Poet, journalist, playwright and Peruvian politician, born in 1806 and died in 1868, represented one of the most active literary and journalistic voices in the first half of the 19th century. In his extensive work, his conservative political ideology was often present.
Felipe Pardo Aliaga was born in Lima on June 11, 1806. He was the son of Manuel Pardo y Ribadeneira, high-ranking Spanish, and Mariana de Aliaga, daughter of the Marquis of beautiful source. Because legal prohibition for officials marry Creole of the place where they were destined, Pardo parents had to sign his link in the "book of secret marriages". Only a few weeks before the birth of Philip, the eldest son, they obtain the marriage license. Previously, Manuel Pardo had been changed to Cuzco, as Regent of the Audiencia in that city. In this way, Felipe Pardo y Aliaga spent his early years between Cusco and Lima. In the first one he had to live closely one of the rebellions Patriots of the Angulo brothers, Bejar and Pumacahua. In it, his father was taken prisoner and sentenced to death, a penalty which did not meet due to the defeat of the elevations.
Proclaimed the independence, the Pardo traveled to Spain, where the father continued serving in positions as a civil servant. However, were denied the young Felipe Pardo the possibility of diplomatic career. Probably this factor, in addition to the need to resolve inheritance issues in Lima, led him to return to the Peru.
During his stay in Madrid, Felipe Pardo had opportunity to study at the College of San Mateo, having as companions to José de Esponceda and the playwrights Mariano Roca de Togores and Ventura de la Vega. To close the school in 1823, Pardo and Aliaga and other students continued classes at home of the writer Alberto Lista y Aragon, former Regent of the College. By then, Pardo was started in his poetic compositions.
In 1828 he returned to the Peru. Established in Lima, he was appointed Professor of mathematics and philosophy at the Seminary of Santo Toribio, and devoted himself to the forensic studies to receive Attorney.
Brown would soon take contact with José Maria Pando, who founded the Mercurio Peruano, major newspaper of the time. At home a group gathered, in political literary gatherings, with conservative tendencies of some influence in national political life. A group inclined towards "hard" options, convinced that it was the only way to bring order to a country ruled by chaos, and complex as it was then the Peru.
It was in the Mercurio Peruano where Felipe Pardo y Aliaga published his first literary work, an ode entitled a Peruvian return to their homeland. Thereafter, other poems, as well as theatrical criticism would be followed. In 1929 was tasked with the co-edition of that newspaper. The following year, during the Government of President Gamarra - to which the Pardo Group supported - headed official newspapers The official record, The conciliator and La Miscelánea. For those months, it premiered the fruits of educationpiece received strong criticism, especially from the cure Larriva, who maintained a literary showdown with Brown which would culminate in a duel. Conditioned by the old critic, the public did not go too much to the theatre.
In September of 1830 Felipe Pardo and Aliagafue appointed Secretary of the legation in Bolivia. A stay of passage through Arequipa, reviewed Pardo to qualify the title of lawyer. Back in Lima, married Petronila of Lavalle and Cavero, young man belonging to a prominent family of the Lima elite. Months later, premiered Don Leocadio and the anniversary of Ayacucho.
The following years, marked by political anarchy, worn out deeply into the country. Pardo and Aliaga had to leave several times into exile, in others it was successful and held some positions in the Government. Her first deportation would take place in 1833, accused of involvement in an uprising against the liberal President Orbegoso. This, over time the plot, he ordered his deportation. However, Pardo was able to evade the order, hiding in different ships anchored in the port of Callao. Finally, he was amnestied. Back to activity, launched the publication of the newspaper the son of the Montoneros, which sought to combat the montonero orbegocista.
When the rebellion of Felipe Santiago Salaverry against the named Confederation (1835), once more Felipe Pardo y Aliaga took the path of the insurgency. The rebel general young writer named Plenipotentiary Minister to the Spanish Court. For this new position, Pardo Lavalle family departed from Callao, heading south. However, they remained in the scale of Valparaiso, Chile, where one of his daughters was born. In Santiago, Pardo learned of the defeat and execution of Salaverry.
