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Highlights From Bible Reading: 1 Chronicles | texts explained and practical lessons

CHRONICLES, THE BOOKS OF

Two inspired books of the Hebrew Scriptures that were apparently one volume in the original Hebrew canon. The Masoretes regarded them as one single work, and they are reckoned as one book in the counts that regard the Hebrew Scriptures as made up of 22 or 24 books, and as two books in the count that regards the total number of books as 39. The division into two books seemingly originated with the translators of the Greek Septuagint. In Hebrew manuscripts the twofold division began in the 15th century. In the Hebrew text, Chronicles appears at the end of the section called Writings. The Hebrew name, Div•rehʹ Hai•ya•mimʹ, means “The Affairs of the Days.” Jerome suggested the name Khro•ni•konʹ, from which we get Chronicles in the English Bible. A chronicle is a record of happenings in the order in which they occurred. The Greek title (in the Septuagint) is Pa•ra•lei•po•meʹnon, meaning “Things Passed Over (Left Untold; Omitted),” that is, from the books of Samuel and Kings. However, it is to be noted that the Chronicles are by no means a mere supplement to those books.

HIGHLIGHTS OF FIRST CHRONICLES

Genealogy and details regarding true worship at Jehovah’s temple, especially needed following the exile in Babylon
Written perhaps 55 years after Zerubbabel rebuilt the temple, and before Jerusalem’s walls were restored
Genealogies from Adam onward (1:1–9:44)
Judah’s posterity through David and Solomon (vital in identifying the Messiah)
Levi’s posterity (needed to identify those who could properly serve at the temple) and their various temple duties
Saul’s unfaithfulness results in his death (10:1-14)
Aspects of David’s rule as king (11:1–29:30)
Anointed anew as king while at Hebron; captures Zion; later made king over all Israel
Ark of covenant moved improperly, on wagon; Uzzah dies for touching Ark; Ark finally brought to the City of David amid rejoicing
David expresses desire to build a temple for Jehovah; instead, Jehovah makes covenant for royal house to time indefinite with David
Enemies of Israel are defeated on all sides
David is incited by Satan to take a census of Israel; 70,000 die
Extensive preparations made for building of the temple; David organizes the Levites, arranges 24 divisions of priests, also assigns singers, gatekeepers; gives inspired architectural plans to Solomon; David and the people contribute generously
David dies after Solomon begins to sit on “Jehovah’s throne”

OCT. 5 BIBLE READING: 1 CHRONICLES 1-4


(1 CHRONICLES 1:6)

“The sons of Goʹmer were Ashʹke•naz, Riʹphath, and To•garʹmah.”

*** it-1 p. 192 Ashkenaz ***
ASHKENAZ
(Ashʹke•naz).
1. The first named of three sons of Gomer, the son of Japheth.—Ge 10:3; 1Ch 1:6.
In Jewish writings of medieval times (and even thereafter) the term “Ashkenaz” was applied to the Teutonic race, and more specifically to Germany. Thus, even today Jews from Germanic countries are referred to as Ashkenazim in contrast to the Sephardim, Jews from Spain and Portugal.

*** it-2 p. 813 Riphath ***
RIPHATH
(Riʹphath).
A son of Gomer and grandson of Japheth. (Ge 10:2, 3; 1Ch 1:6) At 1 Chronicles 1:6 the Masoretic Hebrew text has “Diphath”; however, the Greek Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate, and some 30 Hebrew manuscripts have “Riphath.” The difference in spelling is perhaps the result of a copyist’s writing the Hebrew daʹleth (ד) instead of the Hebrew rehsh (ר), the letters being very similar in appearance.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:7)

“The sons of Jaʹvan were E•liʹshah, Tarʹshish, Kitʹtim, and Roʹda•nim.”

*** it-2 p. 178 Kittim ***
KITTIM
(Kitʹtim).
Kittim is listed as one of the four “sons” of Javan, although the name appears only in the plural form in all Scriptural references. (Ge 10:4; 1Ch 1:7) The name thereafter is used to represent a people and region.
Josephus (Jewish Antiquities, I, 128 [vi, 1]) referred to Kittim as “Chethimos” and associated it with Cyprus and with “the name Chethim given by the Hebrews to all islands and to most maritime countries.” The ancient Phoenicians referred to the people of Cyprus as Kitti. Modern authorities generally agree with such identification of Kittim with Cyprus.
The city of Kition (Citium) on the SE coast of Cyprus is best known as a Phoenician colony, and so some scholars have viewed the listing of Kittim among the descendants of Japheth as out of place. (Ge 10:2, 4; 1Ch 1:5, 7) However, the evidence shows that the Phoenicians were relative latecomers to Cyprus and their colony at Kition is considered to date from only about the ninth century B.C.E. Thus, after The New Encyclopædia Britannica (1987, Vol. 3, p. 332) identifies Kition as the “principal Phoenician city in Cyprus,” it adds: “The earliest remains at Citium are those of an Aegean colony of the Mycenaean Age (c. 1400-1100 BC).”—See also Vol. 16, p. 948.

*** it-2 p. 819 Rodanim ***
RODANIM
(Roʹda•nim).
Listed as one of Javan’s four sons at 1 Chronicles 1:7. There is uncertainty as to the correct spelling of the name, since the Masoretic text at 1 Chronicles 1:7 has “Rodanim,” whereas many Hebrew manuscripts and the Latin Vulgate here read “Dodanim.” “Dodanim” also appears in the Masoretic text at Genesis 10:4, where, however, the Greek Septuagint and the Samaritan Pentateuch read “Rodanim.” In Hebrew the letter “r” (ר) and the letter “d” (ד) are very similar and hence could be confused by a copyist. (Thus “Riphath” in Ge 10:3 appears as “Diphath” at 1Ch 1:6 in the Masoretic text.) Most translations present both names. Many lexicographers consider “Rodanim” to be the preferred reading. Commentators that accept this reading consider it likely that the people descending from this son of Javan populated the island of Rhodes and the neighboring islands of the Aegean Sea.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:10)

“Cush became father to Nimʹrod. He was the first to become a mighty one on the earth.”

*** it-2 p. 503 Nimrod ***
NIMROD
(Nimʹrod).
Son of Cush. (1Ch 1:10) The rabbinic writings derived the name Nimrod from the Hebrew verb ma•radhʹ, meaning “rebel.” Thus, the Babylonian Talmud (Erubin 53a) states: “Why, then, was he called Nimrod? Because he stirred up the whole world to rebel (himrid) against His [God’s] sovereignty.”—Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation, by Menahem M. Kasher, Vol. II, 1955, p. 79.
Nimrod was the founder and king of the first empire to come into existence after the Flood. He distinguished himself as a mighty hunter “before” (in an unfavorable sense; Heb., liph•nehʹ; “against” or “in opposition to”; compare Nu 16:2; 1Ch 14:8; 2Ch 14:10) or “in front of” Jehovah. (Ge 10:9, ftn) Although in this case some scholars attach a favorable sense to the Hebrew preposition meaning “in front of,” the Jewish Targums, the writings of the historian Josephus, and also the context of Genesis chapter 10 suggest that Nimrod was a mighty hunter in defiance of Jehovah.
The beginning of Nimrod’s kingdom included the cities of Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, all in the land of Shinar. (Ge 10:10) Therefore it was likely under his direction that the building of Babel and its tower began. This conclusion is also in agreement with the traditional Jewish view. Wrote Josephus: “[Nimrod] little by little transformed the state of affairs into a tyranny, holding that the only way to detach men from the fear of God was by making them continuously dependent upon his own power. He threatened to have his revenge on God if He wished to inundate the earth again; for he would build a tower higher than the water could reach and avenge the destruction of their forefathers. The people were eager to follow this advice of [Nimrod], deeming it slavery to submit to God; so they set out to build the tower . . . and it rose with a speed beyond all expectation.”—Jewish Antiquities, I, 114, 115 (iv, 2, 3).
It appears that after the building of the Tower of Babel, Nimrod extended his domain to the territory of Assyria and there built “Nineveh and Rehoboth-Ir and Calah and Resen between Nineveh and Calah: this is the great city.” (Ge 10:11, 12; compare Mic 5:6.) Since Assyria evidently derived its name from Shem’s son Asshur, Nimrod, as a grandson of Ham, must have invaded Shemite territory. So it would seem that Nimrod made the start in becoming a mighty one or hero, not only as a hunter of animals but also as a warrior, a man of aggression. (Ge 10:8) Observes the Cyclopædia by M’Clintock and Strong: “That the mighty hunting was not confined to the chase is apparent from its close connection with the building of eight cities. . . . What Nimrod did in the chase as a hunter was the earlier token of what he achieved as a conqueror. For hunting and heroism were of old specially and naturally associated . . . The Assyrian monuments also picture many feats in hunting, and the word is often employed to denote campaigning. . . . The chase and the battle, which in the same country were connected so closely in aftertimes, may therefore be virtually associated or identified here. The meaning then will be, that Nimrod was the first after the flood to found a kingdom, to unite the fragments of scattered patriarchal rule, and consolidate them under himself as sole head and master; and all this in defiance of Jehovah, for it was the violent intrusion of Hamitic power into a Shemitic territory.”—1894, Vol. VII, p. 109.
Concerning deification of Nimrod, see GODS AND GODDESSES (Babylonian Deities).

(1 CHRONICLES 1:11)

“Mizʹra•im became father to Luʹdim, Anʹa•mim, Le•haʹbim, Naph•tuʹhim,”

*** it-1 p. 103 Anamim ***
ANAMIM
(Anʹa•mim).
Hamitic descendants of Mizraim. Since Mizraim became synonymous with Egypt, it is probable that the Anamim settled there or in that area. (Ge 10:13; 1Ch 1:11) A cuneiform text of the time of Sargon II of Assyria (second half of the eighth century B.C.E.) apparently refers to them under the name “Anami.”

*** it-2 p. 236 Lehabim ***
LEHABIM
(Le•haʹbim).
A name appearing at Genesis 10:13 and 1 Chronicles 1:11 among the descendants of Ham through Mizraim. Since the Hebrew name is a plural form, many scholars hold that a tribe taking its name from one of Mizraim’s sons is meant. (See, however, MIZRAIM.) The Lehabim are generally identified with the Libyans and at least seem to have constituted one of the tribes inhabiting Libya in ancient times. While identification is difficult, they were probably the same as the Lu•vimʹ mentioned elsewhere in the Hebrew text, as at 2 Chronicles 12:3, where the American Standard Version reads “Lubim” and other translations read “Libyans.”—Mo; NW; RS.

*** it-2 p. 418 Mizraim ***
MIZRAIM
(Mizʹra•im).
Listed second among the sons of Ham. (Ge 10:6) Mizraim was the progenitor of the Egyptian tribes (as well as some non-Egyptian tribes), and the name came to be synonymous with Egypt. (Ge 10:13, 14; 50:11) Thus, the word “Egypt” in English translations actually renders the Hebrew Mits•raʹyim (or Ma•tsohrʹ in a few cases, 2Ki 19:24; Isa 19:6; 37:25; Mic 7:12). The Amarna Tablets, written in the first half of the second millennium B.C.E., refer to Egypt as Misri, similar to the modern Arabic name for the land (Misr).
Many scholars hold that Mizraim is a dual form representing the duality of Egypt (that is, Upper and Lower Egypt), but this is conjectural. (See EGYPT, EGYPTIAN.) The names of Mizraim’s descendants are apparently plural forms: Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim, and Caphtorim. (Ge 10:13, 14; 1Ch 1:11, 12) For this reason it is usually suggested that they represent the names of tribes rather than individual sons. Although this is possible, it should be noted that there are other names that appear to be dual or plural in their construction, such as Ephraim, Appaim, and Diblaim (Ge 41:52; 1Ch 2:30, 31; Ho 1:3), each obviously referring to only one individual.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:12)
“Path•ruʹsim, Cas•luʹhim (from whom the Phi•lisʹtines came), and Caphʹto•rim.”


*** it-1 p. 422 Casluhim ***
CASLUHIM
(Cas•luʹhim).
A son or people descended from Mizraim, the son of Ham. The Biblical record shows that it was the Casluhim “from among whom the Philistines went forth.” (Ge 10:6, 13, 14; 1Ch 1:8, 11, 12) Since other texts speak of the Philistines as coming from Caphtor or Crete (Jer 47:4; Am 9:7), some scholars suggest that the above phrase should be transposed to come after the last-named descendant of Mizraim, Caphtorim. However, there is no need to assume a contradiction in these texts. The record at Genesis (paralleled by that in Chronicles) is genealogical. The other references to the Philistines as proceeding from Caphtor are likely geographic, indicating a migration from the territory of the Caphtorim.

*** it-2 p. 418 Mizraim ***
MIZRAIM
(Mizʹra•im).
Listed second among the sons of Ham. (Ge 10:6) Mizraim was the progenitor of the Egyptian tribes (as well as some non-Egyptian tribes), and the name came to be synonymous with Egypt. (Ge 10:13, 14; 50:11) Thus, the word “Egypt” in English translations actually renders the Hebrew Mits•raʹyim (or Ma•tsohrʹ in a few cases, 2Ki 19:24; Isa 19:6; 37:25; Mic 7:12). The Amarna Tablets, written in the first half of the second millennium B.C.E., refer to Egypt as Misri, similar to the modern Arabic name for the land (Misr).
Many scholars hold that Mizraim is a dual form representing the duality of Egypt (that is, Upper and Lower Egypt), but this is conjectural. (See EGYPT, EGYPTIAN.) The names of Mizraim’s descendants are apparently plural forms: Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim, and Caphtorim. (Ge 10:13, 14; 1Ch 1:11, 12) For this reason it is usually suggested that they represent the names of tribes rather than individual sons. Although this is possible, it should be noted that there are other names that appear to be dual or plural in their construction, such as Ephraim, Appaim, and Diblaim (Ge 41:52; 1Ch 2:30, 31; Ho 1:3), each obviously referring to only one individual.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:13)

“Caʹnaan became father to Siʹdon, his firstborn, and Heth,”

*** it-2 pp. 635-636 Phoenicia ***
Origin and Name. The history of the Phoenicians begins after the Flood with Noah’s grandson Canaan, a son of Ham. Canaan became the progenitor of 11 tribes, one of these, the Sidonians, being the descendants of Canaan’s firstborn, Sidon. (Ge 10:15-18; 1Ch 1:13-16) The Sidonians were therefore Canaanites. (Jos 13:4-6; Jg 10:12) They themselves, and others too, called their land Canaan. On a coin of the time of Antiochus Epiphanes the Syrophoenician city of Laodicea is described as “a mother city of Canaan.”
However, in time the Greeks preferred to call these Canaanite Sidonians by yet another term, Phoenicians. So it was that Canaanite, Sidonian, and Phoenician were names sometimes used interchangeably for the same people. In Isaiah’s prophecy, for example, Phoenicia is termed “Canaan.”—Isa 23:11; JP; RS; NW, ftn.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:14)

“as well as the Jebʹu•site, the Amʹor•ite, the Girʹga•shite,”

*** it-1 p. 962 Girgashite(s) ***
GIRGASHITE(S)
(Girʹga•shite[s]).
A people descended from Ham through Canaan. (Ge 10:6, 15, 16; 1Ch 1:8, 13, 14) The Girgashites resided W of the Jordan. Although powerful, they and six other Canaanite nations suffered defeat, for Jehovah delivered them into the hands of his people. (De 7:1, 2; Jos 3:10; 24:11) This fulfilled God’s promise made to Abraham centuries earlier. (Ge 15:13-21; Ne 9:7, 8) The names “Girgash” and “Ben-Girgash,” found in the Ugaritic literature, have been cited as indirect confirmation of the Girgashites’ existence.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:15)

“the Hiʹvite, the Arkʹite, the Siʹnite,”

*** it-1 p. 165 Arkite ***
ARKITE
(Arkʹite).
Descendants of Ham through Canaan and one of the 70 post-Flood families. (Ge 10:17; 1Ch 1:15) They settled along the Mediterranean Coast W of the Lebanon Mountains.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:17)

“The sons of Shem were Eʹlam, Asʹshur, Ar•pachʹshad, Lud, and Aʹram, and Uz, Hul, Geʹther, and Mash.”

*** it-1 pp. 701-702 Elam ***
ELAM
(Eʹlam).
1. One of the five sons of Shem from whom descended “families, according to their tongues, in their lands, according to their nations.” (Ge 10:22, 31; 1Ch 1:17) The names of Elam’s sons are not specified; his name, however, designates both a people and a region on the SE border of Mesopotamia.
Historically, the name Elam applied to an area in what is now called Khuzestan in SW Iran. It included the fertile plain on the eastern side of the lower Tigris Valley, watered by the Karun and Karkheh rivers, and evidently extended into the mountainous regions bordering this plain on the N and E, although these two boundaries are the least certain. A region called Anshan is believed to have been situated in these mountainous regions and is represented in inscriptions as forming a part of Elam from an early period. Elam, located at the extreme eastern end of the Fertile Crescent, was, therefore, in somewhat of a frontier position, being one of the regions where territory populated and generally dominated by Semitic races confronted or merged with races descended from Noah’s other sons, principally the Japhetic line.
The land of Elam was called elamtu by the Assyrians and Babylonians and Elymais by the classical Greek writers, who also at times referred to it as “Susiana” after the city of Susa, or Shushan, at one time evidently the capital of Elam. Under the Persian Empire, Susa (Shushan) was a royal city. (Ne 1:1; Es 1:2) It was situated on the trade routes leading off to the SE and also up into the Iranian plateau. Efforts to gain control of these routes made Elam the object of frequent invasion by Assyrian and Babylonian rulers.
Language. In discussing Elam, reference works generally claim that the writer of Genesis listed Elam under Shem only on a political or a geographic basis since, they say, the people of Elam were not Semitic. This view they base on the claim that the language of the Elamites was not Semitic. Investigation, however, reveals that the earliest inscriptions found in the geographic region designated Elam are “mere lists of objects pictorially jotted down on clay-tablets with the numbers of each beside them, indicated by a simple system of strokes, circles and semicircles . . . their contents at this time are purely economic or administrative.” (Semitic Writing, by G. R. Driver, London, 1976, pp. 2, 3) These inscriptions could reasonably be called “Elamite” only as meaning that they were found in the territory of Elam.
The weight of the argument of those opposing the inclusion of Elam among the Semitic peoples, therefore, rests principally upon later inscriptions in cuneiform, regarded as dating considerably within the second millennium B.C.E., as well as on the Behistun monument (of the sixth century B.C.E.), which contains parallel texts in Old Persian, Akkadian, and “Elamite.” The cuneiform inscriptions attributed to the Elamites are said to be in an agglutinative language (one in which root words are joined together to form compounds, thereby distinguished from inflectional languages). Philologists have not been able successfully to relate this “Elamite” language to any other known tongue.
In evaluating the above information, it should be remembered that the geographic region in which the descendants of Elam eventually concentrated may well have been occupied by other peoples prior to or even during such Elamite residence there, just as the early non-Semitic Sumerians resided in Babylonia. The Encyclopædia Britannica (1959, Vol. 8, p. 118) states: “The whole country [designated Elam] was occupied by a variety of tribes, speaking agglutinative dialects for the most part, though the western districts were occupied by Semites.”—Italics ours; MAP and CHART, Vol. 1, p. 329.
That the cuneiform inscriptions found in the region of Elam would not of themselves prove that the true Elamites were originally non-Semitic can be seen from the many ancient historical examples that can be cited of peoples adopting a tongue other than their own because of domination or infiltration by foreign elements. There are likewise examples of ancient peoples simultaneously employing another language along with their own for commercial and international uses, even as Aramaic became a lingua franca used by many peoples. The “Hittites” of Karatepe wrote bilingual inscriptions (evidently in the eighth century B.C.E.) in “Hittite” hieroglyphic script and in old Phoenician. Some 30,000 clay tablets of the time of Persian King Darius I were found at Persepolis, a royal Persian city. They were mainly in the language termed “Elamite.” Yet Persepolis would not be called an Elamite city.
Further showing that it is unwise to view the table of nations at Genesis chapter 10 as purely geographic, and not actually genealogical, is the evidence in the form of sculptures carved for Elamite kings and dated by archaeologists as far back as the time of Sargon I (whose rule they assign to the latter part of the third millennium). These sculptures not only present the form of typical Akkadian (Semitic Assyro-Babylonian) figures but also bear Akkadian inscriptions.—The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, edited by J. D. Douglas, 1980, Vol. 1, p. 433.

