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Sperm (semen analysis) | Diseases and conditions: Medical tests.

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What is the semen analysis

The sperm count or semen analysis consists of the male semen analysis to check the State of spermatozoa and its operation. It's a simple test to perform, at any time it is necessary to use needles or other invasive methods, to obtain sample is sufficient with the male ejaculates on a boat after masturbating. It is tremendously useful evidence to complete study of sterility to couples who cannot have children.
Another end of the semen analysis is to check the absence of sperm after a vasectomy.
This type of test is used since the beginning of the 20th century, when the study of cells under a microscope advanced enough to allow a detailed analysis of the sperm (its structure, motion, number, etc). During the last decade, the sperm has gained more importance, is increasingly more frequent that the sterility of a couple is due to malfunction of the sperm of the male, and not so much to female problems.
Dozens of semen analysis are carried out on a daily basis in health centers and clinics around the world. Why submit to this type of examination is commonplace and must not embarrass men who should do so. The results may take several days and should be interpreted by a physician to avoid confusion. It must be borne in mind that the sperm count or semen analysis rarely provides definitive results in isolation, you need to be complement to other tests to arrive at a final diagnosis.

When a sperm is made

The sperm count or semen analysis is a test that is very frequently used in infertility consultations because it does not inconvenience to do so, is very cheap and provides lots of helpful information. In fact, all couples struggling to have children is a full study to woman and man, which includes a sperm count.
Also calls for a sperm count when it is suspected that the testes have been damaged for some reason. For example, after an infection (Orchitis or events) or a heart attack (by a testicular torsion which leaves no blood flow to the testicle). We must remember that even if a testicle is damaged the other may be sufficient to maintain a good sperm count.
Other situations in which the semen analysis is useful is to check that a vasectomy was successful and effective. In these cases it should be noted no sperm in the semen.

Preparation for a sperm count

If they are going to do an sperm count or semen analysis these are the issues you should keep in mind to go well prepared to test:
Duration: the time is variable. You can make the collection of the semen sample in your House or a room in the hospital. Then you will only have to deliver it to the nurse.
Admission: admission is never needed the semen analysis. It is a test that can be done on an outpatient basis.
Is it necessary to be accompanied?:, collection of the semen sample is not possible without help.
Drugs: don't need to take any prior medication. I must say your doctor all medications that you are taking at the time, it is not common, but it may be necessary to suspend some prior to sample collection.
Food: you can eat while you eat every day. Not been shown that semen be amended by food.
Clothes: you don't need to wear a particular garment or to collect the sample or to deliver it.
Documents: it is recommended to bring your health insurance card and the wheel of proof when you go to deliver the sample.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: is not a test that is performed on women.
Contraindications: there are no contraindications for the sperm.

How a sperm count

When you get to the inquiry to submit yourself to the spermiogram or semen analysis, the doctor will make you some general questions about your state of health: important diseases, risk factors, workplace, sex life and urinary symptoms. After perform you a general physical examination, and assess the realization of a semen analysis. Will give you a flyer which asks the test you need to deliver the day you pick up the sample.
You will have to stay at least three to five days without ejaculating, but you can not exceed seven days without ejaculating, this sample will be optimal. To collect such a sample will need a sterile pot that will give you at the doctor or have to buy at the pharmacy. To obtain the sperm have to masturbate, but in hygienic conditions. This will require before washing your hands and intimate parts with SOAP and water to avoid contamination.
When you cum you will have to do it inside the jar directly, it is very important to gather all the semen from the beginning until the end of the ejaculation, if not the sample will not be enough and will have to wait another 3-5 days to take another sample. It should take into account found 75% of the sperm in the semen which ejaculates to the beginning.
The boat with the semen must close, kept at a temperature between 20 ° and 37 °, and due at the clinic an hour later as maximum. Sometimes the test is performed in a room of the hospital or clinic to deliver the sample immediately.
Another method of specimen collection is to use a sterilized condom during masturbation, so all the semen is collected in it and it can be delivered in its entirety. Commercial pharmacy condoms cannot be used, they have to be specific to the study.
Semen analysis will take several days, then it will give you an appointment where explain the results of the study.

Complications of the semen analysis

There are no complications of the semen analysis.

The semen analysis results

The results of the sperm or semen analysis are complex and difficult to interpret. They discussed multiple parameters that have a different meaning depending on the type of patient and the rest of tests performed. Is normal appearing one or several parameters altered in healthy people, so you should not worry if upon receipt of the documentation with the results of the semen analysis any data comes out altered. You must always wait for the doctor, where will explain the results, its importance and the therapeutic possibilities that are available today.
The most important data studied in the semen analysis are:
Volume: semen in ejaculation quantity must be greater than or equal to 2 mL. When the ejaculate is less spoken of hypospermia, and when it does not ejaculate nothing called aspermia. The maximum volume is around 6 mL, although occasionally it can be higher, especially if there is any infection of Genitourinary tract.
Viscosity: semen is usually a slightly viscous liquid. To study its viscosity plunges a thin stick and you remove it, it is normal to form a less than or equal to 2 cm smeared. If the trickle is greater the viscosity it will be augmented and semen will be very sticky.
Liquefaction: the freshly ejaculated semen is quite consistent and viscous. But a few minutes starts to liquify it and within half an hour has a consistency similar to water. Lumps may appear in pathological situations or even to solidify the entire sample.
Colour and odour: at a glance, you can study the color of semen, which should be white mother of Pearl. It can be yellow or green during infections, red if you have remains of blood or transparent if there are few sperm. The usual smell of semen can be altered when there is presence of bacteria, leaving a smell of rot.
pH: with this parameter you can meet the degree of acidity or alkalinity having semen, the usual is to be 7 ' 2 and 8. When the pH is lower, i.e., more acid, may be due to failure of the seminal glands. When the pH is higher, i.e., more basic, Genitourinary infections is must be ruled out.
Concentration: analysis by microscope of the sample collected is used to to study the number of sperm that are in each milliliter. So are the sperm that there is in a particular field one by one, and then a fairly accurate estimate. Only include the complete spermatozoa, or with head and tail. It is normal that sperm concentration is greater than or equal to 20 million per mL. When is minor called oligozoospermia.
Number of sperm per ejaculation: once determined the volume of semen that you ejaculate and sperm concentration, you can calculate easily the total number of sperm that would be in an ejaculate. The number of sperm is usually greater than or equal to 40 million in each ejaculation.
Mobility: different patterns of movement of spermatozoa have been studied and classified into three types: progressive (that going forward), non-progressive (that move but does not go forward) and stationary. Typically, that at least 50% of the sperm to move and more than half of them have a progressive pattern. When these conditions are not met refers to asthenozoospermia. It is the most common cause of male sterility.
Morphology: on the contrary that in motion, the different semen studies carried out so far have not got a good classification of the shape of the sperm. It is considered that there must be more than 15% normal sperm in an ejaculation. When are less referred to as teratospermia.
Vitality: the study of the vitality of the sperm is to detect how many sperm are actually dead at the time of ejaculation. For that are commonly used stains that paint the dead sperm cells, although there are other methods of study for this. It is normal that 75% or more of the sperm not wrinkles, i.e. that are alive. If the percentage is lower is called necrozoospermia.
Agglutination: detects antibodies against the sperm. In normal situations more than half the sperm not must join the balls that are used to perform this analysis. It is a cause of sterility detected recently and today is being investigated much in this field.
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