Communication in the negotiation of the sale | Marketing Concepts.


Stage Activities and issues
Start Errors of perception, prejudice, attributions and framing.
Intermediate Offers sequences and development of arguments, evolution of work and details, Linguistics and the role of language frameworks, tools of hearing, use of questions.
The end Decision making, avoiding decision traps, get close

Stage start

The role of perception

The sensitive process quickly comes to be overwhelming, so the perception becomes selective, focusing on some stimuli and discarding others.
Part categorizes certain behavior by the other party and reacts.
The processes of collaborative or cooperative tend to increase sensitivity to similarities or common aspects.
Competitive processes tend to minimize the perception of similarities between the parties and increase the perception of threats and differences.
Distortion perceptual which are communication barriers:
Stereotypes: Occurs when the map attributes to people on the basis of belonging to a social or demographic group in particular.
Halo effect: occurs when we generalize about a wide variety of features based on a characteristic or behavior of an individual.
Selective perception - occurs when the person who perceives separates certain information that supports or strengthens a previous belief and filters out other information that does not confirm this belief.
Projection - occurs when an individual assigns a different characteristics or feelings that he possesses.
PERCEPTIVE - defense It helps us to defend ourselves present, distort or ignore information that are threatening our self-image.
Framed (reference frames) - It helps to explain how the negotiators conceived the current events in the light of past experiences.
The framed are mental scripts that describe events past and a pattern of activity.
Example: One may have the framed reference the concept of awareness of high price from the buyer.
There may be a variety of frames of reference.
The following are common frameworks that often have a significant impact on how a given individual perceives the negotiation of sales:
Noun: What negotiation is, important things.
Loss / gain: The risks or benefits of multiple results.
Attribution: Different expectations and evaluations of the conduct and results of others.
Process How the negotiation will be or should be.
Aspiration: It judges the needs and underlying interests of the parties.
Results: The positions or the parties preferred solutions.

When the negotiators are disengaged in which frames are using in bargaining, occur and bad misunderstandings and conflicts.
In such situations, you can be necessary for one or both parties reframing and establish a common framework or understand framework being applied to bargain the other party.
If both sides have different bargaining frameworks but understand these differences, there are great opportunities to roll things (Exchange.)
ERROR of attribution: often people try to explain why others behave the way they do.
These powers are often an error because not all the facts are always available, but negotiators ignored or are wrong in estimating the probability that the attribution is wrong.
Example: The "B" side thinks that Jose is using a negotiating style, very dynamic because he wants to outdo a "B". But the truth is that Jose feels that his new boss expected to be dynamic and he wants to impress the boss.
To explain the behavior of the other party, the tendency is to overestimate the effect of internal (within the individual) or personal factors and underestimated the effect of external factors or situation. This is called 'fundamental attribution error'.
Controversially, there is a strong tendency to attribute our own behavior to factors of situation (effect actor-observador.) "We were forced to take that position".
The combination of these two trends creates significant communication problems.
Prejudices: the negotiation of sales people tend to choose comparisons that will work in their favor.
In the negotiation of sales people tend to believe that they use more constructive tactics that the other party makes it. This effect is strongest when the conflict level is higher.
3. a study showed that the negotiators were less accurate in estimating the results favored by the other party than what were neutral observers.
Ignoring the perception of the others - the negotiators of sales often do not bother to ask about perceptions and thoughts of the other party, which leads them to work with incomplete information which produces bad results.
You can not be set firmly enough that perceptual distortions are often at the heart of troubled individuals and groups communicate disruptions.
These distortions perceptual cause parties to attempt a competitive approach and therefore the other party assumes a defensive attitude. Then, the negotiation of sales quickly becomes an intense negotiation pierdegana. (distributive).
Once a negotiation has firmly become pierdegana (distributive), is very difficult to become a level win / win (integrative).
The selection of the language of one not only designates a position but also creates its form and predicts it.
Research has shown that those parts whose statements communicated interest both in the field as in the results of the negotiations, as well as relations with the other party, got better, more integrated solutions to those parties concerned only by matter or by the relationship.
Constructive communication at the beginning of the negotiation has a value of "set the stage".
Tools hearing and the use of questions.
There are two main techniques suggested to improve the accuracy and efficiency of communication in negotiation; the use of questions and active listening.