*** it-1 p. 1157 Hul ***
HUL
A son of Aram. (Ge 10:23) At 1 Chronicles 1:17, though, Hul appears to be listed as a son of Shem. In the Alexandrine Manuscript and Hebrew manuscript Kennicott 175, 1 Chronicles 1:17 reads as does Genesis 10:23, having the phrase “and the sons of Aram” before listing Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash. So, the omission of the words “and the sons of Aram” at 1 Chronicles 1:17 in the Masoretic text may be due to scribal error. But this is not necessarily the case; in the Scriptures, “sons” can also include grandsons and even later descendants. (For what might be a comparable situation, see 1Ch 1:4, where Shem, Ham, and Japheth are not introduced as sons of Noah, perhaps because their relationship to Noah was so well known that the original writer felt it unnecessary to make the identification.)

*** it-2 p. 349 Mash ***
MASH
A descendant of Shem through Aram. (Ge 10:22, 23; 1Ch 1:17, Sy and six Heb. manuscripts) At 1 Chronicles 1:17 the Masoretic text reads “Meshech” instead of “Mash.” But this is probably a scribal error, since Meshech is listed as a “son” of Japheth.—Ge 10:2; 1Ch 1:5.

*** it-2 p. 919 Shem ***
The fact that Shem is mentioned first is of itself no definite indication that Shem was Noah’s firstborn, since Shem’s own firstborn son (Arpachshad) is listed third in the genealogical records. (Ge 10:22; 1Ch 1:17)

*** it-2 p. 919 Shem ***
After Aram, the parallel account at 1 Chronicles 1:17 also lists “Uz and Hul and Gether and Mash,” but at Genesis 10:23 these are shown to be sons of Aram. Biblical and other historical evidence indicates that Shem was thus the progenitor of the Semitic peoples: the Elamites, the Assyrians, the early Chaldeans, the Hebrews, the Aramaeans (or Syrians), various Arabian tribes, and perhaps the Lydians of Asia Minor. This would mean that the population descended from Shem was concentrated principally in the southwestern corner of the Asiatic continent, extending throughout most of the Fertile Crescent and occupying a considerable portion of the Arabian Peninsula.—See articles under the names of the individual sons of Shem.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:18)

“Ar•pachʹshad became father to Sheʹlah, and Sheʹlah became father to Eʹber.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 8 par. 5 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
1:18—Who was Shelah’s father—Cainan or Arpachshad? (Luke 3:35, 36) Arpachshad was the father of Shelah. (Genesis 10:24; 11:12) The term “Cainan” at Luke 3:36 may well be a corruption of the term “Chaldeans.” If this is so, the original text may have read, “the son of Chaldean Arpachshad.” Or it may be that the names Cainan and Arpachshad refer to one and the same person. Not to be overlooked is the fact that the expression “son of Cainan” is not found in some manuscripts.—Luke 3:36, footnote.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:36)

“The sons of Elʹi•phaz were Teʹman, Oʹmar, Zeʹpho, Gaʹtam, Keʹnaz, Timʹna, and Amʹa•lek.”

*** it-2 p. 1104 Timna ***
TIMNA
(Timʹna).
1. Concubine of Esau’s son Eliphaz and mother of Amalek. (Ge 36:10-12) In the genealogy at 1 Chronicles 1:36, there are first enumerated five sons of Esau’s son Eliphaz. Next are added, “Timna and Amalek.” Professor C. F. Keil remarks on this: “The addition of the two names Timna and Amalek in the Chronicle thus appears to be merely an abbreviation, which the author might well allow himself, as the posterity of Esau were known to his readers from Genesis. The name Timna, too, by its form (a feminine formation), must have guarded against the idea of some modern exegetes that Timna was also a son of Eliphaz.” (Commentary on the Old Testament, 1973, Vol. III, First Chronicles, p. 53) Thus, Eliphaz’ six sons were listed, but with the notation that one of them, Amalek, was of Eliphaz’ concubine, Timna. It must be remembered that Amalek became a nation that hated God’s people and concerning whom Jehovah said: “Jehovah will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.” (Ex 17:8-16) Thus the accounts, both in Genesis and in Chronicles, give this detail concerning the origin of Amalek. This Timna is possibly the same as No. 2.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:41)

“The son of Aʹnah was Diʹshon. The sons of Diʹshon were Hemʹdan, Eshʹban, Ithʹran, and Cheʹran.”

*** it-1 p. 101 Amram ***
3. Name given to a Seirite, a son of Dishon, in the King James Version rendering of 1 Chronicles 1:41.—See HEMDAN.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:42)

“The sons of Eʹzer were Bilʹhan, Zaʹa•van, and Aʹkan. The sons of Diʹshan were Uz and Aʹran.”

*** it-1 p. 68 Akan ***
AKAN
(Aʹkan).
Last named of three sons of Sheik Ezer of the Seirites. (Ge 36:20, 21, 27) The Masoretic text reads “Jaakan” at 1 Chronicles 1:42, but the Greek Septuagint (Codex Alexandrinus) and 22 Hebrew manuscripts read “Akan” in agreement with Genesis 36:27.

*** it-1 pp. 635-636 Dishan ***
DISHAN
(Diʹshan) [possibly, Antelope].
A Seirite, a sheik of the Horite in the land of Edom. (Ge 36:20, 21; 1Ch 1:38) Genesis 36:28 says the sons of “Dishan” were Uz and Aran, while 1 Chronicles 1:42 in the Hebrew Masoretic text, Greek Septuagint, and Syriac Peshitta refers to “Dishon” as their progenitor. This difference in vocalization, apparently the result of a copyist’s error, is resolved in many English translations (AS, KJ, JB, Le, NW, Ro, Yg) by using the same rendering in both texts, as does the Clementine recension of the Latin Vulgate.

*** it-1 p. 636 Dishon ***
DISHON
(Diʹshon) [possibly, Antelope].
The name of one or possibly two different men in the genealogies recorded at Genesis 36:20-28 and 1 Chronicles 1:38-42.
At Genesis 36:20, 21 (also vss 29, 30) seven “sons of Seir the Horite” are listed as sheiks, namely, Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. Then, in verses 22 to 28, each of the seven sheiks is listed with his sons. At verse 25 one of the sons of Anah is named Dishon. Some believe that this Dishon is a grandson of Seir and a nephew of Sheik Dishon, considering that the seven sheiks were all “sons” of Seir in the strict sense of the word, that is, of the same generation.
Others, however, believe the account to present the seven sheiks merely as descendants of Seir, not of the same generation, hence “sons” in the broad sense of the word. So they suggest that the Dishon of verse 25 is the same as Sheik Dishon (Ge 36:21, 26) and not his nephew. According to this view, although actually the son of Sheik Anah, Dishon is named with the other six sheiks not because of being their brother but because of being their equal in the sense of being a sheik.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:48)

“When Samʹlah died, Shaʹul from Re•hoʹboth by the River began to reign in his place.”

*** it-2 p. 768 Rehoboth ***
2. A city of unknown location from which came Shaul, an early Edomite king. (Ge 36:31, 37; 1Ch 1:43, 48) In both references to it, the place is called “Rehoboth by the River.” Generally in the Bible the designation “the River” means the Euphrates. (Ps 72:8; 2Ch 9:26; compare Ex 23:31 and De 11:24.) Thus some geographers have suggested either of two sites near the junction of the Khabur and Euphrates rivers. This would mean, however, that Shaul was from a city far outside of Edomite territory. Certain modern geographers, however, believe that in these two instances “the River” refers to a river in Edom or near one of its borders, such as the Zered (Wadi el-Hasaʼ) running into the southern end of the Dead Sea. Geographer J. Simons proposes a site about 37 km (23 mi) SE of the tip of the Dead Sea.

(1 CHRONICLES 1:51)

“Then Haʹdad died. The sheikhs of Eʹdom were Sheikh Timʹna, Sheikh Alʹvah, Sheikh Jeʹtheth,”

*** it-2 p. 1104 Timna ***
3. The first name found in the list of 11 “sheiks of Esau,” or Edom. (Ge 36:40-43; 1Ch 1:51-54) In the view of many translators, Timna and the other names listed are personal names. (AS, KJ, JB, NW, RS) However, it is generally acknowledged that the expression “according to their families, according to their places, by their names” indicates that a tribe or an area is meant. Some versions therefore prefer expressions such as “the chief of Timna.” (JP, AT) In fact, at Genesis 36:41, in the same list, a woman’s name, Oholibamah, appears, allowing for the name Timna to be that of a woman. Eusebius and Jerome identified Timna with an Edomite site called “Thamna,” which stood in their day. (Onomasticon, 96, 24-27) However, the location of any such region named for Timna is currently unknown.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:6)

“The sons of Zeʹrah were Zimʹri, Eʹthan, Heʹman, Calʹcol, and Daʹra. There were five of them in all.”

*** it-1 p. 765 Ethan ***
1. One of four men whose wisdom, though great, was exceeded by Solomon’s. (1Ki 4:31) This Ethan may be the writer of Psalm 89, for the superscription identifies Ethan the Ezrahite as its writer. In 1 Chronicles 2:6, Ethan, Heman, Calcol, and Dara are all spoken of as sons of Zerah of the tribe of Judah and possibly are the same as the men mentioned in First Kings. Ethan is referred to as the father of Azariah.—1Ch 2:8; see EZRAHITE.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:15)

“Oʹzem the sixth, and David the seventh.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 1 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
2:15—Was David the seventh son of Jesse? No. Jesse had eight sons, and David was the youngest. (1 Samuel 16:10, 11; 17:12) One of the sons of Jesse evidently died without having any children. Since that son would have no bearing on genealogical records, Ezra omitted his name.

*** w02 9/15 p. 31 Questions From Readers ***
• Why does 1 Chronicles 2:13-15 refer to David as the seventh son of Jesse, whereas 1 Samuel 16:10, 11 indicates that he was the eighth?
After King Saul of ancient Israel turned away from true worship, Jehovah God sent the prophet Samuel to anoint one of Jesse’s sons as king. The divine record of this historical event, written by Samuel himself in the 11th century B.C.E., presents David as the eighth son of Jesse. (1 Samuel 16:10-13) Yet, the account penned by Ezra the priest some 600 years later says: “Jesse, in turn, became father to his firstborn Eliab, and Abinadab the second, and Shimea the third, Nethanel the fourth, Raddai the fifth, Ozem the sixth, David the seventh.” (1 Chronicles 2:13-15) What happened to one of David’s brothers, and why does Ezra omit his name?
The Scriptures state that Jesse “had eight sons.” (1 Samuel 17:12) One of his sons evidently did not live long enough to get married and have children. Having no descendants, he would have no claim in tribal inheritance nor any bearing on genealogical records of Jesse’s lineage.
Now let us think of Ezra’s day. Consider the setting under which he compiled Chronicles. The exile in Babylon ended about 77 years earlier, and the Jews were resettled in their land. The king of Persia had authorized Ezra to appoint judges and teachers of the Law of God and to beautify the house of Jehovah. There was a need for accurate genealogical lists to confirm the tribal inheritances and to ensure that only authorized people served in the priesthood. So Ezra prepared a full account of the nation’s history, including a clear and dependable record of the lineage of Judah and of David. The name of the son of Jesse who died childless would be irrelevant. Hence, Ezra omitted his name.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:16)

“Their sisters were Ze•ruʹiah and Abʹi•gail. The sons of Ze•ruʹiah were A•bishʹai, Joʹab, and Asʹa•hel, three.”

*** it-1 p. 21 Abigail ***
However, it is noteworthy that the record at 1 Chronicles 2:13-16 does not call Abigail and Zeruiah ‘daughters of Jesse’ but rather “sisters” of Jesse’s sons, including David. This allows for the possibility that their mother had first been married to a man named Nahash, to whom she bore Abigail and Zeruiah before becoming Jesse’s wife and the mother of his sons. It cannot, therefore, be stated dogmatically that Abigail was the daughter of Jesse.—See NAHASH No. 2.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:17)

“Abʹi•gail gave birth to A•maʹsa, and the father of A•maʹsa was Jeʹther the Ishʹma•el•ite.”

*** it-2 p. 72 Jether ***
6. Father of David’s onetime army chief Amasa. (1Ki 2:5, 32) Second Samuel 17:25 in the Masoretic text calls him Ithra and says that he was an Israelite, but 1 Chronicles 2:17 calls him an Ishmaelite, possibly because he lived for a time among the Ishmaelites.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:24)

“After the death of Hezʹron in Caʹleb-ephʹra•thah, A•biʹjah the wife of Hezʹron bore him Ashʹhur the father of Te•koʹa.”

*** it-1 pp. 191-192 Ashhur ***
ASHHUR
(Ashʹhur) [possibly, Blackness].
According to the Masoretic text, the son of Hezron, born after his father’s death; the great-grandson of Judah. (1Ch 2:4, 5, 24; see HEZRON No. 2.) By his two wives he fathered seven sons. (1Ch 4:5-7) He is also said to be the father of Tekoa, which appears to mean that he was the founder of the town by that name.

*** it-1 pp. 1105-1106 Hezron ***
According to the reading of 1 Chronicles 2:24 in the Masoretic text, Hezron died at Caleb-ephrathah, and after this his widow Abijah bore Ashhur, the father of Tekoa. However, some scholars believe that the Masoretic text does not preserve the original reading, since Hezron is listed among the 70 “souls of the house of Jacob who came into Egypt” and so must have died in that land (Ge 46:12, 26, 27), and it seems to them unlikely that a place in Egypt bore the Hebrew name Caleb-ephrathah. Hence, many translators have emended 1 Chronicles 2:24 to correspond more to the readings of the Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate. The Jerusalem Bible renders this text: “After Hezron’s death, Caleb married Ephrathah, wife of Hezron his father, who bore him Ashhur, father of Tekoa.” The translation by J. B. Rotherham reads: “And after the death of Hezron Caleb entered Ephrathah, and the wife of Hezron was Abiah who bare him Ashhur father of Tekoa.” So, according to these alterations, “Ashhur” is either the “son” of Hezron by Abiah (Abijah) or the “son” of Caleb by Ephrathah.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:45)

“The son of Shamʹmai was Maʹon. Maʹon was the father of Beth-zur.”

*** it-1 p. 306 Beth-zur ***
The name Beth-zur appears in a genealogical list of the descendants of Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel at 1 Chronicles 2:45. Maon is there said to be “the father of Beth-zur.” Many commentators understand Beth-zur to refer to the town of that name, Maon in such case being the father of those settling there, or perhaps the chief or principal one of the city.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:46)

“Caʹleb’s concubine Eʹphah gave birth to Haʹran, Moʹza, and Gaʹzez. Haʹran became father to Gaʹzez.”

*** it-1 p. 902 Gazez ***
GAZEZ
(Gaʹzez) [Shearer].
First Chronicles 2:46 says Caleb’s concubine Ephah gave birth to Haran, Moza, and Gazez, and then it states that Haran “became father to Gazez.” Hence, there may have been two men named Gazez: (1) a son of Caleb, and (2) a grandson of Caleb. But if the expression, “As for Haran, he became father to Gazez,” is simply a clarification identifying the Gazez mentioned initially as, not Caleb’s son, but his grandson, this would mean there was only one Gazez, namely, the son of Haran and grandson of Caleb.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:49)

“In time she bore Shaʹaph the father of Mad•manʹnah, Sheʹva the father of Mach•beʹnah, and Gibʹe•a. Caʹleb’s daughter was Achʹsah.”

*** it-1 p. 389 Caleb ***
Achsah is listed as the daughter of “Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel” (No. 1 above) who lived about a century and a half before “Caleb the son of Jephunneh.” (1Ch 2:42, 49) Some commentators say there was only one Caleb. But the great lapse of time between Judah’s grandson Hezron and the settlement of Canaan precludes such a conclusion. Others say that both Calebs must have had daughters by the same name. However, women are mentioned in genealogies only when they have had a major role in the history of God’s people. And since there was only one famous Achsah, she must have been the daughter of the second Caleb, the son of Jephunneh. Still other commentators would drop this statement about Achsah from the verse (1Ch 2:49) as a misplaced scribal addition, but they have no textual authority. However, it is more reasonable to think that the original writer intentionally included this abrupt notice in verse 49 for a special purpose, using “daughter” in its wider sense to mean a descendant to call attention to the fact that Achsah was not only the daughter of Caleb the son of Jephunneh but also a direct descendant of Caleb the son of Hezron.

*** it-2 p. 290 Madmannah ***
1. This name appears in the list of descendants of Judah through Caleb. Caleb’s concubine Maacah is stated to have borne “Shaaph the father of Madmannah.” (1Ch 2:49) However, most scholars consider the term “father” to be used here in the sense of “founder” and consider Madmannah in this text to correspond with the town considered below, Shaaph being viewed as the founder or perhaps the rebuilder thereof after its capture. It may be noted that the names of Kiriath-jearim and Bethlehem appear in a similar context in the following verses.—1Ch 2:50, 54.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:50)

“These were the descendants of Caʹleb. The sons of Hur the firstborn of Ephʹra•thah were Shoʹbal the father of Kirʹi•ath-jeʹa•rim,”

*** it-1 p. 909 Genealogy ***
Cities and plural names. In some lists a man may be said to be “the father” of a certain city, as at 1 Chronicles 2:50-54, where, for example, Salma is called “the father of Bethlehem” and Shobal “the father of Kiriath-jearim.” Evidently the cities of Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim were either founded by these men or populated by their descendants. The same list reads further: “The sons of Salma were Bethlehem and the Netophathites, Atroth-beth-joab and half of the Manahathites, the Zorites.” (1Ch 2:54) Here Netophathites, Manahathites, and Zorites were evidently families.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:51)

“Salʹma the father of Bethʹle•hem, and Haʹreph the father of Beth-gaʹder.”

*** it-1 pp. 299-300 Bethlehem ***
Among the early descendants of Jacob’s son Judah are mentioned “Salma the father of Bethlehem” (1Ch 2:51, 54) and “Hur the firstborn of Ephrathah the father of Bethlehem.” (1Ch 4:4) This expression may point to these men as forefathers of the Israelites who later occupied Bethlehem.

