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Paternity test | Diseases and conditions: Medical tests.

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What is a paternity test

The paternity test is a genetic study to a person and his alleged father to check whether their genes are equal and thus establish a family bond. Genes are found on the inside of the cells and each person has around 25,000 genes. They are responsible for different functions in the human body and bring unique features to each person.
To perform the test is required to take a sample of each individual study (son and father), which is usually a comfortable get such as sample:
Blood, through blood as in the analytical extraction.
Hairs, when collecting the hair root, which is where are the hair follicle cells.
Saliva, well rubbing the inner surfaces of the mouth to collect epithelial cells.
Any substance with cells and genetic material (semen, biopsy, etc).
The test has no virtually no risk, but since it can give information of complex interpretation it is recommended that it is always indicated by a specialist, who then explain your result. It must be wary of genetic free online sales testing, because normally it's little use test and whose results can be misinterpreted.
Paternity test laws is variable in each country, although usually the will of the so-called son prevails with respect to the father. In Spain it is possible to collect the sample from the father unless he knows it and carry out the study; that Yes, it has no legal value and would only be an informative nature. To collect the specimen of the supposed son always consent is needed. In the case of the mother, it is indifferent to participate in the process or not, and is not necessary to collect samples of it.
A paternity test to have legal value, and thus establish a family relationship in an official way, the collection of samples and laboratory under forensic supervision studies and with judicial authorization should be performed. Only thus will demonstrate that the sample collected actually corresponds to a specific individual. This is important to be able to resolve problems with inheritance or civil liability.

When a paternity test is done

A paternity test is carried out to all persons wishing to undergo testing to see if there is a family relationship between them, kind father and son. Most of the laws of the world is dominated by the will of the supposed son of the father, in such a way that if the child does not want to undergo the test does not why provide samples even if the father wants to do the study.
Otherwise, if it is the son who wants to know if a man is his father, the legislation varies between countries. It is necessary to obtain a judicial authorization allowing to collect the sample from the alleged father to analyze it, and may even require a court order that would oblige this person to provide biological samples for its study.
It is also possible to collect the sample from the so-called father unless he knows it and contributions for study in private anonymously. This is only an informational value to the son, who will know if the results are positive or not, but had no official status, because the child can never demonstrate that collected samples are from a particular person if they were not collected under forensic supervision.
The role of the mother in the realization of a paternity test is limited. If she wants to take the test and the son prefers not to know the identity of his father is not obliged to provide samples for testing. On the other hand, if the mother refuses to carry out the paternity test is not account his wish, because their participation in the process is not needed and the will of the son is more important than the mother's.

Preparation for a paternity test

If they are going to do a paternity test these are the issues you should keep in mind to go well prepared to test:
Duration: usually takes very little time, and depending on the type of sample to collect it can take seconds or minutes. The results are slow enough, several weeks.
Admission: admission is never needed, it can be done at a time.
Is necessary to be accompanied?: not, is a painless and not invasive, so you can only attend the clinic and return in the same way.
Drugs: don't need to take any prior medication. There are no medications that interact with the test, except some chemotherapy treatments. However, it is always a good idea to add a comment to the doctor before you test all the medications you are taking at that time.
Food: you can eat normally, you don't have to go on fasting. If the sample to collect saliva, is better not to eat anything about four hours prior to the test, it prevents be contaminated with food. It is also recommended not to attend the appointment with brushed teeth, not to alter the test.
Clothes: you can wear normal street clothes.
Documents: you must carry with you your personal identification, especially if the test is performed under forensic supervision.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: neither pregnancy nor lactation are contraindications for performing this test. This situation is contemplated only if the pregnant woman or infant who is his father in the role of daughter. A pregnant woman cannot force a so-called father to deliver samples to find out if the fetus is theirs.
Contraindications: no contraindication. Rating only if when you submit the proof really want to know its outcome, whatever.

How a paternity test

When you want to create you a study of paternity leave you can go to specialized centers that exist in the private sector. If you want to test you to make it official you should start judicial procedures that facilitate the conduct of the test through the lega. The procedure is simple if the alleged father agrees with the test; If not, one must request a court order that will come forward if the context is favourable.
One day you cite to collect specimens for the paternity test. The type of sample to collect varies without specific reasons. All types of sample bring results with a similar reliability. The most frequent signs are blood, hairor saliva. In the case of the blood sample is collected as if it were a usual analytics. The only difference is that the sample is usually stored and treated in a special way, but that does not affect you. Hairs must be collected next to the hair root, which is where are the cells that can be studied.
When you study the saliva is even easier; It is to collect saliva in your mouth with a swab of cotton (a swab). For that it is recommended to keep the appointment without food the previous hours or have been washing the teeth. Will ask you you to finish twice, thus limpiarás the mouth, then they will introduce you the stick and rub it with the inside of both cheeks. It is not annoying, it is rare to cause nausea because the back palate is not reached in no time. What is really important in this exhibition is not the saliva itself, which is mainly formed by water, but the epithelial cells that are found in the mucous membranes. The swab is stored in a sterile tube and thus preserving the DNA until it studied in the laboratory.
After taking the sample, a process that lasts a few seconds, you can collect your stuff and make a normal life until they cite you another day to collect the results. Before carrying out this type of test you have to be aware of what results you can provide, and if you're sure you want to know them, what are.

Complications of the paternity test

There are no known complications of the paternity test. It is a completely safe test that does not represent any risk for people who are subjected to it. The only risk is to know about test results that would have preferred not to know. The number of false positive test is minimal; they are usually double studies to be sure of the result.

Results of the paternity test

The results of the paternity test may take several weeks since the sample is collected for study. To collect them there to attend another event in which you deliver the complete documentation of your study and they explain the results. The results have great reliability, a positive result is valid 99.99% of the time. To make the test positive DNA must match between father and son at a high percentage.
If testing has been performed in a private facility, the results have an informative nature for the son, and the father if he is aware of the study. I.e., it is only useful to know that indeed there is a family relationship that was unknown until then, but that cannot be made official. So the relationship will be official study must be done under judicial supervision; in this way results does not give rise to doubts. In this case, sample collection will be under forensic supervision and will keep the chain of custody to his studio in a forensic laboratory.
The results have two important consequences. One would be the personal value that has, for both the son and the father. You can involve changes in affective relationships between them, establish an emotional bond if the result is positive, or damage it if it is negative. Other value would be legal, as when a parent subsidiary relationship a series of responsibilities between them and also a series of rights, are set as it is the right to inheritance or maintenance.
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