He then decided to remain in that city, dedicated to a fierce journalistic criticism against the Confederation, which rose in power to the Bolivian general Santa Cruz de Andrés. Printed publications in Chile, as the interpreter and The Kheta were oriented to criticize the Government from exile. The Government of the South gave host, because he saw enough warily the affirmation of an Alliance named. Moreover, it promoted two "restorative" campaign that ended with the union. However, Felipe Pardo y Aliaga tried to disassociate itself from the second campaign, as the Peruvian General Orbegoso and Domingo Nieto had risen against Santa Cruz. In response, Pardo for a foreign army in the country already lacked justification. Anyway, the restorative expedition took Lima and ended with the unifying adventure of general Santa Cruz. Then came one of the most chaotic stages of the history of the Peruvian Republic, reaching up to seven Presidents at the same time.
Disillusioned, Pardo decided to return to Chile and remained there until 1839. When he returned, that same year, he expected another order of banishment, which departed this time without his family. However, in February of 1840 it was already back, amnestied by the Congress of Huancayo. Shortly after Felipe Pardo y Aliaga was appointed member of the Supreme Court of Justice of Lima. However, between 1840 and 1842 it would be deported twice more.
Despite the turns of politics, by this time probably wrote his most mentioned newspaper: the mirror of my land, considered a valuable anthology of nineteenth-century Peruvian costumbrista literature. In this publication appeared short stories, humorous poems and articles of the own Felipe Pardo y Aliaga: the journey and the paseo de Amancaes are currently the most remembered. Especially the first one, whose character, child Goyito, representing the "Niño bien" in Lima. Behind the argument is readable involvement education of the Creole boys attack-oriented little that she was to become virtuous youth.
The criticism of his ideas were swift. It appeared shortly after Lima against The mirror of my land, which counted with the collaboration of Manuel Ascencio Segura, another key writer of that time. Unsigned, Pardo and Segura would trade satirical Peñas, against each other, to the delight of his contemporaries. From a less privileged social position, Segura and his other critics blamed him that conservatism taking him to anti-democratic positions, as well as certain racist prejudices. Both, together, would have fueled his skepticism regarding the Peruvian social and political reality. Pardo was the "escutcheon" (Spanish) and "francophile", for his trenchant critics.
The mirror of my land reappeared with new numbers in 1850, bringing together the best of his works of maturity in both periods. But, while his mind was beginning to produce his best works, Felipe Pardo y Aliaga looked increasingly diminished physically, due to an illness which became later in paralysis.
However, Brown continued with his public work. In 1844 appeared 37 numbers from The National Guard, in favor of the President Vivanco, friend and companion of political adventures, short time later overthrown by Ramón Castilla. Stood out verses political backsliding in its authoritarian, antimilitarist ideas and their mistrust against the popular. When Vivanco, Pardo had to from exile for the seventh time. I would, however, with a new position, awarded by President Castilla: Minister of Foreign Affairs. For those who have dealt with the biography of Felipe Pardo y Aliaga, accept a responsibility for that, military mestizo, with an education different from yours, human archetype of its social and political prejudices, did not mean necessarily a change in thinking and public action by the writer. In fact, their views on the Government were the same, especially in relation to his obsession with order strong, legal and honest to clear the threat of chaos.
By then his health was deteriorating considerably, aggravated by a new evil, blindness. However, in the following years he continued political charges. The highest was Vice President of the Council of State, in 1851. A charge that actually represented more recognition to the bedridden man in public.
Despite a position in the Cabinet, Brown continued with his writings, sometimes contrary to the habits of the Government itself. When established the National Convention to draw up a new Constitution, published its political Constitution and the Peru, satirical poems in the new numbers of mirror of my land. In 1860, the Royal Academy of the Spanish language, a proposal from his former colleagues of College, Ventura de la Vega, Roca de Togores and Segovia, elected him corresponding member, being the first Peruvian to receive this distinction.
The last years were marked by pain, and prostration. Aided by his daughter Francisca, Felipe Pardo y Aliaga devoted few powers his remaining collection of his works, in prose and verse, which came from press the following year of his death.
Pardo was a lengthy author, excelling in his satirical verses and their traditional stories. In both, Pardo writer rarely came off of the man of letters, as the criticism was the background for his writings. Especially oriented habits of politicians, lack of civility and the personal ambition of their rulers.
Felipe Pardo and Aliaga had four children. The largest of them, Manuel Pardo y Lavalle (1834), arrived to become the first civilian President of Peru (1972). His grandson, José Pardo y Barreda, also held the highest political office in the country on two occasions (1904 and 1916). In general, during the boom of the civilismo (1895-1919), the Pardo were considered members of the political elite, occupying key positions in public life.