*** it-1 p. 909 Genealogy ***
Cities and plural names. In some lists a man may be said to be “the father” of a certain city, as at 1 Chronicles 2:50-54, where, for example, Salma is called “the father of Bethlehem” and Shobal “the father of Kiriath-jearim.” Evidently the cities of Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim were either founded by these men or populated by their descendants. The same list reads further: “The sons of Salma were Bethlehem and the Netophathites, Atroth-beth-joab and half of the Manahathites, the Zorites.” (1Ch 2:54) Here Netophathites, Manahathites, and Zorites were evidently families.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:52)

“Shoʹbal the father of Kirʹi•ath-jeʹa•rim had sons: Ha•roʹeh and half of the Me•nuʹhoth.”

*** it-1 p. 909 Genealogy ***
Cities and plural names. In some lists a man may be said to be “the father” of a certain city, as at 1 Chronicles 2:50-54, where, for example, Salma is called “the father of Bethlehem” and Shobal “the father of Kiriath-jearim.” Evidently the cities of Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim were either founded by these men or populated by their descendants. The same list reads further: “The sons of Salma were Bethlehem and the Netophathites, Atroth-beth-joab and half of the Manahathites, the Zorites.” (1Ch 2:54) Here Netophathites, Manahathites, and Zorites were evidently families.

*** it-2 p. 372 Menuhoth ***
MENUHOTH
(Me•nuʹhoth) [Resting-Places].
According to the Masoretic text, apparently a Judean family descended through Shobal. (1Ch 2:4, 52) But some scholars prefer emending the Hebrew text to read “the Manahathites,” as in verse 54. (JB, Mo) And a Jewish commentary on Chronicles gives the alternate reading “who supervised half of the resting-places” and notes: “Shobal was in charge of half the caravan stations in the land of Judah.”—Soncino Books of the Bible, edited by A. Cohen, London, 1952, p. 15.

(1 CHRONICLES 2:54)

“The sons of Salʹma were Bethʹle•hem, the Ne•tophʹa•thites, Atʹroth-beth-joʹab, half of the Man•a•haʹthites, and the Zorʹites.”

*** it-1 pp. 214-215 Atroth-beth-joab ***
ATROTH-BETH-JOAB
(Atʹroth-beth-joʹab) [Crowns [that is, circular enclosures] of the House of Joab].
A name appearing among “the sons of Salma” in the genealogy of the tribe of Judah. (1Ch 2:54) Some consider this to be the name of a town in Judah, pointing to the inclusion of such names as Kiriath-jearim, Beth-gader, Bethlehem, and others in these genealogies. However, the mere correspondency of a name with that of a town is not a certain indication that the town is referred to, since there are numerous instances of persons and towns bearing the same name. Nevertheless, the form or meaning of certain names in the genealogies does seem to be of a geographic nature rather than a personal one. The solution may rest in the view held by many scholars that it is more precisely to the inhabitants of the town that reference is made, rather than to the geographic site itself. Thus, the expression “father of” in certain occurrences is understood to mean the “founder of” or “chief settler of” the particular population dwelling in the place indicated.
It may be noted that the word “father” appears in the original Hebrew at Genesis 4:20, 21 but in some translations is rendered “ancestor” (AT; JB) or “founder” (NW). Hebrew lexicons include among the possible meanings of the Hebrew term “father” that of “ruler, chief” (A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, by Brown, Driver, and Briggs, 1980, p. 3), “forefather, ancestor of tribe, nation . . . of a place . . . founder of a class or station, . . . of a trade . . . founder, chief magistrate of a place.” (Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libros, by L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Leiden, 1958, p. 1)—Compare Isa 22:20-22.

*** it-1 pp. 299-300 Bethlehem ***
Among the early descendants of Jacob’s son Judah are mentioned “Salma the father of Bethlehem” (1Ch 2:51, 54) and “Hur the firstborn of Ephrathah the father of Bethlehem.” (1Ch 4:4) This expression may point to these men as forefathers of the Israelites who later occupied Bethlehem.

*** it-1 p. 909 Genealogy ***
Cities and plural names. In some lists a man may be said to be “the father” of a certain city, as at 1 Chronicles 2:50-54, where, for example, Salma is called “the father of Bethlehem” and Shobal “the father of Kiriath-jearim.” Evidently the cities of Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim were either founded by these men or populated by their descendants. The same list reads further: “The sons of Salma were Bethlehem and the Netophathites, Atroth-beth-joab and half of the Manahathites, the Zorites.” (1Ch 2:54) Here Netophathites, Manahathites, and Zorites were evidently families.

(1 CHRONICLES 3:5)

“These were born to him in Jerusalem: Shimʹe•a, Shoʹbab, Nathan, and Solʹo•mon; the mother of these four was Bath-sheʹba the daughter of Amʹmi•el.”

*** it-1 p. 708 Eliam ***
1. Father of Bath-sheba. (2Sa 11:3) Called Ammiel at 1 Chronicles 3:5.

(1 CHRONICLES 3:6)

“And nine other sons were Ibʹhar, E•lishʹa•ma, E•liphʹe•let,”

*** it-1 p. 719 Elishua ***
ELISHUA
(E•liʹshu•a) [God Is Salvation].
One of the sons born to King David in Jerusalem. (2Sa 5:15; 1Ch 14:5) Elishua is called Elishama at 1 Chronicles 3:6.—See ELISHAMA No. 3.

*** it-1 p. 718 Elishama ***
3. A son born to David in Jerusalem. This Elishama is listed as Elishua in 2 Samuel 5:15, in 1 Chronicles 14:5, and in two Hebrew manuscripts at 1 Chronicles 3:6. Elishua is generally considered to be the correct name, as the name Elishama appears again in 1 Chronicles 3:8 and therefore could easily have crept into verse 6 through a scribal error. However, since the Hebrew Masoretic text, the Greek Septuagint, the Syriac Peshitta, and the Latin Vulgate read “Elishama” at 1 Chronicles 3:6, this form of the name has been retained in the New World Translation as well as other translations.

(1 CHRONICLES 3:15)

“The sons of Jo•siʹah were the firstborn, Jo•haʹnan, the second, Je•hoiʹa•kim, the third, Zed•e•kiʹah, the fourth, Shalʹlum.”

*** it-2 p. 86 Johanan ***
4. Firstborn son of King Josiah. (1Ch 3:15) Since he is nowhere mentioned in connection with succession to the throne of Judah, as are his three younger brothers, he must have died before his father’s death.—2Ki 23:30, 34; 24:17; Jer 22:11; see JOSIAH No. 1.

*** it-2 p. 1227 Zedekiah ***
At 1 Chronicles 3:15, Zedekiah is listed as the “third” son of Josiah. Whereas he was actually the fourth son in the order of birth (compare 2Ki 23:30, 31; 24:18; Jer 22:11), he may here be placed before his full brother Shallum (Jehoahaz) because of having ruled much longer.

(1 CHRONICLES 3:17)

“The sons of Jec•o•niʹah the prisoner were She•alʹti•el,”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 2 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
3:17—Why does Luke 3:27 refer to Jeconiah’s son Shealtiel as the son of Neri? Jeconiah was the father of Shealtiel. However, Neri apparently gave his daughter to Shealtiel as a wife. Luke referred to Neri’s son-in-law as Neri’s son just as he did in the case of Joseph, calling him the son of Mary’s father, Heli.—Luke 3:23.

*** w92 7/15 pp. 5-6 Does the Bible Contradict Itself? ***
▪ Who was the father of Shealtiel?
Certain texts indicate that Jeconiah (King Jehoiachin) was the fleshly father of Shealtiel. (1 Chronicles 3:16-18; Matthew 1:12) But the Gospel writer Luke called Shealtiel the “son of Neri.” (Luke 3:27) Neri apparently gave his daughter to Shealtiel as a wife. Since the Hebrews commonly referred to a son-in-law as a son, especially in genealogical listings, Luke could properly call Shealtiel the son of Neri. Similarly, Luke referred to Joseph as the son of Heli, who was actually the father of Joseph’s wife, Mary.—Luke 3:23.

*** it-1 p. 147 Archaeology ***
Near the Ishtar Gate in Babylon some 300 cuneiform tablets were uncovered relating to the period of King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. Among lists of the names of workers and captives then living in Babylon to whom provisions were given appears that of “Yaukin, king of the land of Yahud,” that is, “Jehoiachin, the king of the land of Judah,” who was taken to Babylon at the time of Nebuchadnezzar’s conquest of Jerusalem in 617 B.C.E. He was released from the house of detention by Awil-Marduk (Evil-merodach), Nebuchadnezzar’s successor, and was given a daily allowance of food. (2Ki 25:27-30) Five of Jehoiachin’s sons are also mentioned on these tablets.—1Ch 3:17, 18.

*** it-1 p. 199 Assir ***
The King James Version uses the name Assir at 1 Chronicles 3:17; however, many modern translations (AS, AT, Mo, NW, Ro, RS) view the Hebrew word here, not as a proper name, but, rather, as an expression descriptive of Jeconiah (Jehoiachin) as a captive or prisoner in Babylon. (2Ki 24:12-15; 25:27-30) The New World Translation fittingly reads: “And the sons of Jeconiah as prisoner [ʼas•sirʹ] were Shealtiel . . .”

(1 CHRONICLES 3:18)

“Mal•chiʹram, Pe•daiʹah, She•nazʹzar, Jek•a•miʹah, Hoshʹa•ma, and Ned•a•biʹah.”

*** it-1 p. 147 Archaeology ***
Near the Ishtar Gate in Babylon some 300 cuneiform tablets were uncovered relating to the period of King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. Among lists of the names of workers and captives then living in Babylon to whom provisions were given appears that of “Yaukin, king of the land of Yahud,” that is, “Jehoiachin, the king of the land of Judah,” who was taken to Babylon at the time of Nebuchadnezzar’s conquest of Jerusalem in 617 B.C.E. He was released from the house of detention by Awil-Marduk (Evil-merodach), Nebuchadnezzar’s successor, and was given a daily allowance of food. (2Ki 25:27-30) Five of Jehoiachin’s sons are also mentioned on these tablets.—1Ch 3:17, 18.

(1 CHRONICLES 3:19)

“The sons of Pe•daiʹah were Ze•rubʹba•bel and Shimʹe•i; and the sons of Ze•rubʹba•bel were Me•shulʹlam and Han•a•niʹah (and She•loʹmith was their sister);”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 3 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
3:17-19—How were Zerubbabel, Pedaiah, and Shealtiel related? Zerubbabel was a son of Pedaiah, who was a brother of Shealtiel. Yet, the Bible at times calls Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel. (Matthew 1:12; Luke 3:27) This could be because Pedaiah died and Shealtiel raised Zerubbabel. Or perhaps since Shealtiel died without having a child, Pedaiah performed brother-in-law marriage, and Zerubbabel was the firstborn of that union.—Deuteronomy 25:5-10.

*** it-1 p. 916 Genealogy of Jesus Christ ***
Matthew indicates that Zerubbabel is the son of Shealtiel (Mt 1:12), and this coincides with other references. (Ezr 3:2; Ne 12:1; Hag 1:14; Lu 3:27) However, at 1 Chronicles 3:19 Zerubbabel is referred to as the son of Pedaiah. Evidently Zerubbabel was the natural son of Pedaiah and the legal son of Shealtiel by reason of brother-in-law marriage; or possibly, after Zerubbabel’s father Pedaiah died, Zerubbabel was brought up by Shealtiel as his son and therefore became legally recognized as the son of Shealtiel.

*** it-2 p. 594 Pedaiah ***
3. Third-named son of King Jehoiachin (Jeconiah) born during the Babylonian exile. Pedaiah became father to postexilic Governor Zerubbabel and was therefore a vital link in the line leading to Jesus. (1Ch 3:17-19)

*** it-2 p. 911 Shealtiel ***
As to Zerubbabel’s father: Pedaiah is once so identified (1Ch 3:19), but Pedaiah’s brother Shealtiel (1Ch 3:17, 18) is so termed in all other instances. (Ezr 3:2, 8; 5:2; Ne 12:1; Hag 1:1, 12, 14; 2:2, 23; Mt 1:12; Lu 3:27) If Pedaiah died when his son Zerubbabel was a boy, Pedaiah’s oldest brother Shealtiel might have raised Zerubbabel as his own son. Or, if Shealtiel died childless and Pedaiah performed levirate marriage on his behalf, the son of Pedaiah by Shealtiel’s wife would have been the legal heir of Shealtiel.

(1 CHRONICLES 3:22)

“and the sons of Shec•a•niʹah were She•maiʹah and the sons of She•maiʹah: Hatʹtush, Iʹgal, Ba•riʹah, Ne•a•riʹah, and Shaʹphat—six in all.”

*** it-2 p. 921 Shemaiah ***
26. A distant descendant of David. (1Ch 3:9, 10, 22) Some scholars think that the words “and the sons of Shemaiah,” in the middle of verse 22 (which is followed by only five names), should be omitted as a scribal error, thus crediting Shecaniah with six sons. However, other scholars suggest that Shemaiah and his five sons were reckoned as the six descendants of Shecaniah.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:1)

“The sons of Judah were Peʹrez, Hezʹron, Carʹmi, Hur, and Shoʹbal.”

*** it-1 p. 420 Carmi ***
The designation “sons of Judah” at 1 Chronicles 4:1, where Carmi is listed, evidently is to be understood as including later descendants.—Compare 1Ch 2:4-7.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:4)

“and Pe•nuʹel was the father of Geʹdor, and Eʹzer was the father of Huʹshah. These were the sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephʹra•thah and the father of Bethʹle•hem.”

*** it-1 pp. 299-300 Bethlehem ***
Among the early descendants of Jacob’s son Judah are mentioned “Salma the father of Bethlehem” (1Ch 2:51, 54) and “Hur the firstborn of Ephrathah the father of Bethlehem.” (1Ch 4:4) This expression may point to these men as forefathers of the Israelites who later occupied Bethlehem.

*** it-1 p. 1163 Hushah ***
HUSHAH
(Huʹshah).
Either a “son” of or a city “fathered” or “founded” by Ezer of the tribe of Judah. (1Ch 4:1, 4) If Hushah designates a city, then it was likely the home of one of David’s mighty men, Sibbecai, who was probably also called Mebunnai. (1Ch 27:11; compare 2Sa 23:27; 1Ch 11:29.) Some regard Hushah as the name of a city and identify it with Husan, about 6 km (3.5 mi) W of Bethlehem.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:5)

“Ashʹhur the father of Te•koʹa had two wives, Heʹlah and Naʹa•rah.”

*** it-1 pp. 191-192 Ashhur ***
ASHHUR
(Ashʹhur) [possibly, Blackness].
According to the Masoretic text, the son of Hezron, born after his father’s death; the great-grandson of Judah. (1Ch 2:4, 5, 24; see HEZRON No. 2.) By his two wives he fathered seven sons. (1Ch 4:5-7) He is also said to be the father of Tekoa, which appears to mean that he was the founder of the town by that name.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:6)

“Naʹa•rah bore to him A•huzʹzam, Heʹpher, Teʹme•ni, and Ha•a•hashʹta•ri. These were the sons of Naʹa•rah.”

*** it-1 pp. 191-192 Ashhur ***
ASHHUR
(Ashʹhur) [possibly, Blackness].
According to the Masoretic text, the son of Hezron, born after his father’s death; the great-grandson of Judah. (1Ch 2:4, 5, 24; see HEZRON No. 2.) By his two wives he fathered seven sons. (1Ch 4:5-7) He is also said to be the father of Tekoa, which appears to mean that he was the founder of the town by that name.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:7)

“And the sons of Heʹlah were Zeʹreth, Izʹhar, and Ethʹnan.”

*** it-1 pp. 191-192 Ashhur ***
ASHHUR
(Ashʹhur) [possibly, Blackness].
According to the Masoretic text, the son of Hezron, born after his father’s death; the great-grandson of Judah. (1Ch 2:4, 5, 24; see HEZRON No. 2.) By his two wives he fathered seven sons. (1Ch 4:5-7) He is also said to be the father of Tekoa, which appears to mean that he was the founder of the town by that name.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:9)

“Jaʹbez was more honorable than his brothers; and his mother named him Jaʹbez, saying: “I gave birth to him in pain.””

*** w10 10/1 p. 23 A “Hearer of Prayer” ***
Let us examine 1 Chronicles 4:9, 10.
All that we know about Jabez is found in these two verses. According to verse 9, his mother “called his name Jabez, saying: ‘I have given him birth in pain.’” Why did she choose such a name? Did she bring forth this son with more than the usual birth pangs? Was she perhaps a widow, lamenting the fact that her husband was not there to welcome their baby into the world? The Bible does not say. But this mother would someday have reason to be especially proud of this son. Jabez’ siblings may have been upright men, but “Jabez came to be more honorable than his brothers.”

*** w10 10/1 p. 23 A “Hearer of Prayer” ***
The name Jabez comes from a root that can mean “pain.”

(1 CHRONICLES 4:10)

“Jaʹbez called on the God of Israel, saying: “O that you would bless me and enlarge my territory and let your hand be with me and preserve me from calamity, so that it may bring no harm to me!” So God brought about what he had asked for.”

*** w10 10/1 p. 23 A “Hearer of Prayer” ***
Let us examine 1 Chronicles 4:9, 10.

*** w10 10/1 p. 23 A “Hearer of Prayer” ***
The Targums, Jewish paraphrases of the Sacred Scriptures, render Jabez’ words: “Bless me with children, and enlarge my borders with disciples.”

*** w10 10/1 p. 23 A “Hearer of Prayer” ***
Jabez was a man of prayer. He began his prayer by pleading for God’s blessing. He then made three requests that reflect a heart full of faith.
First, Jabez implored God, saying: “Enlarge my territory.” (Verse 10) This honorable man was no land-grabber, coveting what belonged to his fellow man. His earnest request may have had more to do with people than land. He may have been asking for the peaceful enlargement of his territory so that it could hold more worshippers of the true God.
Second, Jabez pleaded for God’s “hand” to be with him. God’s symbolic hand is his applied power, which he uses to help his worshippers. (1 Chronicles 29:12) To receive the requests of his heart, Jabez looked to the God whose hand is not short toward those who show faith in him.—Isaiah 59:1.
Third, Jabez prayed: “Preserve me from calamity, that it may not hurt me.” The expression “that it may not hurt me” may suggest that Jabez prayed, not to escape calamity, but to be kept from being grieved or overcome by the effects of evil.
Jabez’ prayer revealed his concern for true worship and his faith and trust in the Hearer of prayer. How did Jehovah respond? This brief account concludes with the words: “Accordingly God brought to pass what he had asked.”
The Hearer of prayer has not changed. He delights in the prayers of worshippers. Those who place their faith and trust in him may have this confidence: “No matter what it is that we ask according to his will, he hears us.”—1 John 5:14.

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 6 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
4:9, 10. Jehovah answered the fervent prayer of Jabez for a peaceful enlargement of his territory so that it might accommodate more God-fearing people. We too need to offer heartfelt prayers for an increase as we zealously share in the disciple-making work.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:12)

“Eshʹton became father to Beth-raʹpha, Pa•seʹah, and Te•hinʹnah, the father of Ir-naʹhash. These were the men of Reʹcah.”