Intermediate stage

Sequences of offer

This is a dynamic and interactive process of oferta-contraoferta that narrow the range of transaction to establish a possible point.
The role of the language.
What a negotiator says and how says it has a significant effect on the negotiation.
The other party reacts not only to the substance of the language of a statement but also not spoken messages (for example, a body language.)
Opportunities for misunderstandings abound. Speakers may be poorly trained, or incompetent, inarticulate about trained.
The use of idiomatic turns and colloquialisms by speaker is often problematic, especially in intercultural negotiations.

Final stage

Avoid fatal errors.

1 to try to reach a conclusion to a problem prior to identifying the essence or critical point of the problem (e.g., force a quantitative solution to a relational problem.)
2. the irrational escalation of interest - initial interests often are part stone and the desire for consistency and "save face" prevent negotiators to change.
Mythical beliefs fixed - Many negotiators assume that resources and arguments to be divided between the parties are set to the beginning of the negotiation and that there is no way to increase resources.
Anchoring and adjustment - cognitive pathways to anchor and adjust, relate to the effect of the standard (or anchor) against which subsequent adjustments (win or lose) shall be measured during the negotiation.
Availability of information - information that is presented in a vivid way, full of color and calling attention is easier to remember, and thus becomes a central and critical part in alternatives and evaluations. The information that gets easily often is about evaluates.
The law of small numbers - Is the tendency for people to draw conclusions on the basis of tiny, yet examples of one or two samples. Such small samples often lead to error.
Confidence in own judgment - the blockade, ignorance or fail to seek information that might contradict the opinion or judgement of oneself.
Blindness in the framing - perceiving and then solve the problem wrong, accompanied by ignore other options and losing the vision of objectives since they do not meet the requirements of used framing.
Firing from the rooftop - manage a lot of information in his head rather than adopt and use a systematic process of evaluation, selection, and registration.
Failure group - not well manage the Group process; presuming that intelligent and well-meaning individuals can invariably produce durable and high quality group decisions.
Failure to audit the process of decision - fails to establish and use a plan to avoid the pitfalls listed here, or the failure in the ability or little will to fully understand your own style, especially his weaknesses.


The negotiators need to know when to stay still and avoid unnecessarily provide important information (especially in situations win - lose / distributive.)
And avoid making "stupid redundancies" that lead to a shaky part away from the agreement that is about to sign.
To realize the other silly claims part in what they are and not answer them or allow to be distracted by them.
Negotiators also must prepare for last-minute obstacles.
It is also very important to bring the final agreement to a written form.


Communications are often loaded with multiple meanings and the negotiator should try to "overcome" differences of meaning without angering the speaker or placed in defensive positions.
An excellent technique for more information is through the active listening.
There are three main ways of hearing: the passive listening, the condescension and the active listening.
Passive hearing consists simply in the reception of the message, without retro - feeding the person who emits it about its accuracy or receiving it completely.
Sometimes passive hearing is enough by itself to keep the sender providing information.
With such opposition, an effective tactic is to sit and listen and let the other party to disclose useful information.
The condescension or recognition. When there is recognition, receiver occasionally bows his head as a sign of acceptance, maintains visual contact or emits answers such as"I see", "Interesting", "Really", "Continues", etc.
These responses are sufficient to keep the transmitter by sending messages but the issuer often misinterprets the recognition in the sense that the receiver agrees with your position rather than only you are getting that message.
The active listening occurs when the listener reset or paraphrases the message of the issuer in its own language.
Issuer: "such has me crazy."
Listener: "it seems that you are having trouble with Bob".
Issuer: "I don't know how can I detangle the roll of this problem".
Listener: "you are really confused about how to resolve this".
Issuer: "I think that today's meeting did not lead to anything".
Listener: "you're really disappointed with our session".
The success of the active listening is characterized by:
A greater emphasis on hear and speak.
Respond more to personal points that abstract points (personal feelings, beliefs and positions).
Further the trend toward what the other party wants to talk instead of driving them to areas that we believe that they must be explored.
Clarify what the other has said about his own feelings and thoughts instead of dynamic questions or express opinions on what we believe that others should do or think.
Respond to the other party feel in its communication.
The active listening is a tool that encourages parties to speak more fully about their frames of reference and the positions that they are assuming.
When they do so, we can better understand their interests, factors and information supporting them and the ways in which can be illustrated by the position of the opponent, reconciled or negotiated in accordance with our own preferences and priorities.
Additionally, you don't be afraid to long pauses or silence in communication with prospects.
Breaks give both sides time to think.
It is best to take a break that balbucir with words and phrases from filling.
Breaks also put pressure on the other party to respond.
Sales of top class contain less talk and more questions with the subsequent active listening.
The sales people must develop tools that reveal:
Are who the prospects?
What are the needs of prospects?
Do they buy what, when, how and why?
Who influence the purchasing decision?
They want to benefit of the product?
So fast the prospect what product?
Who is competitive and offer?
Why prospects prefer to one mark on the other?
How will the prospects paid the purchase order?
Kind of post-sale service will require the prospect.?
The questions can be used tactically to rummaging in a negotiation to project future sales or to bypass a blockage in them.
Be sure to not use questions for cross examination by the other party.
The questions can be classified as gerenciables and not gerenciables.
Gerenciables questions create attention and prepare the other party to subsequent questions (how are you?), information (how much cost this?) and urge the other side to get you started to think (has any ideas for improving this?).
Not manageable questions lead to defensiveness and anger at the opponent.

