Biography of Antonio José de Sucre | Independence hero.

(Antonio José Francisco de Sucre y Alcala; Cumana, Venezuela today, 1795 - Sierra de Berruecos, Colombia, 1830) Latin American independence hero, Venezuelan politician and military. Early joined the emancipation cause, the figure of Sucre began to collect prominence when, from 1819, became one of the top lieutenants of Simón Bolívar, among which stood out for its strategic expertise and unwavering loyalty.

Antonio José de Sucre
Bolívar began by then to give shape to the project of the Gran Colombia, a Confederation in the style of the United States which aspired to join the liberated Spanish colonies. Proclaimed in 1819 the Congress of Angostura and presided over by the liberator, the Gran Colombia grouped the territories of Venezuela and Colombia in its foundation. As a Lieutenant of Bolívar, Antonio José de Sucre headed campaign that joined the Gran Colombia the current Ecuador between 1821 and 1822.
In the decisive campaign of Peru, last great Spanish power Center, he accompanied Bolívar in the battle of Junin and, by absence, directed the battle of Ayacucho (1824), which marked the end of Spanish domination on the continent; This victory earned him the title of Grand Marshal of Ayacucho. In 1825 held the high Peru (today Bolivia), in which was established the Republic of Bolivia, who chaired until 1828. Victim of the tensions that accompanied the disintegration of the great Colombia, was assassinated two years later.
Despite belonging to a Venezuelan patrician family with a long military tradition in the service of the Spanish Crown, their father, Lieutenant Colonel Vicente Sucre and Urbaneja, supported the emancipation cause since its inception. Like other former colonies, the process that would lead to the independence of Venezuela suffered numerous ups and downs: from 1810 and along nearly all the Decade, Patriots and realists alternated wins and failures in their clashes, in which, following the footsteps of his father, was actively involved young Antonio José de Sucre.
After completing his studies in the school founded by his aunt, Alcalá María, in the home town of Cumana, moved to Caracas, where he entered the school of engineers of the Spanish Colonel Tomás look. As a young man belonging to the military system of the Spanish monarchy, formed in the values of order, discipline and authority, to the rhythm of his studies of mathematics, surveying, fortification and artillery. This knowledge and principles would be vital to the performance of Sucre in a career that was about to begin.
At fifteen he joined the patriot army as a second lieutenant of engineers and participated in the campaign of Francisco de Miranda (1812) against the royalists, during which amounted to Lieutenant. After the failure of this first attempt at emancipation, took refuge in the island of Trinidad, where engaged in contact with Santiago Mariño, who was followed in 1813 in the expedition of reconquest of Venezuela, which took Cumaná and took part in the Organization of the army of the East.

Antonio José de Sucre
His courage and his sense of the war determined his promotion to Lieutenant Colonel, and as such he took part in the offensive on Caracas. Defeated his army at Aragua and Urica, however, he must flee to not be captured by the royalists; the second independence attempt had failed. Integrated back into the fight in the second half of 1815 he took part in the defense of Cartagena de Indias, from where would fight in Guiana and low Orinoco.
The participation of Sucre in the company of reconquest of the eastern territories, carried out by generals Mariño, Piar, Bermudez and Valdes, and subsequent service General staff East, meant for the official young not only the development of their abilities and military skills, but also an outlet of political stance against the differences that existed between the General Eastern and Bolivar. The war stretched and Venezuela had to decide in relation to the unit of their armies; the fearsome realistic general Pablo Morillo progressed by the territories, and contradictions between the Venezuelan generals didn't allow to give a unitary strategy.
Lieutenant of Bolívar
This framework of circumstances determined Sucre to definitely joining the army of the liberator; the arguments of their accession to Bolivar were associated with the principle of order and hierarchy that had to keep armies inside. In 1818 he moved to Angostura, where Bolívar had set up its headquarters.
Simón Bolívar then began to realize his political dream: forming a large Federation, American-style, with the colonies freed from the Spanish domain. The liberation of Venezuela, established in 1819, was added the same year of the Viceroyalty of New Granada (today Colombia) after the triumph of Bolivar in the battle of Boyacá. At the Congress at Angostura (1819) to materialize the birth of the Republic of the "Gran Colombia», consisting of Venezuela and Colombia and presided over by the same Bolivar, which soon Panama and Ecuador are incorporated.