*** it-1 p. 302 Beth-rapha ***
BETH-RAPHA
(Beth-raʹpha) [House of Rapha].
The name appears at 1 Chronicles 4:12 where Eshton is said to have become “father to Beth-rapha.” The use of “Beth” (meaning “House”) in the name has led many commentators to view it as applying to a family “house” or to a place. Keil and Delitzsch’s Commentary on the Old Testament (1973, Vol. III, 1 Chronicles, p. 88) observes: “Eshton begat the house (the family) of Rapha, of whom also nothing further is said; for they can be connected neither with the Benjamite Rapha (viii. 2) nor with the children of Rapha (xx. 4, 6, 8).”

(1 CHRONICLES 4:14)

“Me•oʹno•thai became father to Ophʹrah. Se•raiʹah became father to Joʹab the father of Ge-harʹa•shim, so called because they were craftsmen.”

*** it-2 p. 77 Joab ***
1. Son of Seraiah, a descendant of Kenaz of the tribe of Judah. Joab was “the father of Ge-harashim” (meaning “Valley of Craftsmen”), “for,” says the Bible account, “craftsmen are what they became.” Evidently Joab was “father” or founder of the community of craftsmen living in the valley.—1Ch 4:1, 13, 14; see GE-HARASHIM.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:15)

“The sons of Caʹleb the son of Je•phunʹneh were Iʹru, Eʹlah, and Naʹam; and the son of Eʹlah was Keʹnaz.”

*** it-1 p. 1216 Iru ***
IRU
(Iʹru) [possibly from a root meaning “full-grown ass”].
The first-named son of Caleb the spy; of Judah’s tribe. (1Ch 4:15) Some scholars think that the name was really Ir and that the “u” was only the Hebrew conjunction and.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:18)

“(And his Jewish wife gave birth to Jeʹred the father of Geʹdor, Heʹber the father of Soʹco, and Je•kuʹthi•el the father of Za•noʹah.) These were the sons of Bi•thiʹah, the daughter of Pharʹaoh, whom Meʹred married.”

*** it-2 p. 26 Jekuthiel ***
JEKUTHIEL
(Je•kuʹthi•el).
A descendant of Judah and “father of Zanoah.” (1Ch 4:1, 18) Zanoah is the name of a city rather than a person in its other occurrence (Jos 15:56, 57), so Jekuthiel as its “father” was likely the father of those who settled there, or was himself its founder or chief settler.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:21)

“The sons of Sheʹlah the son of Judah were Er the father of Leʹcah, Laʹa•dah the father of Ma•reʹshah, and the families of the workers of fine fabric of the house of Ash•beʹa,”

*** it-1 p. 189 Ashbea ***
ASHBEA
(Ash•beʹa) [Let Me Make One Swear (Take an Oath)].
The house of Ashbea descended from Judah’s son Shelah and was noted for its production of fine fabric. (1Ch 4:21) The Targums add that their linen was made for kings and priests.

*** it-1 p. 1154 House ***
(15) an association of workers engaged in the same profession (1Ch 4:21);

(1 CHRONICLES 4:22)

“and Joʹkim, the men of Co•zeʹba, Joʹash, and Saʹraph, who became husbands of Moʹab•ite women, and Jashʹu•bi-leʹhem. These records are ancient.”

*** it-1 p. 525 Cozeba ***
COZEBA
(Co•zeʹba) [probably, Liar].
A site in Judah where descendants of Shelah the son of Judah resided. (1Ch 4:21, 22) Most scholars consider Cozeba to be the same as Achzib (“Chezib” in some versions) mentioned at Genesis 38:5 and Joshua 15:44, and on this basis it is tentatively identified with Tell el-Beida (Horvat Lavnin), 5 km (3 mi) WSW of Adullam.

*** it-1 p. 1256 Jashubi-lehem ***
JASHUBI-LEHEM
(Jashʹu•bi-leʹhem).
Name in the genealogies of Judah, possibly a descendant of Shelah. However, some translators think this means “returned to Lehem,” that is, “to Bethlehem.”—1Ch 4:21, 22; RS, AT, JB, Mo.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:23)

“They were potters who lived in Ne•taʹim and Ge•deʹrah. They lived there and worked for the king.”

*** it-1 p. 525 Cozeba ***
The men of Cozeba are apparently included in the expression “they were the potters.”—1Ch 4:23;

(1 CHRONICLES 4:29)

“Bilʹhah, Eʹzem, Toʹlad,”

*** it-1 p. 231 Baalah ***
3. A town in the Negeb region of Judah (Jos 15:29), evidently referred to as Balah in Joshua 19:3 and Bilhah in 1 Chronicles 4:29. It was subsequently allotted to the tribe of Simeon as an enclave city. Its specific location is unknown, but evidently it lay to the SE of Beer-sheba.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:33)

“along with their settlements that were all around these cities as far as Baʹal. These were their genealogical enrollments and the places where they lived.”

*** it-1 p. 231 Baalath-beer ***
BAALATH-BEER
(Baʹal•ath-beʹer) [Mistress of the Well].
An enclave city of Simeon within the territorial limits of Judah. (Jos 19:1, 8) Also called “Ramah of the south” (or Negeb), it is evidently referred to simply as Baal at 1 Chronicles 4:33 and may be the same as the “Ramoth of the south” at 1 Samuel 30:27. The references to it would place it S of Beer-sheba, thus in the Negeb.

(1 CHRONICLES 4:39)

“And they went to the entrance of Geʹdor, to the east side of the valley, to look for pastures for their flocks.”

*** it-1 p. 925 Gerar ***
Some scholars suggest altering 1 Chronicles 4:39, 40 to read “Gerar” (as does LXX) instead of “Gedor.” This passage connects Gedor with a region originally inhabited by the Hamites and having good pasturage, and this description would fit the Biblical references to the area around Gerar.

OCT. 12 BIBLE READING: 1 CHRONICLES 5-7


(1 CHRONICLES 5:1)

“These are the sons of Reuʹben, Israel’s firstborn. He was the firstborn, but because he defiled the bed of his father, his right as firstborn was given to the sons of Joseph the son of Israel, so he was not enrolled genealogically for the right of the firstborn.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 4 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
5:1, 2—What did receiving the right of the firstborn mean for Joseph? It meant that Joseph received a double portion of the inheritance. (Deuteronomy 21:17) He thus became the father of two tribes—Ephraim and Manasseh. The other sons of Israel fathered only one tribe each.

*** it-1 p. 1229 Israel ***
There was also the matter concerning the firstborn rights. Reuben, Jacob’s firstborn, was entitled to a double portion in the inheritance (compare De 21:17), but he forfeited this right by committing incestuous immorality with his father’s concubine. (Ge 35:22; 49:3, 4) These vacancies, the vacancy of Levi among the 12 as well as the absence of one with firstborn rights, had to be filled.
In a comparatively simple way Jehovah adjusted both matters by a single act. Joseph’s two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, were advanced to full status as tribal heads. (Ge 48:1-6; 1Ch 5:1, 2) Again 12 tribes exclusive of Levi could be numbered, and also a double portion of the land was representatively given to Joseph the father of Ephraim and Manasseh. In this way the firstborn rights were taken away from Reuben, the firstborn of Leah, and given to Joseph, the firstborn of Rachel. (Ge 29:31, 32; 30:22-24) Now with these adjustments the names of the 12 (non-Levite) tribes of Israel were Reuben, Simeon, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Ephraim, Manasseh, Benjamin, Dan, Asher, Gad, and Naphtali.—Nu 1:4-15.

(1 CHRONICLES 5:2)

“Though Judah was superior to his brothers and from him came the one to be the leader, the right as firstborn belonged to Joseph.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 4 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
5:1, 2—What did receiving the right of the firstborn mean for Joseph? It meant that Joseph received a double portion of the inheritance. (Deuteronomy 21:17) He thus became the father of two tribes—Ephraim and Manasseh. The other sons of Israel fathered only one tribe each.

*** it-1 p. 1229 Israel ***
There was also the matter concerning the firstborn rights. Reuben, Jacob’s firstborn, was entitled to a double portion in the inheritance (compare De 21:17), but he forfeited this right by committing incestuous immorality with his father’s concubine. (Ge 35:22; 49:3, 4) These vacancies, the vacancy of Levi among the 12 as well as the absence of one with firstborn rights, had to be filled.
In a comparatively simple way Jehovah adjusted both matters by a single act. Joseph’s two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, were advanced to full status as tribal heads. (Ge 48:1-6; 1Ch 5:1, 2) Again 12 tribes exclusive of Levi could be numbered, and also a double portion of the land was representatively given to Joseph the father of Ephraim and Manasseh. In this way the firstborn rights were taken away from Reuben, the firstborn of Leah, and given to Joseph, the firstborn of Rachel. (Ge 29:31, 32; 30:22-24) Now with these adjustments the names of the 12 (non-Levite) tribes of Israel were Reuben, Simeon, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Ephraim, Manasseh, Benjamin, Dan, Asher, Gad, and Naphtali.—Nu 1:4-15.

(1 CHRONICLES 5:6)

“and Be•erʹah his son, whom King Tilʹgath-pil•neʹser of As•syrʹi•a took into exile; he was a chieftain of the Reuʹben•ites.”

*** it-1 p. 204 Assyria ***
Earlier in his reign, Tiglath-pileser had inaugurated the policy of transplanting the populations of conquered areas in order to reduce the possibility of future uprisings, and he now proceeded to deport some of the Israelites. (1Ch 5:6, 26)

*** it-1 p. 276 Beerah ***
BEERAH
(Be•erʹah) [Well].
A Reubenite chieftain taken into exile by Assyrian King Tiglath-pileser III apparently during the reign of Pekah (c. 778-759 B.C.E.).—1Ch 5:6.

(1 CHRONICLES 5:9)

“To the east he settled as far as the beginning of the wilderness at the Eu•phraʹtes River, for their livestock had become numerous in the land of Gilʹe•ad.”

*** it-1 p. 768 Euphrates ***
First Chronicles 5:9 states that certain descendants of Reuben in the period prior to David’s reign extended their dwelling “as far as where one enters the wilderness at the river Euphrates.” However, since the Euphrates is some 800 km (500 mi) distant, when traveling “east of Gilead” (1Ch 5:10), this may mean simply that the Reubenites extended their territory E of Gilead into the edge of the Syrian Desert, which desert continues over to the Euphrates. (RS reads, “as far as the entrance of the desert this side of the Euphrates”; JB, “to the beginning of the desert that ends at the river Euphrates.”)

(1 CHRONICLES 5:10)

“In the days of Saul, they waged war against the Hagʹrites, who were defeated before them, so they dwelled in their tents throughout all the territory east of Gilʹe•ad.”

*** it-1 pp. 1019-1020 Hagrite ***
HAGRITE
(Hagʹrite) [possibly, Of (Belonging to) Hagar].
Apparently a pastoral people residing in tents E of Gilead. In the days of King Saul, the Israelites living E of the Jordan defeated the Hagrites, taking 100,000 captives, as well as thousands of camels, asses, and sheep. (1Ch 5:10, 18-22) The psalmist listed the Hagrites among other enemies of Israel, such as the Edomites, Moabites, Ammonites, and Amalekites. (Ps 83:2-7) However, during David’s rule, Jaziz the Hagrite was in charge of the royal flocks.—1Ch 27:31.
Many scholars believe that the Hagrites are probably the same as the A•graiʹoi mentioned by the ancient geographers Strabo, Ptolemy, and Pliny. Whether they were descendants of Hagar cannot be definitely established.

(1 CHRONICLES 5:16)

“They lived in Gilʹe•ad, in Baʹshan and its dependent towns, and in all the pastures of Sharʹon as far as they extended.”

*** it-2 p. 584 Pasture Grounds ***
Pasture grounds were mentioned in 1 Chronicles 5:16 in connection with “Sharon,” which some believe to have been a region or town E of the Jordan.

*** it-2 p. 911 Sharon ***
2. According to 1 Chronicles 5:16, the tribe of Gad dwelt in “Gilead, in Bashan and in its dependent towns and in all the pasture grounds of Sharon.” Some scholars think that this means that Gadites grazed their flocks in the coastal plains of Sharon. However, Gad received territory E of the Jordan, and both Gilead and Bashan are on that side. Thus many conclude that there was also a region in Gad’s territory called Sharon.

(1 CHRONICLES 5:20)

“And they were helped in fighting them, so that the Hagʹrites and all who were with them were given into their hand, for they called to God for help in the war, and he responded to their entreaty because they trusted in him.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 7 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
5:10, 18-22. In the days of King Saul, the tribes east of the Jordan defeated the Hagrites even though these tribes were outnumbered more than 2 to 1. This was because the valiant men of these tribes trusted in Jehovah and looked to him for help. Let us have complete confidence in Jehovah as we carry on our spiritual warfare against formidable odds.—Ephesians 6:10-17.

(1 CHRONICLES 5:23)

“The descendants of the half tribe of Ma•nasʹseh lived in the land from Baʹshan to Baʹal-herʹmon and Seʹnir and Mount Herʹmon. They were numerous.”

*** it-1 p. 232 Baal-hermon ***
BAAL-HERMON
(Baʹal-herʹmon) [Owner of Hermon].
This name appears at Judges 3:3 and 1 Chronicles 5:23. In the first instance it describes a point in the region inhabited by the Sidonians and the Hivites who remained unconquered by the Israelites, and it is here referred to as “Mount Baal-hermon.” It is usually identified with Mount Hermon itself but may refer to the Anti-Lebanon Range in general or to some portion thereof. At 1 Chronicles 5:23 “Baal-hermon” is used along with Senir and Mount Hermon and the region of Bashan to outline the territory occupied by the half tribe of Manasseh. While it may refer to a town or place near Mount Hermon, it may likewise be a designation for the mountainous region of Hermon.—See HERMON.

(1 CHRONICLES 5:26)

“So the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of King Pul of As•syrʹi•a (that is, King Tilʹgath-pil•neʹser of As•syrʹi•a) so that he took into exile those of the Reuʹben•ites, the Gadʹites, and the half tribe of Ma•nasʹseh and brought them to Haʹlah, Haʹbor, Haʹra, and the river Goʹzan, where they are until this day.”

*** it-1 p. 204 Assyria ***
Earlier in his reign, Tiglath-pileser had inaugurated the policy of transplanting the populations of conquered areas in order to reduce the possibility of future uprisings, and he now proceeded to deport some of the Israelites. (1Ch 5:6, 26)

*** it-1 p. 204 Assyria ***
Tiglath-pileser III. The first Assyrian king to be mentioned by name in the Bible is Tiglath-pileser III (2Ki 15:29; 16:7, 10), also called “Pul” at 2 Kings 15:19. At 1 Chronicles 5:26 both names are used, and this caused some in the past to view them as separate kings. However, Babylonian and Assyrian King Lists give both names to the same individual. The suggestion is made by some that this king was originally known as Pul and that he assumed the name Tiglath-pileser upon ascending to the Assyrian throne.—See PUL No. 1.

*** it-1 p. 418 Captivity ***
Ezra, when compiling Chronicles, wrote that many of those dispersed in various eastern cities “continue until this day” (c. 460 B.C.E.). (1Ch 5:26)

*** it-1 p. 993 Gozan ***
At 2 Kings 17:6 and 18:11 some translations read “Habor, the river of Gozan” (AS, RS), instead of “Habor at [or, by] the river Gozan” (NW, Yg), thus also making Gozan a place in these texts. But the rendering “Habor, the river of Gozan,” does not harmonize with 1 Chronicles 5:26. In this passage Habor is listed between Halah and Hara; and Hara, not Habor, is listed before Gozan. This indicates that Habor and “the river of Gozan” (AS) are not synonymous. Hence, those who identify Gozan as a place throughout are obliged to reject the Chronicles reference. However, since the Hebrew allows for a consistent rendering of “river Gozan” in all three texts, there is reason to believe that it was in the vicinity of a river called Gozan that the king of Assyria settled some of the exiled Israelites of the northern kingdom. The Qezel Owzan of NW Iran has been suggested as a possible identification of “the river Gozan.” It rises in the mountains SE of Lake Urmia (in what used to be the land of the Medes) and finally empties as the Sefid Rud or White River (the name applied to its lower course) into the SW section of the Caspian Sea. According to another view, the Gozan is a river of Mesopotamia.

*** it-1 p. 1014 Habor ***
HABOR
(Haʹbor).
A city or district to which the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III exiled numerous Israelites of the ten-tribe kingdom. (1Ch 5:26) Some scholars have linked this Habor with Abhar, a town located on the Qezel Owzan River of NW Iran about 210 km (130 mi) W of Tehran. At 2 Kings 17:6 and 18:11 some favor the reading “Habor, the river of Gozan” (AS, RS), and they suggest identifying the Habor with a tributary of the Euphrates, the Khabur River of SE Turkey and NE Syria. However, in agreement with 1 Chronicles 5:26, this phrase may instead be translated “Habor at [or, by] the river Gozan.”—NW, Yg; see GOZAN.

*** it-1 p. 1034 Hara ***
HARA
(Haʹra).
A site to which Assyrian King Tilgath-pilneser (Tiglath-pileser III) transported Israelite captives. (1Ch 5:26) Similar references (2Ki 17:6; 18:11) to a later Assyrian exile tell of Israelites’ being taken to “the cities of the Medes” (Masoretic text) or “the mountains of the Medes.” (LXX) Many scholars feel that the Septuagint reading may be the correct one and suggest that at 1 Chronicles 5:26 “Hara” (Ha•raʼʹ, perhaps an Aramaic form of the Hebrew word for “mountain” [har]) became a proper name when the phrase “of the Medes” was inadvertently omitted. If this assumption is correct, “Hara” may have applied to “the mountains of the Medes” E of the Tigris River valley. However, some who consider the Gozan of 2 Kings 17:6 and 18:11 to be a place (as in JB, RS) and not a river believe that “Hara” possibly was a local designation for a mountainous region in Turkey.

*** it-2 p. 30 Jeremiah ***
4. One of the heads of paternal houses in the section of the tribe of Manasseh E of the Jordan in the days of the kings. The Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh E of the Jordan (among them being this Jeremiah’s descendants) “began to act unfaithfully toward the God of their forefathers and went having immoral intercourse with the gods of the peoples of the land, whom God had annihilated from before them. Consequently the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul the king of Assyria even the spirit of Tilgath-pilneser the king of Assyria, so that [in the days of Pekah, king of Israel] he took into exile those of the Reubenites and of the Gadites and of the half tribe of Manasseh and brought them to Halah and Habor and Hara and the river Gozan.”—1Ch 5:23-26; 2Ki 15:29.

*** it-2 p. 714 Pul ***
1. The name given a king of Assyria at 2 Kings 15:19 and 1 Chronicles 5:26. During the reign of Menahem, king of Israel, Pul entered Palestine and received tribute from Menahem. The identity of Pul was long an open question. However, most scholars now conclude that Pul and Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria were the same, since the name Pulu (Pul) is found in the dynastic tablet known as the Babylonian King List A, whereas in the corresponding location in the “Synchronistic Chronicle” the name Tukultiapilesharra (Tiglath-pileser) is listed. (Ancient Near Eastern Texts, edited by J. Pritchard, 1974, pp. 272, 273) Perhaps “Pul” was his personal name or the name he was known by in Babylon, while Tiglath-pileser (Tilgath-pilneser) was the name he assumed when he became king of Assyria. With this understanding, 1 Chronicles 5:26 may be read to refer to the same individual in saying, “Pul the king of Assyria even . . . Tilgath-pilneser the king of Assyria.”—See TIGLATH-PILESER (III).