Manageable questions

Open questions - They can not be answered with a simple Yes or no. These questions invite you to think about the other party. They are questions of who, what, when, where and why.
"Why assumes you that position?"
"Do you think our proposal?"
"Who supports that conclusion?"
Emotional questions - measuring how the other party feels.
"Do you feel with our proposal?"
Questions test - They are essential tools to dig deeper information when prospects show difficulty (or reserve) to accurately reflect their needs. Test questions are an essential tool for sales consultant.
Types of test questions:
Clarification – "would like you to explain what you want to say with that?"
Production - "can you tell me something more about your problems?"
Directive - used to get direct answers to specific questions.
Result questions point out the disadvantages of the system of approximation of the prospect. However, they should be used with much tact and emotional content. Be very careful not to criticize earlier customer purchase decisions. "Mr. Comprador, do not you think that the use of XXX will be appropriate for these XXX?".
Conducentes questions - point toward a specific response.
"Do not you think that our proposal is fair and reasonable?"
"I think that you are something more sophisticated than my average customer. You prefer the luxury model, isn't it?"
Additional questions - seek to accommodate the other party at the same time looking for information.
'Could you share your experience about this problem?'

Not manageable questions.

These questions produce disgust and placed the other party in a defensive attitude.
Argumentativas - questions They try to force the other party to see things from our point of view.
"You are not trying to take advantage of us, isn't it?"
Loaded - questions They awaken the emotions and are demanding a specific response from the buyer. They tend to be manipulative and put on the defensive on the other party, but they can be used constructively.
"You want to say that these are the only terms that you accept?"
"I am pleased that the XXX like you do not you think crazy see people take unnecessary risks using XXX?"
Unpleasant - questions They have a high emotional content and elicitan emotional responses of the other party.
"We cannot continue. Have do not we lost enough time discussing your concerns?"

Respuestas-Pregunta for difficult situations

The value of the following questions is in its power to assist or force the other party to the consequences of their conduct, well they are intentionally advance or not.
"Ultimatum of take it or leave it"
Possible answers:
"If we could reach a more attractive than the alternative, what would be your answer?"
"More time would like to consider your offer"
"Would you hold it feels to bring negotiations to a close?"
The other party is using tactics to boost or stopping the bargaining:
"What is the logic behind this position?"
"What do you understand as a fair offer?"
"What patterns do you that it must comply with the final resolution?"
An Impasse:
"What else can we do either to close the gap between our positions?"
"What specific concessions you need me to bring this to closure at this very moment?"
"If we went back in time six weeks and we are seeing come this negotiation, what we wanted to bring to this table '?"
The other party doubts whether or not accept your proposition-
"What is your best alternative to accept my offer already?"
"If you refuse this offer, what replaced it to be better than what you will receive from me?".
"How can you be sure that you will get a better offer elsewhere?"
The other Party asked if the offer you just made you is the same as you used to do to others.
"What sees you as a fair offer and therefore, you think of the offer that do you?"
"Do you think that it is my best interest be unfair with you?"
"Do you think that people can be treated in a different way and, even so, be treated in a fair way?"
You're feeling pressure, controlled or manipulated.
"Not should we move away from this negotiation to feel satisfied?"
"How you feel if our roles were reversed and you were feeling the pressure that I'm feeling I at this time?"
"Do you feeling outside pressure pair conclude these negotiations?"
Of course, the best answer not manageable questions and difficult situations is to have a sexy MOM. (Best alternative to a better deal).


