Biography of Jean Piaget | Swiss constructivist psychologist.

(Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1896 - Geneva, 1980) Swiss constructivist psychologist whose detailed studies on the child's intellectual and cognitive development exerted a momentous influence on evolutionary psychology and modern teaching. Jean Piaget graduated and received his doctorate in biology at the University of his native city (1918). From 1919 he started his work in psychological institutions in Zurich and Paris, where he developed his theory about the nature of knowledge.

Jean Piaget
He published several studies on child psychology, and based primarily on the growth of children, developed a theory of intelligence sensorimotor describing the spontaneous development of practical intelligence, based on the action, which is formed from the emerging concepts that has the child's permanent objects in the space, time and the cause. For Piaget, the principles of logic begin to develop before the language and are generated through the baby's sensory and motor actions in interaction with the environment. Piaget established a series of successive stages in the development of intelligence:
1 stage of intelligence sensorimotor or practical, basic affective regulations and the first external fixations of affectivity. This stage is the period of infant and lasts until the age of one year and half or two years; it predates the development of language and thought itself.
2 Stadium of intuitive intelligence, spontaneous inter-individual feelings and social relations of submission to the adult. This stage ranges from two to seven years. Preoperative thinking was born in her: the child may represent the movements without running them; It is the time of symbolic play and of selfishness, and from four years of intuitive thinking.
3 Stadium of intellectual operations concrete, the feelings of moral and social cooperation and the beginning of the logic. This stage comprises of seven once-doce years.

Jean Piaget
4. stage of abstract intellectual operations, the formation of the personality and the intellectual and affective inclusion in society of adults (adolescence). Although Piaget established, for each of these stages, the corresponding ages should not take such constraints rigidly; rhythm varies from one child to another, and certain features of these stages may overlap at any given time.
Piaget conceived intellectual development as the result of an interaction of the child with the means, excluding biological maturation or mere environmental influence as unique conditions for such development. Inception harmonize into a coherent theory neurobiological growth and influence of the social and cultural life with the development of intelligence, stressing the interrelationship between such phenomena.
In this sense are fundamental concepts of schema, adaptation and Organization, that govern the process of acquiring knowledge in all stages and result from the need for everyone to understand the world that surrounds him. New experiences or information received is obligated to adapt the schemes of previous knowledge: such adaptation, which is divided into sub-processes of information assimilation and accommodation to schemes or previous cognitive structures, flows into the learning. And, as a result, the Organization or categorization process and systematization of knowledge (in fact, the reorganization) is constant.
Jean Piaget: "knowledge is the integration of the object in a previous structure of the subject."
Jean Piaget also studied moral development of the child, pointing out that moral autonomy is acquired around age seven. Previously, the child is subjected to calls pressure relationships by adults, imposed its rules and mandates with threat of punishment; It is the so-called moral obligation. From that age, with the development of partnerships among equals is passed to the stadium of moral reciprocity: the tax duty is replaced with standards that are recognized as good acceptance and respect for others; the sense of good and the liability arise.
Multiple studies of Piaget, over more than half a century, menbers in a huge written production that includes a large number of articles and books. Language and thinking in the child (1923), representation of the world in the child (1926), the birth of intelligence in the child (1936), the psychology of intelligence (1947), Treaty of logic (1949), Introduction to genetic epistemology (1950), six studies of Psychology (1964), memory and intelligence (1968) and the development of thinking (1975) are the most important works of Piaget.
Jean Piaget occupies one of the most important places of contemporary psychology and, without a doubt, the most prominent in the field of child psychology; no scholar described in much detail and rigour the maturation process that occurs between birth and adolescence. The universities of Harvard, Paris, Brussels and Rio de Janeiro was awarded the title of doctor honoris causa.
Extracted from the website: Biografías y Vidas
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