*** it-2 p. 1101 Tiglath-pileser (III) ***
This king first appears in the Bible account as “Pul.” (2Ki 15:19) First Chronicles 5:26 also states that God “stirred up the spirit of Pul the king of Assyria even the spirit of Tilgath-pilneser the king of Assyria, so that he took into exile” peoples of certain tribes of Israel. The ancient secular records apply both names to the same individual, the name “Pulu” appearing in what is known as “The Babylonian King List A,” while “The Synchronistic Chronicle” lists “Tukultiapilesharra” (Tiglath-pileser). (Ancient Near Eastern Texts, edited by J. Pritchard, 1974, pp. 272, 273) It is also of note that, in the Hebrew, the above-quoted scripture uses the verb “took” in the singular rather than in the plural. It is commonly suggested that “Pul” was the monarch’s personal name and that he assumed the name “Tiglath-pileser” (the name of an earlier and famous Assyrian king) upon ascending the throne.
It appears that during the early part of his reign, Tiglath-pileser III was occupied in hammering out stronger borders for the empire in the S, E, and N. The menacing shadow of Assyria, however, soon loomed large over the lands of Syria and Palestine to the W.
The Assyrian inscriptions prominently mention Azriau of Ia-ú-da-a-a (Judah) in connection with a campaign by Tiglath-pileser III in Syria. (Ancient Near Eastern Texts, pp. 282, 283) This would seem to be a reference to King Azariah of Judah, more commonly known as Uzziah (829-778 B.C.E.), but the matter is a debated one, because some hold that the small kingdom of Samʼal in Syria was on occasion also called Judah. The likelihood of such a pagan king having a name including the name of Jah (the abbreviated form of Jehovah) and living at the same time as the Judean king of the same name seems slight; however, the Bible does not mention Tiglath-pileser III in connection with Azariah (Uzziah), and the Assyrian records are considerably mutilated.
During the reign of King Menahem of Israel (c. 790-781 B.C.E.), Tiglath-pileser III (Pul) advanced into Palestine, and Menahem sought the Assyrian’s favor by paying him tribute to the amount of “a thousand talents of silver” ($6,606,000 in current values). Temporarily appeased, Tiglath-pileser withdrew his forces. (2Ki 15:19, 20) The Assyrian documents refer to Me-ni-hi-im-me (Menahem), along with Rezon (Rezin) of Damascus and Hiram of Tyre, as tributary to Tiglath-pileser.
Subsequently, in the time of King Ahaz of Judah (761-746 B.C.E.), King Pekah of Israel formed a confederation with King Rezin of Damascus and attacked Judah. (2Ki 16:5, 6; Isa 7:1, 2) Though assured by the prophet Isaiah that within a short time the two conspiring kingdoms would be wiped off the scene, King Ahaz chose to send a bribe to Tiglath-pileser to come to his rescue. (2Ki 16:7, 8; Isa 7:7-16; 8:9-13) An Assyrian inscription describes the tribute paid by Ia-u-ha-zi (Jehoahaz, or Ahaz) of Judah and other kings of that area as follows: “gold, silver, tin, iron, antimony, linen garments with multicolored trimmings, garments of their native (industries) (being made of) dark purple wool . . . all kinds of costly objects be they products of the sea or of the continent, the (choice) products of their regions, the treasures of (their) kings, horses, mules (trained for) the yoke.” (Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p. 282) The aggressive Assyrian responded to Ahaz’ urging by invading Israel, capturing several northern cities, and overrunning the regions of Gilead, Galilee, and Naphtali, carrying many off into exile. (2Ki 15:29; 1Ch 5:6, 26) Damascus was attacked and fell to the Assyrian forces, and its King Rezin was slain. Here at Damascus, Tiglath-pileser III received the visit of King Ahaz of Judah, coming either to express gratitude or submission to Assyria.—2Ki 16:9-12.
Isaiah had been inspired to foretell that Jehovah would use the king of Assyria like “a hired razor” to “shave” the kingdom of Judah. (Isa 7:17, 20) Whether the “hired razor” referred specifically to Tiglath-pileser III, whom Ahaz bribed, or not, the record does show that he caused great distress to the Judean king and that Ahaz’ bribe proved to be “of no assistance to him.” (2Ch 28:20, 21) This may have marked the initial phase of the “flood” of Assyrian invasion of Judah, which eventually was to ‘reach up to the very neck of the kingdom,’ as it clearly did in Hezekiah’s time.—Isa 8:5-8; 2Ki 18:13, 14.
Tiglath-pileser III, in his inscriptions, says concerning the northern kingdom of Israel: “They overthrew their king Pekah (Pa-qa-ha) and I placed Hoshea (A-ú-si-ʼ) as king over them. I received from them 10 talents of gold [$3,853,500], 1,000(?) talents of silver [$6,606,000] as their [tri]bute and brought them to Assyria.” (Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p. 284) Thus the Assyrian king assumes credit for the assumption of the kingship of Israel by Hoshea following his conspiratorial assassination of Hoshea’s predecessor, Pekah (c. 758 B.C.E.).—2Ki 15:30.

(1 CHRONICLES 6:8)

“A•hiʹtub became father to Zaʹdok; Zaʹdok became father to A•himʹa•az.”

*** it-1 p. 224 Azariah ***
4. One of Solomon’s princes. (1Ki 4:2) He is referred to as the son of Priest Zadok; he may be the brother of Ahimaaz.—1Ch 6:8.

(1 CHRONICLES 6:22)

“The sons of Koʹhath were Am•minʹa•dab his son, Korʹah his son, Asʹsir his son,”

*** it-1 p. 92 Amminadab ***
2. Perhaps an alternative name for Izhar, a son of Kohath and father of Korah. (1Ch 6:22; compare vss 2, 18, 37, 38; Ex 6:18, 21; Nu 3:19, 27.) Some copies of the Greek Septuagint give “Izhar” instead of “Amminadab” at 1 Chronicles 6:22 (6:7, LXX).

*** it-1 p. 909 Genealogy ***
Identification of Relationships. In determining relationships, often the context or a comparison of parallel lists or of texts from different parts of the Bible is necessary. For example, “son” may actually mean a grandson or merely a descendant. (Mt 1:1) Again, a list of names may appear to be a register of brothers, the sons of one man. On closer observation and by comparison with other texts, however, it may prove to be the register of a genealogical line, naming some sons and also some grandsons or later descendants. Genesis 46:21 evidently lists both sons and grandsons of Benjamin as “sons,” as can be seen by a comparison with Numbers 26:38-40.
The above situation is found even in the genealogies of some major families. For example, 1 Chronicles 6:22-24 lists ten “sons of Kohath.” But in the 18th verse, and at Exodus 6:18, we find only four sons attributed to Kohath. And examination of the context shows that the listing of “sons of Kohath” at 1 Chronicles 6:22-24 is in reality part of a genealogy of families of the line of Kohath who had representative members present for appointment by David to certain temple duties.

(1 CHRONICLES 6:27)

“E•liʹab his son, Je•roʹham his son, El•kaʹnah his son.”

*** it-1 p. 707 Eliab ***
3. A Levite of the family of Kohathites and an ancestor of Samuel the prophet. (1Ch 6:22, 27, 28, 33, 34) His name is given as Eliel at 1 Chronicles 6:34 and as Elihu at 1 Samuel 1:1.

*** it-1 p. 710 Elihu ***
2. An ancestor of the prophet Samuel; the son of Tohu. (1Sa 1:1) Elihu is evidently also called Eliab and Eliel.—1Ch 6:27, 34.

*** it-1 p. 709 Eliel ***
2. A Levite of the family of the Kohathites and an ancestor of the prophet Samuel. (1Ch 6:33, 34) He evidently is called Elihu in 1 Samuel 1:1 and Eliab in 1 Chronicles 6:27.

(1 CHRONICLES 6:28)

“The sons of Samuel were Joel the firstborn and A•biʹjah the second.”

*** it-2 p. 85 Joel ***
5. The firstborn son of the prophet Samuel; a descendant of No. 2 and father of Heman the Levitical singer. (1Ch 6:28, 33, 36; 15:17) Joel and his younger brother Abijah had been appointed by their father to be judges, but their dishonesty in office gave the people an excuse to ask for a human king.—1Sa 8:1-5.
At 1 Chronicles 6:28 the Masoretic text (and certain translations) says “Vashni” was Samuel’s firstborn. Scholars, however, generally agree that “Joel” was in the original Hebrew, a reading retained by the Syriac Peshitta and the Lagardian edition of the Greek Septuagint. (Compare 1Sa 8:2.) Similarity between “Joel” and the ending of a preceding word in the text (“Samuel”) possibly caused a scribe inadvertently to drop the name “Joel” altogether. Seemingly, he then mistook the Hebrew word wehash•she•niʹ (meaning “and the second [son]”) for the proper name “Vashni” and inserted the letter waw (and) before the name Abijah.

(1 CHRONICLES 6:34)

“son of El•kaʹnah son of Je•roʹham son of Eʹli•el son of Toʹah”

*** it-1 p. 707 Eliab ***
3. A Levite of the family of Kohathites and an ancestor of Samuel the prophet. (1Ch 6:22, 27, 28, 33, 34) His name is given as Eliel at 1 Chronicles 6:34 and as Elihu at 1 Samuel 1:1.

*** it-1 p. 709 Eliel ***
2. A Levite of the family of the Kohathites and an ancestor of the prophet Samuel. (1Ch 6:33, 34) He evidently is called Elihu in 1 Samuel 1:1 and Eliab in 1 Chronicles 6:27.

*** it-1 p. 710 Elihu ***
2. An ancestor of the prophet Samuel; the son of Tohu. (1Sa 1:1) Elihu is evidently also called Eliab and Eliel.—1Ch 6:27, 34.

(1 CHRONICLES 6:69)

“Aiʹja•lon with its pastures, and Gath-rimʹmon with its pastures;”

*** it-1 pp. 67-68 Aijalon ***
After Joshua’s conquest of Canaan, Aijalon was assigned to the tribe of Dan. (Jos 19:40-42) It was later assigned to the sons of Kohath as a Levite city.—Jos 21:24.
The Danites at first proved unable to oust the Amorites from Aijalon, but it appears that Ephraim from the N came to their aid and “the hand of the house of Joseph got to be so heavy that they [the Amorites] were forced into task work.” (Jg 1:34, 35) This may be the reason 1 Chronicles 6:69 lists Aijalon as belonging to Ephraim and as given by them to the Kohathites. (See, however, the corresponding case of GATH-RIMMON No. 1.)

*** it-1 p. 900 Gath-rimmon ***
GATH-RIMMON
(Gath-rimʹmon) [Winepress by the Pomegranate Tree].
1. A city of Dan (Jos 19:40, 41, 45) assigned to the Kohathite Levites. (Jos 21:20, 23, 24) First Chronicles 6:66-70 appears to make Gath-rimmon an Ephraimite city. However, on the basis of the parallel account at Joshua 21:23, 24, Hebrew scholars believe that, because of scribal error, a portion of the text has accidentally dropped out and been lost. So, they suggest inserting the following (corresponding to Jos 21:23) before 1 Chronicles 6:69: “And from the tribe of Dan, Elteke and its pasture ground, Gibbethon and its pasture ground . . . ” This could have been the original reading. However, not to be overlooked is the possibility that Gath-rimmon was a Danite enclave city located within Ephraim’s territory.

(1 CHRONICLES 6:70)

“and from half of the tribe of Ma•nasʹseh, Aʹner with its pastures and Bilʹe•am with its pastures, to the rest of the families of the Koʹhath•ites.”

*** it-1 p. 900 Gath-rimmon ***
GATH-RIMMON
(Gath-rimʹmon) [Winepress by the Pomegranate Tree].
1. A city of Dan (Jos 19:40, 41, 45) assigned to the Kohathite Levites. (Jos 21:20, 23, 24) First Chronicles 6:66-70 appears to make Gath-rimmon an Ephraimite city. However, on the basis of the parallel account at Joshua 21:23, 24, Hebrew scholars believe that, because of scribal error, a portion of the text has accidentally dropped out and been lost. So, they suggest inserting the following (corresponding to Jos 21:23) before 1 Chronicles 6:69: “And from the tribe of Dan, Elteke and its pasture ground, Gibbethon and its pasture ground . . . ” This could have been the original reading. However, not to be overlooked is the possibility that Gath-rimmon was a Danite enclave city located within Ephraim’s territory.

*** it-1 p. 1166 Ibleam ***
IBLEAM
(Ibʹle•am) [possibly from a root meaning “swallow down”].
A city in the territory of Issachar but assigned with its dependent towns to Manasseh. The Manassites, however, failed to dispossess the Canaanites from Ibleam. (Jos 17:11-13; Jg 1:27) Ibleam appears to be the same as the Bileam in Manasseh given to the Kohathite Levites. (1Ch 6:70) But the parallel passage mentioning Levite cities in the territory of the half tribe of Manasseh (Jos 21:25) reads “Gath-rimmon” instead of “Bileam” or “Ibleam.” Generally this is attributed to scribal error, “Gath-rimmon,” the name of a city in Dan, probably having been inadvertently repeated from verse 24.

(1 CHRONICLES 7:6)

“The sons of Benjamin were Beʹla, Beʹcher, and Je•diʹa•el—three.”

*** it-1 p. 189 Ashbel ***
ASHBEL
(Ashʹbel), Ashbelites (Ashʹbel•ites).
Ashbel was a son of Benjamin, listed third at Genesis 46:21, but second at 1 Chronicles 8:1. In 1728 B.C.E. he came into Egypt with Jacob’s family. He appears to be called Jediael at 1 Chronicles 7:6, 10.

(1 CHRONICLES 7:14)

“The sons of Ma•nasʹseh: Asʹri•el, whom his Syrian concubine bore. (She bore Maʹchir the father of Gilʹe•ad.”

*** it-1 p. 195 Asriel ***
According to 1 Chronicles 7:14, Asriel was a son of Manasseh born to him by his Syrian concubine. However, part of an apparent parenthetical statement that follows reads: “She bore Machir the father of Gilead.” Hence, as is not uncommon in Biblical genealogies, Asriel may here be termed a “son” of Manasseh only in the sense of being one of his later descendants (through Machir, Manasseh’s son by his Syrian concubine). But it is possible that Manasseh had both a direct son and a great-grandson bearing the same name. “The sons of Asriel” were among the descendants of Manasseh to whom Joshua made territorial allotments in the Promised Land.—Jos 17:1-4.

(1 CHRONICLES 7:20)

“The sons of Eʹphra•im were Shuʹthe•lah, Beʹred his son, Taʹhath his son, E•le•aʹdah his son, Taʹhath his son,”

*** it-1 p. 704 Elead ***
ELEAD
(Eʹle•ad) [God Has Borne Witness].
Likely, son of Ephraim who was killed along with his brother Ezer by the men of Gath “because they came down to take their livestock.”—1Ch 7:20, 21; see EPHRAIM No. 1.

(1 CHRONICLES 7:24)

“And his daughter was Sheʹe•rah, who built Lower and Upper Beth-hoʹron and Uzʹzen-sheʹe•rah.”

*** it-2 p. 1145 Uzzen-sheerah ***
UZZEN-SHEERAH
(Uzʹzen-sheʹe•rah) [possibly, Ear of Sheerah].
A city that Sheerah, an Ephraimite woman, built. In what sense she ‘built’ is not stated; perhaps this was in the sense of her contributing in some major way to the progress and development of it as well as other places listed. (1Ch 7:22-24) Uzzen-sheerah’s location is not definitely known. However, some geographers identify it with Beit Sira, about 4 km (2 mi) W of the suggested site of Lower Beth-horon and about 21 km (13 mi) NW of Jerusalem.

OCT. 19 BIBLE READING: 1 CHRONICLES 8-11


(1 CHRONICLES 8:29)

“The father of Gibʹe•on, Je•iʹel, lived in Gibʹe•on. His wife’s name was Maʹa•cah.”

*** it-1 pp. 19-20 Abiel ***
ABIEL
(A•biʹel) [(My) Father Is God].
1. A son of Zeror, and descendant of Becorath and Aphiah, of the tribe of Benjamin. A comparison of 1 Chronicles 8:29-33 and 9:35-39 with 1 Samuel 9:1, 2 and 14:50, 51 gives basis for believing that Abiel is also called “Jeiel” in the Chronicles account, since Jeiel is there shown to be the father of Ner, who became the father of Kish, Saul’s father. First Samuel 14:50, 51 also shows Abiel (or Jeiel) to be the father of Ner. The record in Chronicles indicates that Jeiel (or Abiel) had nine other sons, of whom one was named Kish, and this older Kish would thus be the uncle of the son of Ner who bore the same name.
Assuming Abiel and Jeiel both to be names of the same person, we arrive at a genealogy such as is set forth in this chart.
[Chart]
(For fully formatted text, see publication)
Aphiah (a descendant of Benjamin)
Becorath
Zeror
Abiel or Jeiel
Abdon Zur Kish Baal Ner Nadab Gedor Ahio Zechariah Mikloth
(Zecher)
Abner Kish
Saul
Therefore, when we read at 1 Samuel 9:1 that Kish (that is, the second Kish, the father of Saul) was “the son of Abiel,” it appears that the meaning is that he was the grandson of Abiel, as is often the case in Bible genealogy where one or more links in the genealogy are simply omitted.

*** it-1 p. 20 Abiel ***
The record in 1 Chronicles (8:33; 9:39) seems quite definite in presenting Ner as the immediate father of the second Kish, and this is clearly the more explicit of the two accounts.—See KISH Nos. 2 and 3.

(1 CHRONICLES 8:33)

“Ner became father to Kish; Kish became father to Saul; Saul became father to Jonʹa•than, Malʹchi-shuʹa, A•binʹa•dab, and Esh•baʹal.”

*** it-1 p. 20 Abiel ***
The record in 1 Chronicles (8:33; 9:39) seems quite definite in presenting Ner as the immediate father of the second Kish, and this is clearly the more explicit of the two accounts.—See KISH Nos. 2 and 3.

*** it-1 pp. 19-20 Abiel ***
ABIEL
(A•biʹel) [(My) Father Is God].
1. A son of Zeror, and descendant of Becorath and Aphiah, of the tribe of Benjamin. A comparison of 1 Chronicles 8:29-33 and 9:35-39 with 1 Samuel 9:1, 2 and 14:50, 51 gives basis for believing that Abiel is also called “Jeiel” in the Chronicles account, since Jeiel is there shown to be the father of Ner, who became the father of Kish, Saul’s father. First Samuel 14:50, 51 also shows Abiel (or Jeiel) to be the father of Ner. The record in Chronicles indicates that Jeiel (or Abiel) had nine other sons, of whom one was named Kish, and this older Kish would thus be the uncle of the son of Ner who bore the same name.
Assuming Abiel and Jeiel both to be names of the same person, we arrive at a genealogy such as is set forth in this chart.
[Chart]
(For fully formatted text, see publication)
Aphiah (a descendant of Benjamin)
Becorath
Zeror
Abiel or Jeiel
Abdon Zur Kish Baal Ner Nadab Gedor Ahio Zechariah Mikloth
(Zecher)
Abner Kish
Saul
Therefore, when we read at 1 Samuel 9:1 that Kish (that is, the second Kish, the father of Saul) was “the son of Abiel,” it appears that the meaning is that he was the grandson of Abiel, as is often the case in Bible genealogy where one or more links in the genealogy are simply omitted.

