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(Colona, today part of Athens, Greece current, 495 BC-Athens, 406 BC) Greek tragic poet. Son of a wealthy gunsmith called Sofilo, at the age of sixteen was elected director of the Boys Choir to celebrate the victory of Salamis. In 468 BC it became known as tragic author to win theatrical contest which was held annually in Athens during dionisos parties, whose ruler in previous years had been Aeschylus to Aeschylus.
Thus began a literary career unparalleled: Sophocles came to write up to 123 tragedies for the festivals, which was awarded, estimated 24 victories, against the 13 that had managed to Aeschylus. He became an important figure in Athens, and his long life coincided with the time of maximum splendour of the city.
Friend of Herodotus and Pericles, it did not show too much interest in politics, in spite of which was elected twice estratego and participated in the Athenian expedition against Samos (440), event collecting Plutarch in his parallel lives. His death coincided with the war with Sparta, which would mean the beginning of the end of Athenian rule, and said that the attacking army concluded a truce so that his funeral could celebrate properly.
Its enormous production, however, only seven complete tragedies are preserved today, apart from some fragments: Antigone, Oedipus Rex, Ayax, Las Traquinias, Philoctetes, Oedipus at Colonna and Electra. Sophocles are the introduction of a third character in the scene, giving greater play to the dialogue, and the fact of giving psychological complexity to the hero of the work.
In Antigone opposed two laws: the city and the blood; Antigone wants to give burial to his dead brother, who had risen against the city, against the opposition of the tyrant Creon, who denied burial to set an example to the city. The tension of the confrontation remains at all times the complexity and balance, and the tragic fate is lowered over the two, thus also both corresponds the "hybris", excessive pride.
Edipo rey it is perhaps the most famous of his tragedies, and so Aristotle considered it in his poetry as the most representative and perfect of the Greek tragedies, that in which the final cathartic mechanism achieves its best climax. It is also a superb sample of called tragic irony, that the expressions of the characters acquire a distinct sense of which they intend to; This the case with Oedipus, pawned in find to blame for his misfortune and his city, and doomed to discover that this culprit is himself, for having transgressed, again, the law of nature and blood to kill his father and lie with his mother, even reluctantly.The clash of human law and natural law is central to the work of Sophocles, which is probably true say that it represents the more balanced formulation of cultural conflicts of Fund that Greek tragedy gave out.