avoid constipation.
Clothing: can keep the appointment with the doctor with the same clothes every day.
Documents: before you undergo the test can be asked you to sign an informed consent with which you accept to make you the technique and that will inform you of the possible risks. Sometimes just an oral consent. If you cite for you test a specific day, it is recommended that you carry with you the health card and the steering wheel in which the test is prescribed.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: anoscopy is not contraindicated in these situations. The doctor must know that you are pregnant to consider whether it is appropriate to postpone the test, since sometimes there are physiological changes associated with pregnancy that can alter the results of the test.
Contraindications: not has no absolute contraindication, but preferably not the test during a hemorrhoid crisis, with or without thrombosis. It should not be if there is an active infection.

How anoscopy

When you perform an anoscopy, firstly they will ask you if you're in agreement with put you to the test. If you give your consent, you can make it you even in that same moment in the consultation, if what we want is only observe the rectum inside a few minutes. But if you have to perform some specific technique, it will be necessary to sign a written consent, and one will quote you another day to practice the test with the appropriate means.
Order to become anoscopy ask you that you have made depositions hours before submitting you to it, and if you have problems to do this, your doctor may prescribe you a few days before enemas or laxatives. Arriving at the inquiry you must go to the bathroom to empty the bladder, and then ask you that you take off the pants or skirt, and underwear. You tumbarás on a stretcher on hand, with legs flexed so that you can hug your knees.
Once the doctor first thing will make will be seen outside of the year. It will check if there are external injuries and if the skin has no alterations. Then perform you a rectal examination to touch the inside of the anal canal and check that the anal sphincter has correct contraction, neither in excess or defect.
Before introduce you the anoscope cleaned the area, sometimes using antiseptic products. Despite this, anoscopy does not require total asepsis measures, since the anal area is of inherently dirty, with common microorganisms in our body. It also does not require anesthesia, since it is not a painful test, or sedation, because it lasts a short time and the anoscope penetrates a few centimeters.
To introduce the anoscope you will notice a feeling of heaviness in the year, similar to that you feel during a bowel movement. It is very important to be relaxed and not double-clicking the sphincter, since the only thing you will get is having discomfort. Once introduced the anoscope camera with lamp will get to see the inside of the rectum. The anoscope is checked out little by little, to go back through the rectum and see, step by step, its entire length. When you reach the end, the anoscope will be removed and the area will be cleaned again. It is normal that after the test notes you annoyances, but it will be a few minutes.
If an high resolution anoscopy test lasts a little longer, because at the same time that displays the zone applies a liquid that stained with fluorescent materials the walls of the rectum. It should leave this substance for a few minutes to make its effect. In the case that has zones that appear marked must be biopsiarlas. This introduces small tweezers that allow taking samples of the surface epithelium of the walls of the rectum and the anal canal. The take the biopsy can be a bit painful, and you will feel a prick in the area of puncture that will last for a moment. The days after the biopsy it is normal that you manches underwear with a little blood, but it should disappear within a few days.

Complications of anoscopy

In general, if they have an anoscopy not you presentarás any complication, but it is recommended to maintain a diet rich in fiber and staying well hydrated to maintain a proper bowel. You must see a doctor when you notice fever, chills, painor bleeding continued for the year.
Anoscopy complications are very rare. Some that occur occasionally are:
Damage to the wall of the rectum. It may be from a small wound to a total rupture of the wall.
Local infection. When it happens, antibiotic treatment is required. If the infection progresses it can cause an abscess, which sometimes should be drained and it's necessary to administer antibiotics intravenously.
Hemorrhage. If you have hemorrhoids it is normal to bleed a little during the procedure. Sometimes the bleeding continues over time and must be cut with surgical treatment. There is more risk of bleeding out of control in the biopsies.
Persistent pain. Anoscopy is not a painful test. If there is pain should go to the specialist to rule out complications or the emergence of new pathologies.

Anoscopy results

When performing a diagnostic anoscopy in consultation the doctor can get the results of the test at the same time. So then you can propose a solution or treatment if you detect a problem, such as hemorrhoids, fissures, polyps, etc.
In the case of high resolution anoscopy maybe that specific alterations requiring biopsy are not observed at the same time. If so, your doctor will give you an appointment to check months or years later. In the event that affected areas a biopsy will be you, and weeks later cite you to give you the results in consultation.
In the quote from the results of a biopsy you will explain if they inform you if there are microscopic alterations of cells that have been collected. If any, explain to what extent are a factor of malignant risk and possible treatment options.
In the case of treatment carried out at the same time of the anoscopy, the results are positive in specific pathologies. Ligation of bleeding hemorrhoids can be useful as definitive treatment or maintenance, waiting for surgery. After undergoing this technique is needed very little time to recover, and can go home the same day if all has gone well.
Published for educational purposes
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