*** it-1 p. 228 Baal ***
The bad connotation that appears to have become attached to the Hebrew word baʹʽal because of its association with the degraded worship of Baal is thought by some to be the reason the writer of Second Samuel used the names “Ish-bosheth” and “Mephibosheth” (boʹsheth means shame) instead of “Eshbaal” and “Merib-baal.”—2Sa 2:8; 9:6; 1Ch 8:33, 34; see ISH-BOSHETH.

*** it-1 p. 1224 Ish-bosheth ***
ISH-BOSHETH
(Ish-boʹsheth) [meaning “Man of Shame”].
Evidently the youngest of Saul’s sons, his successor to the throne. From the genealogical listings it appears that his name was also Eshbaal, meaning “Man of Baal.” (1Ch 8:33; 9:39) However, elsewhere, as in Second Samuel, he is called Ish-bosheth, a name in which “baal” is replaced by “bosheth.” (2Sa 2:10) This Hebrew word boʹsheth is found at Jeremiah 3:24 and is rendered “shameful thing.” (AS, AT, JP, NW, Ro, RS) In two other occurrences baʹʽal and boʹsheth are found parallel and in apposition, in which the one explains and identifies the other. (Jer 11:13; Ho 9:10) There are also other instances where individuals similarly had “bosheth” or a form of it substituted for “baal” in their names, as, for example, “Jerubbesheth” for “Jerubbaal” (2Sa 11:21; Jg 6:32) and “Mephibosheth” for “Merib-baal,” the latter being a nephew of Ish-bosheth.—2Sa 4:4; 1Ch 8:34; 9:40.
The reason for these double names or substitutions is not known. One theory advanced by some scholars attempts to explain the dual names as an alteration made when the common noun “baal” (owner; master) became more exclusively identified with the distasteful fertility god of Canaan, Baal. However, in the same Bible book of Second Samuel, where the account of Ish-bosheth appears, King David himself is reported as naming a place of battle Baal-perazim (meaning “Owner of Breakings Through”), in honor of the Lord Jehovah, for as he said: “Jehovah has broken through my enemies.” (2Sa 5:20) Another view is that the name Ish-bosheth may have been prophetic of that individual’s shameful death and the calamitous termination of Saul’s dynasty.

(1 CHRONICLES 8:34)

“And Jonʹa•than’s son was Merʹib-baʹal. Merʹib-baʹal became father to Miʹcah.”

*** it-1 p. 228 Baal ***
The bad connotation that appears to have become attached to the Hebrew word baʹʽal because of its association with the degraded worship of Baal is thought by some to be the reason the writer of Second Samuel used the names “Ish-bosheth” and “Mephibosheth” (boʹsheth means shame) instead of “Eshbaal” and “Merib-baal.”—2Sa 2:8; 9:6; 1Ch 8:33, 34; see ISH-BOSHETH.

*** it-2 p. 379 Merib-baal ***
MERIB-BAAL
(Merʹib-baʹal) [possibly, Contender Against Baal; or, Baal Makes a Legal Defense].
Grandson of King Saul, son of Jonathan, and the father of Micah. (1Ch 8:33, 34) This is apparently another name for Mephibosheth. Other persons also had two names, such as Eshbaal, also called Ish-bosheth.—Compare 2Sa 2:8 with 1Ch 8:33.
The name Merib-baal is found in two somewhat different Hebrew forms (Merivʹ baʹʽal and Meri-vaʹʽal) at 1 Chronicles 9:40. The first form is also used at 1 Chronicles 8:34.

(1 CHRONICLES 9:11)

“Az•a•riʹah son of Hil•kiʹah son of Me•shulʹlam son of Zaʹdok son of Me•raʹioth son of A•hiʹtub, a leader of the house of the true God,”

*** it-1 p. 225 Azariah ***
23. One of the priests who lived in Jerusalem following the exile. (1Ch 9:11) In a parallel list (Ne 11:11) the name is Seraiah. Possibly the same as No. 22 above.

(1 CHRONICLES 9:18)

“and until then he was at the king’s gate to the east. These were the gatekeepers of the camps of the Levites.”

*** it-1 p. 897 Gate, Gateway ***
Temple Gates. East Gate. Nehemiah’s reconstruction account tells us that the keeper of the East Gate shared in the repair work. (Ne 3:29) Thus the East Gate is not designated as a gate in Jerusalem’s wall, as some have thought. The East Gate may have been approximately in line with the Inspection Gate in the city wall. This gate is evidently the one mentioned in 1 Chronicles 9:18 as “the king’s gate to the east,” being the gate where the king went into or came out from the temple.

(1 CHRONICLES 9:19)

“And Shalʹlum son of Koʹre son of E•biʹa•saph son of Korʹah, and his brothers of his paternal house, the Korʹah•ites, were over the duties of the service, the doorkeepers of the tent, and their fathers had been over the camp of Jehovah as the keepers of the entryway.”

*** it-2 p. 185 Kore ***
1. A Kohathite Levite “of the sons of Asaph” and a descendant of Korah. (Ex 6:16, 18, 21; 1Ch 9:19; 26:1) Shallum, one of “the doorkeepers of the tent,” is described as “the son of Kore the son of Ebiasaph the son of Korah,” at 1 Chronicles 9:19. This text does not mention all the generations between Shallum and Ebiasaph, but the names given belong in this one genealogy. First Chronicles 26:1 calls the gatekeeper Meshelemiah “the son of Kore.”

(1 CHRONICLES 9:22)

“All those selected as gatekeepers at the thresholds numbered 212. They were in their settlements by their genealogical enrollment. David and Samuel the seer appointed these to their office of trust.”

*** it-2 p. 851 Samuel ***
The days of Samuel brought additional reverses for the Philistines (1Sa 7:13, 14) and proved to be a period marked by outstanding Passover celebrations. (2Ch 35:18) Samuel also seems to have worked out some arrangement for the Levite gatekeepers, and his arrangement may have served as a basis for the organization put into operation by David. (1Ch 9:22) From his home at Ramah in the mountainous region of Ephraim, Samuel annually made a circuit of Bethel, Gilgal, and Mizpah, judging Israel at all these places. (1Sa 7:15-17) Never did he abuse his position. His record was without blame. (1Sa 12:2-5) But his sons, Joel and Abijah, perverted justice.—1Sa 8:2, 3.

(1 CHRONICLES 9:26)

“There were four chief gatekeepers in the office of trust. They were Levites, and they were in charge of the chambers and of the treasuries of the house of the true God.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 8 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
9:26, 27. The Levite gatekeepers occupied an office of great trust. They were given the key to the entrance to the holy areas of the temple. They proved to be reliable in opening the gates each day. We have been entrusted with the responsibility of reaching out to the people in our territory and helping them to come to worship Jehovah. Should we not prove to be just as dependable and trustworthy as the Levite gatekeepers?

*** w88 12/1 p. 21 Graduation of the 85th Gilead Class—A Joyful Occasion ***
Curiosity was aroused when the chairman announced the theme of the next speaker, F. D. Songer of the Factory Committee: “A Unique Trust and a Special Key.” Songer drew his comments from 1 Chronicles 9:26, 27 and what is said there about the Levite gatekeepers. ‘Their office was one of unique trust,’ explained Songer. They had the key—the implement expressing the very power of control over entrance to the holy areas of the temple. They were reliable, opening the gates dependably each morning. In conclusion, Songer told the graduates: ‘You have been given a unique trust and a special key, as it were, with which to open up, morning by morning, to those seeking entrance to the courtyards of true worship. Guard that trust well and use that key dependably.’

(1 CHRONICLES 9:27)

“They would spend the night in their stations all around the house of the true God, for they cared for the guard service and were in charge of the key and would open up the house from morning to morning.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 9 par. 8 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
9:26, 27. The Levite gatekeepers occupied an office of great trust. They were given the key to the entrance to the holy areas of the temple. They proved to be reliable in opening the gates each day. We have been entrusted with the responsibility of reaching out to the people in our territory and helping them to come to worship Jehovah. Should we not prove to be just as dependable and trustworthy as the Levite gatekeepers?

*** w88 12/1 p. 21 Graduation of the 85th Gilead Class—A Joyful Occasion ***
Curiosity was aroused when the chairman announced the theme of the next speaker, F. D. Songer of the Factory Committee: “A Unique Trust and a Special Key.” Songer drew his comments from 1 Chronicles 9:26, 27 and what is said there about the Levite gatekeepers. ‘Their office was one of unique trust,’ explained Songer. They had the key—the implement expressing the very power of control over entrance to the holy areas of the temple. They were reliable, opening the gates dependably each morning. In conclusion, Songer told the graduates: ‘You have been given a unique trust and a special key, as it were, with which to open up, morning by morning, to those seeking entrance to the courtyards of true worship. Guard that trust well and use that key dependably.’

(1 CHRONICLES 9:33)

“These were the singers, the heads of the paternal houses of the Levites in the chambers, those set free from other duties; for by day and by night it was their responsibility to be on duty.”

*** it-2 pp. 452-453 Music ***
Considerable importance was attached to the singing at the temple. This is evident from the many Scriptural references to the singers as well as from the fact that they were “set free from duty” common to other Levites in order to devote themselves wholly to their service. (1Ch 9:33)

(1 CHRONICLES 9:35)

“The father of Gibʹe•on, Je•iʹel, lived in Gibʹe•on. His wife’s name was Maʹa•cah.”

*** it-1 p. 20 Abiel ***
The record in 1 Chronicles (8:33; 9:39) seems quite definite in presenting Ner as the immediate father of the second Kish, and this is clearly the more explicit of the two accounts.—See KISH Nos. 2 and 3.

*** it-1 pp. 19-20 Abiel ***
ABIEL
(A•biʹel) [(My) Father Is God].
1. A son of Zeror, and descendant of Becorath and Aphiah, of the tribe of Benjamin. A comparison of 1 Chronicles 8:29-33 and 9:35-39 with 1 Samuel 9:1, 2 and 14:50, 51 gives basis for believing that Abiel is also called “Jeiel” in the Chronicles account, since Jeiel is there shown to be the father of Ner, who became the father of Kish, Saul’s father. First Samuel 14:50, 51 also shows Abiel (or Jeiel) to be the father of Ner. The record in Chronicles indicates that Jeiel (or Abiel) had nine other sons, of whom one was named Kish, and this older Kish would thus be the uncle of the son of Ner who bore the same name.
Assuming Abiel and Jeiel both to be names of the same person, we arrive at a genealogy such as is set forth in this chart.
[Chart]
(For fully formatted text, see publication)
Aphiah (a descendant of Benjamin)
Becorath
Zeror
Abiel or Jeiel
Abdon Zur Kish Baal Ner Nadab Gedor Ahio Zechariah Mikloth
(Zecher)
Abner Kish
Saul
Therefore, when we read at 1 Samuel 9:1 that Kish (that is, the second Kish, the father of Saul) was “the son of Abiel,” it appears that the meaning is that he was the grandson of Abiel, as is often the case in Bible genealogy where one or more links in the genealogy are simply omitted.

(1 CHRONICLES 9:39)

“Ner became father to Kish; Kish became father to Saul; Saul became father to Jonʹa•than, Malʹchi-shuʹa, A•binʹa•dab, and Esh•baʹal.”

*** it-1 pp. 19-20 Abiel ***
ABIEL
(A•biʹel) [(My) Father Is God].
1. A son of Zeror, and descendant of Becorath and Aphiah, of the tribe of Benjamin. A comparison of 1 Chronicles 8:29-33 and 9:35-39 with 1 Samuel 9:1, 2 and 14:50, 51 gives basis for believing that Abiel is also called “Jeiel” in the Chronicles account, since Jeiel is there shown to be the father of Ner, who became the father of Kish, Saul’s father. First Samuel 14:50, 51 also shows Abiel (or Jeiel) to be the father of Ner. The record in Chronicles indicates that Jeiel (or Abiel) had nine other sons, of whom one was named Kish, and this older Kish would thus be the uncle of the son of Ner who bore the same name.
Assuming Abiel and Jeiel both to be names of the same person, we arrive at a genealogy such as is set forth in this chart.
[Chart]
(For fully formatted text, see publication)
Aphiah (a descendant of Benjamin)
Becorath
Zeror
Abiel or Jeiel
Abdon Zur Kish Baal Ner Nadab Gedor Ahio Zechariah Mikloth
(Zecher)
Abner Kish
Saul
Therefore, when we read at 1 Samuel 9:1 that Kish (that is, the second Kish, the father of Saul) was “the son of Abiel,” it appears that the meaning is that he was the grandson of Abiel, as is often the case in Bible genealogy where one or more links in the genealogy are simply omitted.

*** it-1 p. 20 Abiel ***
The record in 1 Chronicles (8:33; 9:39) seems quite definite in presenting Ner as the immediate father of the second Kish, and this is clearly the more explicit of the two accounts.—See KISH Nos. 2 and 3.

*** it-1 p. 1224 Ish-bosheth ***
ISH-BOSHETH
(Ish-boʹsheth) [meaning “Man of Shame”].
Evidently the youngest of Saul’s sons, his successor to the throne. From the genealogical listings it appears that his name was also Eshbaal, meaning “Man of Baal.” (1Ch 8:33; 9:39) However, elsewhere, as in Second Samuel, he is called Ish-bosheth, a name in which “baal” is replaced by “bosheth.” (2Sa 2:10) This Hebrew word boʹsheth is found at Jeremiah 3:24 and is rendered “shameful thing.” (AS, AT, JP, NW, Ro, RS) In two other occurrences baʹʽal and boʹsheth are found parallel and in apposition, in which the one explains and identifies the other. (Jer 11:13; Ho 9:10) There are also other instances where individuals similarly had “bosheth” or a form of it substituted for “baal” in their names, as, for example, “Jerubbesheth” for “Jerubbaal” (2Sa 11:21; Jg 6:32) and “Mephibosheth” for “Merib-baal,” the latter being a nephew of Ish-bosheth.—2Sa 4:4; 1Ch 8:34; 9:40.
The reason for these double names or substitutions is not known. One theory advanced by some scholars attempts to explain the dual names as an alteration made when the common noun “baal” (owner; master) became more exclusively identified with the distasteful fertility god of Canaan, Baal. However, in the same Bible book of Second Samuel, where the account of Ish-bosheth appears, King David himself is reported as naming a place of battle Baal-perazim (meaning “Owner of Breakings Through”), in honor of the Lord Jehovah, for as he said: “Jehovah has broken through my enemies.” (2Sa 5:20) Another view is that the name Ish-bosheth may have been prophetic of that individual’s shameful death and the calamitous termination of Saul’s dynasty.

(1 CHRONICLES 9:40)

“And Jonʹa•than’s son was Merʹib-baʹal. Merʹib-baʹal became father to Miʹcah.”

*** it-2 p. 379 Merib-baal ***
The name Merib-baal is found in two somewhat different Hebrew forms (Merivʹ baʹʽal and Meri-vaʹʽal) at 1 Chronicles 9:40. The first form is also used at 1 Chronicles 8:34. Indicating similar identity is the fact that Mephibosheth had a boy named Mica and Merib-baal had a son named Micah. (Compare 2Sa 9:12 with 1Ch 9:40.) The forms “Mica” and “Micah” are due merely to a slight variation in the Hebrew spelling of these names.

(1 CHRONICLES 10:1)

“Now the Phi•lisʹtines were fighting against Israel. And the men of Israel fled from before the Phi•lisʹtines, and many fell slain on Mount Gil•boʹa.”

*** it-1 p. 746 Time of David ***
Gilboa (Mt.) 1Ch 10:1-6

(1 CHRONICLES 10:10)

“Then they put his armor in the house of their god and fastened his skull to the house of Daʹgon.”

*** it-1 p. 151 Archaeology ***
Of particular interest was the discovery of certain Canaanite temples at Beth-shan. First Samuel 31:10 states that the Philistines put King Saul’s armor “in the house of the Ashtoreth images, and his corpse they fastened on the wall of Beth-shan,” while 1 Chronicles 10:10 says “they put his armor in the house of their god, and his skull they fastened to the house of Dagon.” Two of the temples unearthed were of the same time period and one gives evidence of being the temple of Ashtoreth, while the other is thought to be that of Dagon, thus harmonizing with the above texts as to the existence of two temples in Beth-shan.

*** it-1 p. 304 Beth-shean ***
Beth-shean was in the possession of the Philistines at the time of the reign of King Saul, and following Saul’s defeat at adjacent Mount Gilboa the Philistine victors placed Saul’s armor in “the house of the Ashtoreth images” and his head on the house of Dagon, and hung the dead bodies of Saul and his sons on the wall of Beth-shan (Beth-shean), evidently on the interior side facing the city’s public square. Courageous and daring Israelites of Jabesh-gilead, about 20 km (12 mi) away on the other side of the Jordan, retrieved the bodies, perhaps penetrating the city at night in order to do so.—1Sa 31:8-13; 2Sa 21:12; 1Ch 10:8-12.
In harmony with the above account, in the excavations at Tell el-Husn the ruins of two temples were uncovered, one of which is considered to be the temple of Ashtoreth, while the other, farther to the S, is suggested by some to be the temple of Dagon.

(1 CHRONICLES 10:13)

“Thus Saul died for the unfaithfulness he had shown against Jehovah because he had not obeyed the word of Jehovah, also for consulting a spirit medium”

*** it-1 pp. 637-638 Divination ***
Man’s natural desire to know the future is satisfied when he worships and serves his Grand Creator, for through God’s channel of communication He lovingly reveals ahead of time what it is good for man to know. (Am 3:7) However, when men turn away from Jehovah and become alienated from the only One who knows the end from the beginning, they easily fall victim to spiritistic demon influence. Saul is such a striking example, one who at first looked to Jehovah for knowledge of future events but who, after being cut off from all contact with God because of his unfaithfulness, turned to the demons as a substitute for divine guidance.—1Sa 28:6, 7; 1Ch 10:13, 14.

*** it-2 p. 1028 Spiritism ***
The Commentary on the Old Testament, by C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch (1973, Vol. II, First Samuel, p. 265), refers to the Greek Septuagint at 1 Chronicles 10:13, which has added the words “and Samuel the prophet answered him.” (Bagster) The Commentary supports the view that is implied by these uninspired words in the Septuagint,

(1 CHRONICLES 11:7)

“Then David took up residence in the stronghold. That is why they called it the City of David.”

*** it-1 p. 591 David, City of ***
This site was very suitable for a “stronghold,” since it was protected by deep valleys on three sides, on the W the Tyropoeon Valley, and on the E the Kidron Valley, which joins the Valley of Hinnom at the southern end of the spur. (1Ch 11:7) The city required major protection only from the N, and here the ridge became even narrower, making an attack extremely difficult.

