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Francis Galton, born in England in 1822, near Birmingham, was the youngest of a family of nine children and endowed with an extraordinary intelligence and wealth of original ideas. Between his studies are the digital printing, weight lifting and the effectiveness of religious prayer.
Galton's first book that brought important aid for psychology was Hereditary genius in 1869. In this work we tried to demonstrate the greatness Galton or individual genius were so frequent within families, the influence of the environment was not enough explanation for this phenomenon. Thus, a remarkable man, would have children notable.
Most studies of Galton showed that a famous person, he inherited, besides genius, its specific form. Thus, according to his studies, a scientist was born in a family with emphasis in the areas of science, based on the hypothesis of ancestry and heredity. One of his goals was to encourage the birth of people more able and outstanding, while desestimulava the birth of the less able.
For this to be possible, founded the science of eugenics, which he named word originated from the Greek Eugenes meaning of good stock, endowed with noble qualities hereditarily, thus improving the qualities of the human race, through artificial selection, as was done with the farm animals. If people of superior qualities were generating only children between them, after generations the result would be a human race gifted superiorly. For the selection of talented people, Galton proposed the application of intelligence tests. Thus, the people selected would receive financial assistance to marry and procreate.
To prove their theory of eugenics, Galton developed statistical and measurement studies, classifying the extraordinary men of your sample in categories according to the frequency of capacity levels. This data proved that the remarkable men, were more likely to have children notable, than ordinary men.
For Galton, the influence of the environment where the person was polite, was not as strong to the point of being regarded as responsible for superiority over other people. Educational and social opportunities were not decisive for the success or failure. The hereditary function was responsible for differences of genius and ability.
According to Galton, no physical or mental effort allows the individual a breakthrough beyond their genetic capacities.

Source:

History of modern psychology/Duane p. Schultz, Sydney Ellen Schultz; translation Suely Sleepand Murai Cuccio. -São Paulo: Cengage Learning, 2009.
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