Bolivar and Sucre
In Angostura, Antonio José de Sucre became one of the top lieutenants of Bolívar and won the friendship and respect of the deliverer, who always emphasized his military skills and his high sense of morality. Since that time, loyalty to Bolivar and his commitment to the great Colombia would be unshakable. Sucre was sent to the West Indies with the mission to obtain weapons for the army; later he joined the staff of Bolivar and was appointed member of the Commission, which signed the Armistice and the regulation of war in Santa Ana de Trujillo (November 1820) with general Pablo Morillo, for which it was intended to prevent the effects of war on the civilian population.
The release of Ecuador
In 1821 it was entrusted the direction of the campaign in the South, which was intended to liberate the territories corresponding to the Royal audience of Quito and promote their adherence to the Gran Colombia. This conquest was of vital importance for the new nation, as it should ensure their hegemony. The Sucre mission was not easy, given the diversity of interests involved in that war. The provinces of Quito and Guayaquil had risen in arms against the Spanish Government; but, although everyone agreed the independence, not all were in favor of integration in the Gran Colombia; some jostled for the union with Peru, in view of trade relations, and others prefer the absolute independence.
Guayaquil was one of the main opponents to membership, but it needed the support of the Liberator army. Sucre arrived with troops to his aid, and the truce signed with the Spanish would allow him to be a worthy host for the contest; at the same time, it agreed with the Guayaquil about was how to be carried out the creation and maintenance of the so-called army of the South. While the cease-fire will last, the army would be nurtured of human and economic resources of Colombia, but it was clear that, as men in the region were recruiting, it would begin to rely on local resources.
Success accompanied Sucre from the first military operations; He won a great triumph in Yaguachi (may 1821), and, after suffering a single setback in Huachi, South campaign concluded with the battle of Pichincha (May 24, 1822), in which the Royalist Army fell shot. Few hours later, Melchor Aymerich, President of the Royal audience of Quito, signed the capitulation. With this victory of Sucre consolidated the independence of Gran Colombia, was consummated in Ecuador (which was incorporated into the great Colombia) and was the way speedy liberation of Peru, following the resignation of José de San Martín.
The campaign of Peru
In a grand gesture that included the crossing of the Andes with its troops, José de San Martín had liberated Chile in 1817. Thence transported by sea an army of 4,500 men to Peru in 1820; in 1821 solemnly proclaimed the independence of Peru, despite the fact that the realistic forces controlled much of the territory. When in July 1822 took place the famous interview between Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín, the latter position was significantly weakened by internal divisions and the harassment of the realists; discouraged and at odds with the political ideology of Bolivar, San Martin opted to retire and Bolívar left the fate of Peru.
As well as San Martin, Bolivar understood that Peru, while Spanish power, nerve center was the main obstacle to the emancipation of the continent; It was necessary to neutralize this territory to safeguard the independence of Gran Colombia. In 1823 he sent Sucre Lima to prepare for the campaign of Peru. In February 1824 Bolívar took under his command all the powers in the country and took charge of military operations.