*** it-2 p. 41 Jerusalem ***
It seems that the Jebusites at that time had their city on the southern end of the eastern spur. They were confident of the impregnability of their fortress city, with its natural defenses of steep valley walls on three sides and, probably, special fortifications on the north. It was known as “the place difficult to approach” (1Ch 11:7), and the Jebusites taunted David that even ‘the blind and the lame of the city’ could hold off his attacks. But David conquered the city, his attack being spearheaded by Joab, who evidently gained entry into the city by means of “the water tunnel.” (2Sa 5:6-9; 1Ch 11:4-8)

(1 CHRONICLES 11:11)

“This is the list of David’s mighty warriors: Ja•shoʹbe•am the son of a Hachʹmon•ite, the head of the three. He brandished his spear over 300 slain at one time.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 10 par. 3 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
11:11—Why is the number of slain 300 and not 800 as in the parallel account at 2 Samuel 23:8? The head of David’s three most valiant men was Jashobeam, or Josheb-basshebeth. The other two mighty men were Eleazar and Shammah. (2 Samuel 23:8-11) The reason for the difference in the two accounts may well be that they refer to different deeds performed by the same man.

*** it-2 p. 113 Josheb-basshebeth ***
JOSHEB-BASSHEBETH
(Joʹsheb-bas•sheʹbeth).
The head one of David’s three most outstanding mighty men. (2Sa 23:8) At 1 Chronicles 11:11 he is called Jashobeam, which is probably the more correct form. There are other scribal difficulties with the text in 2 Samuel 23:8, making it necessary for the obscure Hebrew in the Masoretic text (which appears to read, “He was Adino the Eznite”) to be corrected to read “He was brandishing his spear.” (NW) Other modern translations read similarly. (AT; RS; Mo; Ro, ftn; JB) Thus Samuel is made to agree with the book of Chronicles and with the construction pattern in this section of material. It is “the three” that are being discussed, but to introduce another name, Adino, makes four. Additionally, each of the three mighty men has one of his deeds credited to him, so if the overpowering of the 800 were attributed to someone else, there would be no deed credited here to Josheb-basshebeth (Jashobeam).—See JASHOBEAM No. 2.
There is a possibility that the deed ascribed to Josheb-basshebeth at 2 Samuel 23:8 is not the same as that mentioned at 1 Chronicles 11:11. This may explain why the Samuel account speaks of 800 slain, whereas the Chronicles account refers to 300 slain.

(1 CHRONICLES 11:17)

“Then David expressed his longing: “If only I could have a drink of the water from the cistern by the gate of Bethʹle•hem!””

*** it-1 p. 300 Bethlehem ***
Later, as a fugitive, David longed for a drink of water from a cistern at Bethlehem, then the site of a Philistine outpost. (2Sa 23:14, 15; 1Ch 11:16, 17) It may be noted that three wells are still found on the N side of the town.

(1 CHRONICLES 11:18)

“At that the three forced their way into the camp of the Phi•lisʹtines and drew water from the cistern by the gate of Bethʹle•hem and brought it to David; but David refused to drink it and poured it out to Jehovah.”

*** w12 11/15 p. 6 pars. 12-13 “Teach Me to Do Your Will” ***
Consider what happened when David expressed his craving for “a drink of the water from the cistern of Bethlehem.” Three of David’s men forced their way into the city—then occupied by the Philistines—and brought back the water. However, “David did not consent to drink it, but poured it out to Jehovah.” Why? David explained: “It is unthinkable on my part, as regards my God, to do this! Is it the blood of these men that I should drink at the risk of their souls? For it was at the risk of their souls that they brought it.”—1 Chron. 11:15-19.
13 David knew from the Law that blood should be poured out to Jehovah and not eaten. He also understood why this should be done. David knew that “the soul of the flesh is in the blood.” However, this was water, not blood. Why did David refuse to drink it? He appreciated the principle behind the legal requirement. To David, the water was as precious as the blood of the three men. Therefore, it was unthinkable for him to drink the water. Instead of drinking it, he concluded that he should pour it out on the ground.—Lev. 17:11; Deut. 12:23, 24.

(1 CHRONICLES 11:19)

“He said: “It is unthinkable on my part from the standpoint of my God to do this! Should I drink the blood of these men who risked their lives? For it was at the risk of their lives that they brought it.” So he refused to drink it. These are the things that his three mighty warriors did.”

*** w12 11/15 p. 6 pars. 12-13 “Teach Me to Do Your Will” ***
Consider what happened when David expressed his craving for “a drink of the water from the cistern of Bethlehem.” Three of David’s men forced their way into the city—then occupied by the Philistines—and brought back the water. However, “David did not consent to drink it, but poured it out to Jehovah.” Why? David explained: “It is unthinkable on my part, as regards my God, to do this! Is it the blood of these men that I should drink at the risk of their souls? For it was at the risk of their souls that they brought it.”—1 Chron. 11:15-19.
13 David knew from the Law that blood should be poured out to Jehovah and not eaten. He also understood why this should be done. David knew that “the soul of the flesh is in the blood.” However, this was water, not blood. Why did David refuse to drink it? He appreciated the principle behind the legal requirement. To David, the water was as precious as the blood of the three men. Therefore, it was unthinkable for him to drink the water. Instead of drinking it, he concluded that he should pour it out on the ground.—Lev. 17:11; Deut. 12:23, 24.

(1 CHRONICLES 11:20)

“A•bishʹai the brother of Joʹab became head of another three; he brandished his spear over 300 slain, and he had a reputation like the three.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 10 par. 4 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
11:20, 21—What was Abishai’s standing with respect to the three principal mighty men of David? Abishai was not one of the three mightiest men who served David. However, as stated at 2 Samuel 23:18, 19, he was the head of 30 warriors and was more distinguished than any of them. Abishai’s reputation rivaled that of the three principal mighty ones because he performed a mighty act similar to that of Jashobeam.

(1 CHRONICLES 11:21)

“Of the other three, he was more distinguished than two of them, and he was their chief; yet he did not attain to the rank of the first three.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 10 par. 4 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
11:20, 21—What was Abishai’s standing with respect to the three principal mighty men of David? Abishai was not one of the three mightiest men who served David. However, as stated at 2 Samuel 23:18, 19, he was the head of 30 warriors and was more distinguished than any of them. Abishai’s reputation rivaled that of the three principal mighty ones because he performed a mighty act similar to that of Jashobeam.

(1 CHRONICLES 11:25)

“Although he was distinguished even more than the thirty, he did not attain to the rank of the three. However, David appointed him over his own bodyguard.”

*** it-1 p. 1010 Guard ***
The Hebrew word mish•maʹʽath, meaning, basically, “hearers” and rendered “subjects” in Isaiah 11:14, is used to refer to David’s bodyguard (2Sa 23:23; 1Ch 11:25) and to the bodyguard of Saul, over which David had been chief.—1Sa 22:14.

(1 CHRONICLES 11:27)

“Shamʹmoth the Haʹro•rite, Heʹlez the Pelʹo•nite,”

*** it-1 pp. 1038-1039 Harodite ***
HARODITE
(Haʹrod•ite) [Of (Belonging to) Harod].
A resident of Harod or a person living near a place called Harod. The term is applied to Shammah and Elika, two of David’s mighty men. (2Sa 23:8, 25) If “Shammah” and “Shammoth” are the same person, then the use of “Harorite” at 1 Chronicles 11:27 is possibly a scribal error for “Harodite,” the change perhaps arising from the similarity between the Hebrew letters “r” (ר) and “d” (ד).

(1 CHRONICLES 11:38)

“Joel the brother of Nathan, Mibʹhar the son of Hagʹri,”

*** it-2 p. 390 Mibhar ***
MIBHAR
(Mibʹhar) [from a root that means “choose”].
Son of Hagri; one of the mighty men of David’s military forces. (1Ch 11:26, 38) Some have suggested that there is a discrepancy in the text at 1 Chronicles 11:38 because Bani the Gadite, not Mibhar, is mentioned in a parallel list at 2 Samuel 23:36. They hold that Mibhar is an alteration of the Hebrew for “from Zobah” and that the final words of 1 Chronicles 11:38 resulted because of reading ben-hagh•riʹ (son of Hagri) for ba•niʹ hag•ga•dhiʹ (Bani the Gadite). This remains conjectural.

(1 CHRONICLES 11:44)

“Uz•ziʹa the Ashʹte•rath•ite, Shaʹma and Je•iʹel, the sons of Hoʹtham the A•roʹer•ite;”

*** it-1 p. 178 Aroerite ***
AROERITE
(A•roʹer•ite) [Of (Belonging to) Aroer].
An inhabitant of one of the cities named Aroer. At 1 Chronicles 11:44 Hotham, the father of two of David’s mighty men named Shama and Jeiel, is referred to as an Aroerite. His sons’ association with David may place their father’s home city in the territory of Judah.—See AROER No. 3.

OCT. 26 BIBLE READING: 1 CHRONICLES 12-15


(1 CHRONICLES 12:8)

“Some of the Gadʹites went over to David’s side at the stronghold in the wilderness; they were mighty warriors, soldiers trained for war, standing ready with the large shield and the lance, whose faces were like those of lions and who were as swift as the gazelles on the mountains.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 10 par. 5 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
12:8—In what way were the faces of the Gadite warriors like “the faces of lions”? These valiant men were at David’s side in the wilderness. Their hair had grown long. Having a hairy mane gave them a fierce, lionlike appearance.

*** it-1 p. 171 Arms, Armor ***
The “large shield” (Heb., tsin•nahʹ) was carried by the heavily armed infantry (2Ch 14:8) and sometimes by a shield bearer. (1Sa 17:7, 41) It was either oval or else rectangular like a door. Apparently a similar “large shield” is designated at Ephesians 6:16 by the Greek word thy•re•osʹ (from thyʹra, meaning “door”). The tsin•nahʹ was large enough to cover the entire body. (Ps 5:12) It was on occasion used to set up solid-front battle lines with lances protruding. The large shield is sometimes mentioned with the lance or spear as a form of reference to weapons in general.—1Ch 12:8, 34; 2Ch 11:12.

(1 CHRONICLES 12:18)

“Then the spirit came upon A•maʹsai, the head of the thirty: “We are yours, O David, and we are with you, O son of Jesʹse. Peace, peace be yours, and peace to the one helping you, For your God is helping you.” So David received them and appointed them among the heads of the troops.”

*** it-1 p. 87 Amasa ***
Some contend that Amasa is to be identified with Amasai, one of those who joined David’s army at Ziklag, but such an identification is uncertain.—1Ch 12:18.

(1 CHRONICLES 12:21)

“They helped David against the marauder band, because all of them were mighty, courageous men, and they became chiefs in the army.”

*** it-1 p. 49 Adnah ***
1. A valiant military officer of Manasseh who deserted from Saul to David’s army at Ziklag. He fought at David’s side in the pursuit of the marauding band of Amalekites that ravaged David’s camp at Ziklag, and he came to be a chief in David’s army.—1Ch 12:20, 21; 1Sa 30:1, 2, 17-19.

(1 CHRONICLES 12:23)

“This is the number of the heads of those armed for battle who came to David at Hebʹron to turn the kingship of Saul over to him according to Jehovah’s order.”

*** it-1 p. 746 Time of David ***
Hebron 2Sa 2:1-4, 11; 3:2-5, 12, 20-27, 32; 4:8-12;
5:1-5; 15:7-10; 1Ch 12:23-40

(1 CHRONICLES 12:27)

“Je•hoiʹa•da was the leader of the sons of Aaron, and with him were 3,700,”

*** it-1 p. 11 Aaron ***
Aaron’s Priestly Descendants. The expression “Aaronites” appears in the King James Version and Moffatt at 1 Chronicles 12:27; 27:17. (The Masoretic text in Hebrew simply uses the name Aaron. LXX [Lagardian edition, at 1Ch 12:27] says “of the sons of Aaron.”) It is evident that the word “Aaron” is here used in a collective sense, much as is the name Israel, and stands for the house of Aaron or his male descendants in David’s time who were of the tribe of Levi and were serving as priests. (1Ch 6:48-53) The New World Translation reads: “And Jehoiada was the leader [of the sons] of Aaron, and with him were three thousand seven hundred” (1Ch 12:27), bracketing the words “of the sons” to denote that they are supplied.

(1 CHRONICLES 12:33)

“Of Zebʹu•lun, there were 50,000 who could serve in the army, drawing up in battle formation with all the weapons of war, all joining David with undivided loyalty.”

*** it-1 p. 1058 Heart ***
An individual can also be of “a double heart” (literally, with a heart and a heart), trying to serve two masters, or deceptively saying one thing while thinking something else. (1Ch 12:33; Ps 12:2, ftn) Jesus strongly denounced such doublehearted hypocrisy.—Mt 15:7, 8.

(1 CHRONICLES 12:34)

“Of Naphʹta•li, there were 1,000 chiefs, and with them were 37,000 with the large shield and the spear.”

*** it-1 p. 171 Arms, Armor ***
The “large shield” (Heb., tsin•nahʹ) was carried by the heavily armed infantry (2Ch 14:8) and sometimes by a shield bearer. (1Sa 17:7, 41) It was either oval or else rectangular like a door. Apparently a similar “large shield” is designated at Ephesians 6:16 by the Greek word thy•re•osʹ (from thyʹra, meaning “door”). The tsin•nahʹ was large enough to cover the entire body. (Ps 5:12) It was on occasion used to set up solid-front battle lines with lances protruding. The large shield is sometimes mentioned with the lance or spear as a form of reference to weapons in general.—1Ch 12:8, 34; 2Ch 11:12.

(1 CHRONICLES 13:5)

“So David congregated all Israel, from the river of Egypt as far as Leʹbo-haʹmath, to bring the Ark of the true God from Kirʹi•ath-jeʹa•rim.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 10 par. 6 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
13:5—What is “the river of Egypt”? Some have thought that this expression refers to a branch of the Nile River. However, it is generally understood that the reference is to “the torrent valley of Egypt”—a long ravine marking the southwest boundary of the Promised Land.—Numbers 34:2, 5; Genesis 15:18.

*** it-2 p. 815 River of Egypt ***
At 1 Chronicles 13:5 certain translations read “river [shi•chohrʹ] of Egypt” (NW, La, AT), and this reference also may be to Wadi el-ʽArish. However, another possibility is that both texts refer to a branch of the Nile.—See SHIHOR.

*** it-2 pp. 927-928 Shihor ***
Similarly, a correspondency is noted between the reference to David’s congregating the people of Israel from Shihor (“the river of Egypt,” NW) to Hamath (when endeavoring to bring the ark of the covenant up to Jerusalem) and the congregating of the people in Solomon’s day from “the entering in of Hamath down to the torrent valley of Egypt.” (1Ch 13:5; 1Ki 8:65) The explanation for this may be that in the latter case (Solomon’s time) the account gives the practical boundaries of Israelite residence. The region between the Wadi el-ʽArish and the eastern arm of the Nile is basically desert territory and scrubland, so this wadi, or torrent valley, fittingly marked the limit of territory suitable for Israelite inhabitation, whereas in the former case (David’s) the description may be that of the entire region of Israelite activity, the region effectively dominated by David, which indeed ran to the border of Egypt.
Even prior to David, King Saul had pursued the Amalekites as far as Shur, “which is in front of Egypt” (1Sa 15:7), and the dominion Solomon received through David is stated to have reached to “the boundary of Egypt.” (1Ki 4:21) So, even though the territory actually distributed to the Israelite tribes did not extend beyond “the torrent valley of Egypt,” this would not appear to argue against the identification of the Shihor with a “branch of the Nile” at Joshua 13:3 and “the river of Egypt” at 1 Chronicles 13:5.

*** it-2 p. 927 Shihor ***
SHIHOR
(Shiʹhor) [from Egyptian, meaning “Pond of Horus”].
Evidently the easternmost branch of the Nile River in the Delta region. Shihor, in its four occurrences in the Hebrew text, is always associated with Egypt. (Jos 13:3, “branch of the Nile”; 1Ch 13:5, “river”;

(1 CHRONICLES 13:9)

“But when they came to the threshing floor of Chiʹdon, Uzʹzah thrust his hand out and grabbed hold of the Ark, for the cattle nearly upset it.”

*** it-1 p. 433 Chidon ***
CHIDON
(Chiʹdon).
The name of the owner of the threshing floor or the threshing floor itself where Uzzah was struck down by Jehovah when an attempt was made to move the ark of the testimony in an improper manner from Kiriath-jearim to the City of David. The threshing floor was apparently located between these two points and near the house of Obed-edom. (1Ch 13:6-14) Its precise location is unknown. The parallel narrative at 2 Samuel 6:6 says “Nacon,” which possibly indicates that one account uses the name of the location of the threshing floor, while the other uses the name of its owner. After the above incident the place came to be called Perez-uzzah, meaning “Rupture Against Uzzah.”

*** it-2 p. 460 Nacon ***
NACON
(Naʹcon) [possibly, Firmly Established].
According to 2 Samuel 6:6, the name of the threshing floor where Uzzah died for grabbing hold of the ark of the covenant. The parallel account at 1 Chronicles 13:9 says “Chidon,” probably indicating that one writer mentioned the name of the place, the other that of its owner, or that one name is an altered form of the other.

(1 CHRONICLES 13:10)

“At that Jehovah’s anger blazed against Uzʹzah, and He struck him down because he had thrust his hand out to the Ark, and he died there before God.”

*** w05 2/1 pp. 26-27 Jehovah Always Does What Is Right ***
Why Did Jehovah Strike Uzzah Dead?
18 Another account that might seem puzzling to some involves David’s attempt to bring the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem. The Ark was placed on a wagon, which was led by Uzzah and his brother. The Bible states: “They came gradually as far as the threshing floor of Nacon, and Uzzah now thrust his hand out to the ark of the true God and grabbed hold of it, for the cattle nearly caused an upset. At that Jehovah’s anger blazed against Uzzah and the true God struck him down there for the irreverent act, so that he died there close by the ark of the true God.” Some months later, a second attempt succeeded when the Ark was transported in the God-appointed way, carried on the shoulders of Kohathite Levites. (2 Samuel 6:6, 7; Numbers 4:15; 7:9; 1 Chronicles 15:1-14) Some may ask: ‘Why did Jehovah react so strongly? Uzzah was only trying to save the Ark.’ Lest we draw the wrong conclusion, we do well to note some helpful details.
19 We need to remember that it is impossible for Jehovah to act unjustly. (Job 34:10) For him to do so would be unloving, and we know from our study of the Bible as a whole that “God is love.” (1 John 4:8) In addition, the Scriptures tell us that “righteousness and judgment are the established place of [God’s] throne.” (Psalm 89:14) How, then, could Jehovah ever act unjustly? If he were to do so, he would be undermining the very foundation of his sovereignty.
20 Keep in mind that Uzzah should have known better. The Ark was associated with Jehovah’s presence. The Law specified that it was not to be touched by unauthorized individuals, explicitly warning that violators would be punished by death. (Numbers 4:18-20; 7:89) Therefore, the transfer of that sacred chest was not a task to be treated lightly. Uzzah evidently was a Levite (though not a priest), so he should have been familiar with the Law. Besides, years earlier the Ark had been moved to the house of his father for safekeeping. (1 Samuel 6:20–7:1) It had stayed there for some 70 years, until David chose to move it. So from childhood on, Uzzah had likely been aware of the laws regarding the Ark.
21 As mentioned earlier, Jehovah can read hearts. Since his Word calls Uzzah’s deed an “irreverent act,” Jehovah may have seen some selfish motive that is not expressly revealed in the account. Was Uzzah perhaps a presumptuous man, prone to overstep due bounds? (Proverbs 11:2) Did leading in public the Ark that his family had guarded in private give him an inflated sense of self-importance? (Proverbs 8:13) Was Uzzah so faithless as to think that Jehovah’s hand was too short to steady the sacred chest that symbolized His presence? Whatever the case, we can be sure that Jehovah did what was right. He likely saw something in Uzzah’s heart that caused Him to render swift judgment.—Proverbs 21:2.

