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(Faenza, current Italy, 1608-Florence, 1647) Italian mathematician and physicist. It is attributed to Evangelista Torricelli the invention of the barometer. Also, his contributions to geometry were decisive in the development of integral calculus.
His treatise on mechanics of mutu (about the movement), managed to impress to Galileo, in which the own Torricelli had inspired in drafting work. In 1641 he received an invitation to act as Assistant to an elder and Galileo in Florence, during which were the last three months of life of the famous astronomer of Pisa.
On the death of Galileo, Torricelli was appointed Professor of mathematics of the Florentine Academy. Two years later, following a suggestion made by Galileo, a 1.2 m long glass tube filled with mercury, and spent it on a plate; He found that the mercury not escaped, and noted that vacuum is created in the existing space above the metal.
After many observations, he concluded that variations in the height of the column of mercury are due to changes in atmospheric pressure. It was never to publish these findings, since it surrendered fully to the study of pure mathematics, including in its work calculations on the Cycloid and other complex geometric figures.
In its title Opera geometrica, published in 1644, also presented their findings on phenomena of fluid mechanics and the movement of projectiles.