The capitulation of Ayacucho (1824)
Antonio José de Sucre accompanied Bolívar in the victorious battle of Junín (August 6, 1824), and in front of the patriot army in the absence of Bolivar, won the viceroy José de La Serna in Ayacucho (9 December 1824), battle in which shone the extraordinary endowments of Sucre strategist singularly. Considered the most important war of emancipation of South America, the battle of Ayacucho meant the final liberation of Peru and the end of Spanish rule in the continent. The Peruvian Parliament named Sucre general in Chief of the armies, and rightly, awarded him the title of Grand Marshal of Ayacucho in recognition of his work.
The Republic of Bolivia
During the first months of 1825, in front of the army, Sucre freed the Alto Peru (today Bolivia) and convened a constituent Assembly so that through the public consultation is decided the destiny of the territory. She presented three clearly defined tendencies: one in favor of annexation to the Río de La Plata, another in favor of annexation to Peru, and the third in favor of independence. The winning proposal turned out to be the third; the Assembly passed the independence (6 August 1825) and Sucre was named President for life. Always loyal to Bolívar, Sucre commissioned the Liberator to draft a Constitution for the new nation: the Republic of Bolivia.
The presidential term of Sucre was a commitment of social modernization whose egalitarian ideals ran into hierarchical Bolivian society. Among other issues, it is worried by the Organization of the Treasury, he promoted freedom of the slaves, distributed land among the Indians, and gave a decisive boost to education, creating colleges and primary schools in all departments of the country.
Sucre was forced to leave the Presidency because of the pressure of Peruvians opposed to Bolivian independence: the successive riots culminated in the mutiny of Chuquisaca (April 18, 1828), promoted by the battalion of grenadiers of the San Francisco headquarters. Sucre was wounded in his right arm, which prevented him from exercising the functions of Government, and instructed the general José María Pérez de Urdininea it replaced him.
Assessment that would make their years of Presidency Sucre located the causes of his political failure on factors associated with the struggle for power, the ignorance and the decomposition of the corporate system; in a prior to his resignation letter had explained to Bolivar that the weakness of the political buildings that were building lay in "the evil of their bases". The feeling of frustration and even some reluctance towards public life would Sucre to demonstrate his desire to retire, and with this object he went to Ecuador. New battles, new missions of negotiation, and death itself waiting for him however.
The end of the Gran Colombia
In Quito, the news of the attack against Bolivar in Colombia, in September 1828, burst into the nascent conjugal life in Sucre, which had contracted marriage with Mariana Carcelén, marquesa de Solanda, and led him to renege on his decision to retire to private life. The failed conspiracy days heralded the end of the Gran Colombia; Sucre knew it but was encouraged to fight to the end. For this reason, to speak out about the assassination attempt, supported Bolivar in its decision be declared dictator of Colombia: the order should prevail above all.

With his wife Mariana Carcelén, marquesa de Solanda
Almost simultaneously, Peru declared war on Colombia and Sucre was appointed to lead the battalion that would face the situation. This time he would have to fight against its former allies of emancipating war. Without major difficulties, however, defeated the Peruvians at the battle of Tarqui (February 27, 1829), which led to the signing of the Treaty of Piura. It decided then to retirement and returned next to his wife; together settled in the estate of Chishince, in Quito.
In early 1830, already immersed in a process of disintegration, the Gran Colombia in Bogota what would be their last Congress convened. Required his presence, Sucre went as a representative of the province of Cumaná, and was named Chairman of the event. The proposals of Sucre were oriented to the dialogue and consultation with the departments which were still part of the Republic. As part of the strategy, Sucre headed the Commission that would go to Venezuela (which to date had handed over power to José Antonio Páez and was unaware of the authority of Bolivar) to negotiate a reversal of that decision.
Sucre went to Venezuela, but was arrested in Cucuta authorities; It should remain in that city until arrived the emissaries of the Government with whom to talk. Sucre proposed them, in addition to join the Colombian Constitution, that no general or former general of the Liberator army could exercise positions of President in the departments; in the background, his intention was to counter the rumor that he or Bolivar were aspiring to the position.
The negotiation failed, and Sucre, after returning to Bogotá and inform the Congress of the result of his efforts, left Colombia invaded by a deep sense of frustration. Already only encouraged by the reunion with his wife and his eldest daughter, it undertook the return to Quito. And on the way back, in the sierra de Berruecos (in the South-West of the present Colombia), he was killed in an ambush, apparently ordered by José María Obando, military head of the province of Pasto. As perpetrators were designated José Erazo and Apolinar Morillo, who ten years later was caught and shot by this cause.
Extracted from the website: Biografías y Vidas
Biographies of historical figures and personalities

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