Studies show that 70% of human communication is non-verbal; only 30% is verbal.
Few people are aware of the importance of non-verbal communication.
This discussion about non-verbal communication is focused from a perspective America. There are significant differences in nonverbal communication among different cultures and sellers should familiarise themselves with the cultural differences in nonverbal communication within the vision of its operations.
Proxemics - It is the spatial relationship between people and objects.
Sellers must be especially careful in its approach to the prospect that wants more space and farthest from the customer wanting more privacy.
Americans seem to recognize the following four proxemicas areas in the interaction between two or more people:
The intimate area which stretches out to the length of an arm (more than half a meter) reserved for very dear friends. Once a prospect has become a loyal, an occasional Pat on the back is correct only if the customer initiated that behavior. Until then, stay away from the intimate area of the client.
The personal area which begins the half a metre and ends approximately a meter and a half. This is an area which can normally enter business relations and strangers. Some prospects may feel uncomfortable with new vendors within this area.
Public area - more than 3.5 meters
Social area - 1.5 to 3.5 meters
Area staff - 1.5 to 0.5 meters
Intimate zone – less than 0.5 metres.
The social area is 1.5 to 3.5 meters of the prospectus. When you begin a sales presentation, best thing is to be in this social area. Grows the rapport, the subject can invite him to your personal area to leave your desk or bringing a Chair toward you.
The public area is the most frequently used by sellers who make a presentation to a group of buyers or prospects. The public area is beyond 3.5 metres.
Note: The appropriate communication distance varies from a culture to the other.
For example, in many Spanish-speaking Nations, people prefer to speak at a closer range and may take offense if you retread. In contrast, people in the German-speaking nations feel more comfortable with formality and the spatial distance.
The sales people become more effective communicators when their non-verbal language is in harmony with your verbal language.
When the verbal and non-verbal languages are contradictory, non-verbal communication is often the most accurate.
Effective marketers pay close attention to the nonverbal messages that your prospects sent them since these messages often provide crucial sudden understanding that it carries out the sale.

Non-verbal channels.

General appearance and hygiene. Good presence and personal hygiene are essential to vendors if they want to send positive messages to buyers.

Postures and movements.

Movements body side-to-side express negative feelings.
Back and forth movements usually express positive feelings.
Forward tilt means interest, tilt back always means disinterest, nuisance, annoyance, or doubt.
Rigid or erect posture means defense, while a soft stance indicates disinterest or nuisance.

Movements of legs, arms and hands.

Arms ranging from one side to the other indicate strong anguish.
Excessive and sudden movement with the arms indicate determination or aggression.
The language of the hands is not easy to read since its movements should be interpreted in the context of a given situation.
People shows his impatience by tapping the table with the tip of your fingers.
Closed cuffs are strong defensive or offensive gestures.
Touch the tip of the fingers of one hand with the other to form a type of Bell indicates domain or study of the weight of the alternatives.
The hard handling of a product indicates that the prospect sees it as of little benefit.
The careful handling of the product indicates that the prospect feels that it is valuable.
The cross-legged in a position open to seller sent a message of confidence, interest and cooperation.
Cross-legged away from the seller sent a negative message.
Non-verbal language differs considerably between cultures. For example, in the Arab countries it looks like an insult show somebody the sole of the foot. In non-Arab countries this movement has a very different meaning, if it is to have it.
Characteristics of the voice.
Volume - very low or very high?
Tone - very low or very high?
Clarity - do whisper of words or clear enunciation?
Resonance - do Timbre pleasant voice or not
Inflection - Monotone or change of inflection to emphasize the points?
Speed - very fast or very slow?
Carefully critical of the role played by you to identify the strong and weak points in the non-verbal language.



What are your objectives for coming negotiations? Be as specific as possible. Define what are its:
EXPECTATIONS for - nice to have.
ATTEMPTS to obtain - important
What must obtain - possible obstacles in the negotiation
How do you think what the other party?
Published for educational purposes
Concepts of Leadership and Marketing

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