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Biography of Isaac Newton | English scientist.


(Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, 1642 - London, 1727) English scientist. Founder of classical physics, which would retain full force until the time of Einstein, Newton work represents the culmination of the scientific revolution initiated a century before Copernicus. In his early mathematical natural philosophy (1687) established the three fundamental laws of motion and inferred from them the fourth law of universal gravitation, explaining with total accuracy the orbits of the planets, thus achieving the unification of the terrestrial and celestial mechanics.

Isaac Newton
Premature, and posthumous son his mother prepared for it a destination of farmer; but he was finally convinced of the talent of the boy and sent him to the University of Cambridge, where had to work to pay for the studies. There Newton not particularly emphasized, but it assimilated the knowledge and scientific and philosophical principles of mid-17TH century, with innovations introduced by Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, Francis Bacon, René Descartes and others.
After her graduation in 1665, Isaac Newton was oriented towards research in physics and mathematics, with such success that at the age of 29 he had already formulated theories that would point the way of modern science until the 20th century; by then he had already obtained a professorship at the University (1669). Fundamental protagonist of the "scientific revolution" of the 16th and 17TH and father of the classical mechanics, Newton always was cautious to give publicity to their findings, reason why many of them met with years of delay. Newton agreed with Leibniz on the discovery of integral calculus, which would contribute to a profound renewal of mathematics; He also formulated the binomial (Newton binomial theorem).
Essential Isaac Newton's contributions were in the field of physics. His early research focused on Optics: explaining the composition of white light as a mixture of the colors of the Rainbow, he formulated a theory about the particle nature of light and designed in 1668 the first telescope reflector, the type of which are currently used in the majority of astronomical observatories; later collected their vision of this subject in the book of optics (1703). He also worked in other areas, such as thermodynamics and acoustics.
Newtonian mechanics
But his place in the history of science is due above all to its re-Foundation of the mechanics. In his most important work, principles of mathematical natural philosophy (1687), rigorously formulated the three fundamental laws of motion: Newton's first law or law of inertia, according to which all body remains at rest, or in linear motion even if it does not act upon him no strength; the second and fundamental principle of dynamics, according to which the acceleration experienced by a body is equal to the force exerted upon him divided by its mass; and the third, who explains that each force or action exerted on a body there is an equal opposite reaction.
These three laws deduced a fourth, which is the most well known: the law of gravity, which according to legend was suggested to him by the observation of the fall of an Apple from the tree. He discovered that the force of attraction between the Earth and the Moon was directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance separating them, such a force by the product of the ratio is calculated by a constant (G); to extend this general principle to all bodies of the universe, so it became the law of universal gravitation.
Most of these ideas already circulating in the scientific environment of the time; but Newton gave them the systematic nature of a theory, capable of sustaining the scientific conception of the universe for more than two centuries. If still in our days it is admirable elegance and simplicity of Newtonian mechanics, can imagine dazzling produced in his contemporaries that clarification of a vast set of phenomena; Thus a fellow expressed it, the poet Alexander Pope: "nature and its laws lay hidden in the night, but God said: Let there be light!, and was born Isaac Newton".
Until he ended his scientific work properly said (about 1693), Newton was devoted to apply its principles to the resolution of specific problems, including the prediction of the exact position of the heavenly bodies, becoming the greatest astronomer of the century. On all these matters held bitter debates with other scientists (as Edmund Halley, Robert Hooke, Leibniz or John Flamsteed), which conceded the criticism poorly and was extremely jealous of their positions.
As a professor at Cambridge, Newton faced abuses of Jacobo II against the University, which led him to accept a seat in the Parliament arising out of the 'glorious revolution' (1689-90). In 1696 the regime appointed him director of the Mint, looking for an intelligent and honest administrator on it to curb counterfeiting. It would represent the University in Parliament in 1701. In 1703 he was appointed President of the Royal Society of London. And in 1705 culminated the ascension of his prestige to be knighted.
Extracted from the website: Biografías y Vidas
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