(1 CHRONICLES 13:11)

“But David became angry because Jehovah’s wrath had broken through against Uzʹzah; and that place has been called Peʹrez-uzʹzah down to this day.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 11 par. 2 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
13:11. Rather than becoming angry and blaming Jehovah when our efforts fail, we must analyze the situation and try to see what caused the failure. Undoubtedly, David did that. He learned from his mistake and later successfully brought the Ark to Jerusalem, using the proper method.

(1 CHRONICLES 14:11)

“So David went up to Baʹal-pe•raʹzim, and he struck them down there. At that David said: “The true God has broken through my enemies by my hand, like a breach made by waters.” That is why they named that place Baʹal-pe•raʹzim.”

*** w91 6/1 p. 21 par. 2 Keep Warning of Jehovah’s Unusual Work ***
1 Chronicles 14:8-17

*** w91 6/1 p. 21 par. 1 Keep Warning of Jehovah’s Unusual Work ***
Obeying Jehovah’s word, David soundly defeated the mighty Philistine army at Baal-perazim. But the Philistines did not admit defeat. Soon they returned to ravage and pillage some more in the low plain of Rephaim, and David again sought direction from Jehovah.

*** it-1 p. 588 David ***
When the Philistines heard that David was king of all Israel, they came up to overthrow him. As in the past (1Sa 23:2, 4, 10-12; 30:8), David inquired of Jehovah whether he should go against them. “Go up,” was the answer, and Jehovah burst upon the enemy with such overpowering destruction that David called the place Baal-perazim, meaning “Owner of Breakings Through.” In a return encounter Jehovah’s strategy shifted, and he ordered David to circle around and strike the Philistines from the rear.—2Sa 5:17-25; 1Ch 14:8-17.

*** it-1 p. 746 Time of David ***
Baal-perazim 1Ch 14:8-12

(1 CHRONICLES 14:12)

“The Phi•lisʹtines abandoned their gods there, and when David gave the order, these were burned in the fire.”

*** it-1 p. 233 Baal-perazim ***
The account at 2 Samuel 5:21 says that David and his men ‘took the Philistines’ abandoned idols away.’ The parallel account at 1 Chronicles 14:12 shows the final action taken, stating: “Then David said the word, and so they [the idols] were burned in the fire.”

(1 CHRONICLES 14:15)

“And when you hear the sound of marching in the tops of the baʹca bushes, launch your attack, for the true God will have gone out before you to strike down the army of the Phi•lisʹtines.””

*** w91 6/1 p. 21 par. 2 Keep Warning of Jehovah’s Unusual Work ***
2 This time he was told to go to the rear of the Philistines with his troops. Jehovah said: “When you hear the sound of a marching in the tops of the baca bushes, at that time you act with decision, because at that time Jehovah will have gone out ahead of you to strike down the camp of the Philistines.” And that is what happened. David waited until Jehovah produced the sound of marching in the top of the baca bushes—perhaps by means of a strong wind. Immediately, David and his troops leapt out from concealment and attacked the distracted Philistines, defeating them with a great slaughter. The religious idols that the Philistines left lying on the battlefield were gathered together and destroyed.—2 Samuel 5:17-25; 1 Chronicles 14:8-17.

*** it-1 p. 241 Baca ***
A balsam tree of the poplar family (Populus euphratica) is recommended by some botanists, primarily because of the ease with which its leaves are stirred by any breeze, producing a rustling sound. However, the Bible does not specify how “the sound of a marching” was produced (whether by means of the leaves, the branches, or some other part of the plant) and simply indicates that it occurred in “the tops” of the plants. It could have been a mere rustling sound that served as a signal, or as suggested by some, it may have been a noise of some volume produced by a rushing wind that served to cover up or even to simulate the sound of a marching army.—2Sa 5:24; 1Ch 14:15.

(1 CHRONICLES 15:20)

“and Zech•a•riʹah, Aʹzi•el, She•mirʹa•moth, Je•hiʹel, Unʹni, E•liʹab, Ma•a•seiʹah, and Be•naiʹah played stringed instruments tuned to Alʹa•moth;”

*** nwt p. 1692 Glossary ***
Alamoth. A musical term meaning “Maidens; Young Women,” probably alluding to the soprano voices of young women. It was likely used to indicate that a musical piece or accompaniment was to be executed at a high register.—1Ch 15:20; Ps 46:Sup.

*** nwt p. 1711 Glossary ***
Sheminith. A musical term literally meaning “the eighth” that may refer to a lower musical register, or mode. For instruments, the word probably pointed to those that produced the bass tones of the musical scale. For songs, it likely referred to musical accompaniment in a lower range and sung accordingly.—1Ch 15:21; Ps 6:Sup; 12:Sup.

*** it-1 p. 69 Alamoth ***
ALAMOTH
(Alʹa•moth) [Maidens; Young Women].
Evidently a term of musical execution. It probably refers to the soprano voices of young women or the falsetto of boys. In 1 Chronicles 15:20, stringed instruments are described as being “tuned to Alamoth,” the term being transliterated. However, in the superscription to Psalm 46 ʽala•mohthʹ is translated “Maidens.”
At 1 Chronicles 15:21, the verse following the above citation, another musical expression is transliterated, namely, shemi•nithʹ, referring to “harps tuned to Sheminith.” In the superscriptions of Psalms 6 and 12 this word is translated “lower octave.” While the two terms Alamoth and Sheminith are not necessarily opposites in meaning, some scholars believe they do stand in contrast to each other. The contents of the respective psalms seem to indicate this also: Both psalms (6 and 12) containing shemi•nithʹ in their superscriptions are somewhat plaintive and would accordingly be accompanied in a more somber, lower range; whereas Psalm 46, containing ʽala•mohthʹ in its superscription, is joyous and reasonably would have accompaniment or be sung in a higher register.—See HARP; MUSIC.

*** it-1 p. 1039 Harp ***
Because of the uncertainty surrounding the precise identity of the kin•nohrʹ, and especially the neʹvel (stringed instrument), any attempt to compare the two instruments is speculative. First Chronicles 15:20, 21 mentions “stringed instruments [neva•limʹ (plural)] tuned to Alamoth, . . . harps [kin•no•rohthʹ (plural)] tuned to Sheminith.” If “Alamoth” refers to a higher musical register and “Sheminith” to a lower tonal range, this could imply that the kin•nohrʹ was the larger, lower-pitched instrument. On the other hand, the reverse could be true (which is the general consensus) if, indeed, Alamoth and Sheminith are specifically here mentioned because of being exceptional tunings for these instruments. In any event, both instruments were portable.

(1 CHRONICLES 15:21)

“and Mat•ti•thiʹah, E•liphʹe•le•hu, Mik•neʹiah, Oʹbed-eʹdom, Je•iʹel, and Az•a•ziʹah played harps tuned to Shemʹi•nith, to act as directors.”

*** nwt p. 1711 Glossary ***
Sheminith. A musical term literally meaning “the eighth” that may refer to a lower musical register, or mode. For instruments, the word probably pointed to those that produced the bass tones of the musical scale. For songs, it likely referred to musical accompaniment in a lower range and sung accordingly.—1Ch 15:21; Ps 6:Sup; 12:Sup.

*** it-1 p. 69 Alamoth ***
At 1 Chronicles 15:21, the verse following the above citation, another musical expression is transliterated, namely, shemi•nithʹ, referring to “harps tuned to Sheminith.” In the superscriptions of Psalms 6 and 12 this word is translated “lower octave.” While the two terms Alamoth and Sheminith are not necessarily opposites in meaning, some scholars believe they do stand in contrast to each other. The contents of the respective psalms seem to indicate this also: Both psalms (6 and 12) containing shemi•nithʹ in their superscriptions are somewhat plaintive and would accordingly be accompanied in a more somber, lower range; whereas Psalm 46, containing ʽala•mohthʹ in its superscription, is joyous and reasonably would have accompaniment or be sung in a higher register.—See HARP; MUSIC.

*** it-1 p. 1039 Harp ***
Because of the uncertainty surrounding the precise identity of the kin•nohrʹ, and especially the neʹvel (stringed instrument), any attempt to compare the two instruments is speculative. First Chronicles 15:20, 21 mentions “stringed instruments [neva•limʹ (plural)] tuned to Alamoth, . . . harps [kin•no•rohthʹ (plural)] tuned to Sheminith.” If “Alamoth” refers to a higher musical register and “Sheminith” to a lower tonal range, this could imply that the kin•nohrʹ was the larger, lower-pitched instrument. On the other hand, the reverse could be true (which is the general consensus) if, indeed, Alamoth and Sheminith are specifically here mentioned because of being exceptional tunings for these instruments. In any event, both instruments were portable.

*** it-2 p. 922 Sheminith ***
SHEMINITH
(Shemʹi•nith).
Although the literal meaning of this musical term is “the eighth,” its exact significance is uncertain. It may refer to a particular musical register, or mode, a lower one, and if any musical instruments were associated with the term, they would probably be those used to play the bass tones of the musical scale.
At 1 Chronicles 15:21, harps are spoken of as being “tuned to Sheminith [“possibly referring to the eighth key or a lower octave,” NW ftn; “probably the bass octave,” Da ftn z].” Consistently, the superscriptions of Psalms 6 and 12 (both psalms being of somber character) read: “To the director (on stringed instruments) on the lower octave [shemi•nithʹ],” which may indicate that these songs would be accompanied by music in a lower range and sung accordingly.—See ALAMOTH.

NOV. 2 BIBLE READING: 1 CHRONICLES 16-20


(1 CHRONICLES 16:15)

“Remember his covenant forever, The promise he made, to a thousand generations,”

*** it-1 p. 917 Generation ***
But the expressions “unnumbered generations” and “a thousand generations” refer to that which is to time indefinite. (1Ch 16:15; Isa 51:8)

(1 CHRONICLES 16:30)

“Tremble before him, all the earth! The earth is firmly established; it cannot be moved.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 10 par. 7 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
16:30—What is the meaning of “severe pains” on account of Jehovah? The expression “pains” is here used figuratively to denote reverential fear of and high regard for Jehovah.

(1 CHRONICLES 16:31)

“Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be joyful; Declare among the nations: ‘Jehovah has become King!’”

*** w14 1/15 pp. 10-11 par. 14 Worship Jehovah, the King of Eternity ***
David brought the sacred ark of the covenant to Jerusalem. During this joyous occasion, the Levites sang a song of praise that contained a noteworthy statement, recorded at 1 Chronicles 16:31: “Declare among the nations: ‘Jehovah has become King!’” One might wonder, ‘Since Jehovah is the King of eternity, how is it that he became King at that time?’ Jehovah becomes King when he expresses his rulership or establishes an agency to represent him at a certain time or to deal with a specific situation.

*** it-2 p. 164 Kingdom of God ***
On the occasion of bringing the ark of the covenant, associated with Jehovah’s presence, to the capital, Jerusalem, David sang: “Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be joyful, and let them say among the nations, ‘Jehovah himself has become king!’” (1Ch 16:1, 7, 23-31) This illustrates the fact that, though Jehovah’s rulership dates from the beginning of creation, he can make specific expressions of his rulership or establish certain agencies to represent him that allow for his being spoken of as ‘becoming king’ at a particular time or occasion.

(1 CHRONICLES 16:33)

“At the same time let the trees of the forest shout joyfully before Jehovah, For he is coming to judge the earth.”

*** g87 6/22 p. 10 Live to See the Forests Rejoice! ***
Under divine rule, obedient mankind will be properly instructed in how to prevent air pollution and its by-product Waldsterben. Imagine how the earth will rejoice, symbolically speaking, when the balance of nature has been restored with positive effects on climate, agriculture, and health. “Let the earth be joyful, and let [it] say among the nations, ‘Jehovah himself has become king!’ . . . At the same time let the trees of the forest break out joyfully.” (1 Chronicles 16:31-33) Restored to a condition of greater beauty and well-being than ever before, “the trees of the forest” will indeed have every reason to “break out joyfully.”

(1 CHRONICLES 16:34)

“Give thanks to Jehovah, for he is good; His loyal love endures forever.”

*** w02 1/15 p. 11 par. 6 Jehovah—The Supreme Example of Goodness ***
After David had the Ark brought to Israel’s capital city, Jerusalem, Levites sang a song that included this expression: “Give thanks to Jehovah, you people, for he is good, for to time indefinite is his loving-kindness.” (1 Chronicles 16:34, 37-41) How delightful it must have been to hear those words from the lips of Levite singers!

(1 CHRONICLES 17:12)

“He is the one who will build a house for me, and I will firmly establish his throne forever.”

*** wi pp. 12-13 par. 9 What Is God’s Purpose for Mankind? ***
9 The first ruler from the line of Judah, King David, was promised by God: “Your house and . . . your throne shall be established forever.” (2 Samuel 7:16) God further promised: “I will set up thy seed after thee, . . . and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build Me a house, and I will establish his throne for ever.” (1 Chronicles 17:11, 12, JP) David’s son and successor, King Solomon, did indeed build Jehovah’s house, or temple, but he obviously did not rule forever. However, one of David’s seed would be the same “Shiloh,” or Messiah, prophesied at Genesis 49:10. (JP) Speaking prophetically about that one, King David wrote: “In his days let the righteous flourish, and abundance of peace, till the moon be no more. May he have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the River unto the ends of the earth.”—Psalm 72:7, 8, JP.

(1 CHRONICLES 17:16)

“At that King David came in and sat down before Jehovah and said: “Who am I, O Jehovah God? And what is my house that you have brought me this far?”

*** it-1 pp. 215-216 Attitudes and Gestures ***
Sitting and prostrating. Sitting was another posture employed in prayer, the petitioner evidently kneeling and then sitting back upon his heels. (1Ch 17:16) From this position he could bow his head or rest it on his bosom. Or, as Elijah did, he might crouch to the earth and put his face between his knees. (1Ki 18:42)

(1 CHRONICLES 18:1)

“Some time later, David defeated the Phi•lisʹtines and subdued them and took Gath and its dependent towns out of the hands of the Phi•lisʹtines.”

*** it-1 pp. 614-615 Dependent Towns ***
DEPENDENT TOWNS
Small towns in the neighborhood of a larger town or city. The capital or primary city of a district was the metropolis, or “mother” city, as at 1 Chronicles 18:1: “Gath and its dependent towns” (literally, “Gath and her daughters”).

*** it-1 p. 746 Time of David ***
Gath 1Ch 18:1; 20:5-8

(1 CHRONICLES 18:3)

“David defeated King Had•ad•eʹzer of Zoʹbah near Haʹmath as he was on his way to establish his authority at the Eu•phraʹtes River.”

*** w05 10/1 p. 11 par. 5 Highlights From the Book of First Chronicles ***
18:3. Jehovah is the Fulfiller of his promises. Through David, he carried out his promise to give Abraham’s seed the entire land of Canaan, extending “from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates.”—Genesis 15:18; 1 Chronicles 13:5.

*** si p. 77 par. 16 Bible Book Number 13—1 Chronicles ***
16 David’s conquests (18:1–21:17). Through David, Jehovah now carries out His promise to give the entire Promised Land to Abraham’s seed. (18:3)

*** it-1 p. 143 Aram ***
Aram-Zobah was an Aramaean kingdom referred to as an enemy of Saul’s rule (1117-1078 B.C.E.). (1Sa 14:47) It appears to have been situated to the N of Damascus and exercised dominion N as far as Hamath and E to the Euphrates. When David was fighting Israel’s enemies he came into conflict with Hadadezer, powerful king of Aram-Zobah, and defeated him. (2Sa 8:3, 4; 1Ch 18:3; compare Ps 60:Sup.)

*** it-1 p. 1015 Hadadezer ***
HADADEZER
(Had•ad•eʹzer) [Hadad Is a Helper].
Son of Rehob and king of Zobah, a Syrian (Aramaean) kingdom that is thought to have been situated N of Damascus (2Sa 8:3, 5; 1Ki 11:23; 1Ch 18:3, 5) and that included vassalages. (2Sa 10:19) Before being defeated by King David, Hadadezer had waged warfare against Toi (Tou) the king of Hamath.—2Sa 8:9, 10; 1Ch 18:9, 10.
After the Syrians who had been hired by the Ammonites to fight against David were defeated, Hadadezer strengthened his forces by enlisting additional Syrians from the region of the Euphrates. (2Sa 10:6, 15, 16; 1Ch 19:16) This may be alluded to at 2 Samuel 8:3 (compare 1Ch 18:3), where the reference seems to be to Hadadezer’s seeking to put his control back again at the river Euphrates. On this, Cook’s Commentary notes that the Hebrew literally means “to cause his hand to return” and states: “The exact force of the metaphor must . . . be decided by the context. If, as is most probable, this verse relates to the circumstances more fully detailed [at 2Sa 10:15-19], the meaning of the phrase here will be when he (Hadadezer) went to renew his attack (upon Israel), or to recruit his strength against Israel, at the river Euphrates.”

(1 CHRONICLES 18:4)

“David captured 1,000 chariots, 7,000 horsemen, and 20,000 foot soldiers from him. Then David hamstrung all but 100 of the chariot horses.”

*** it-1 p. 1015 Hadadezer ***
David also captured many of Hadadezer’s horses, horsemen, chariots, and footmen. The variation in the enumeration of these at 2 Samuel 8:4 and 1 Chronicles 18:4 may have arisen through scribal error. In the Greek Septuagint both passages indicate that 1,000 chariots and 7,000 horsemen were captured, and therefore 1 Chronicles 18:4 perhaps preserves the original reading.

*** it-1 p. 1026 Hamstring ***
In carrying out war operations, the Israelites hamstrung the horses of their enemies; on one occasion Joshua was specifically directed to do so by Jehovah. (Jos 11:6, 9; 2Sa 8:3, 4; 1Ch 18:3, 4) This was the simplest method of putting horses out of the battle, and after being disabled in this way, the horses undoubtedly were killed, destroyed along with the war chariots. By not appropriating to themselves the horses of their enemies and then using them in warfare, the Israelites would be safeguarded from being ensnared into relying on horses instead of on Jehovah for protection.—Compare De 17:16; Isa 31:1, 3.

*** it-1 p. 1145 Horse ***
King David of Israel was mindful of Jehovah’s prohibition against multiplying horses. In his victory over Hadadezer of Zobah, David could have added many horses to his army, but, instead, he kept only the number he deemed sufficient for his immediate purposes and ordered the remainder to be hamstrung.—2Sa 8:3, 4; 1Ch 18:3, 4; compare Jos 11:6, 9; see HAMSTRING.

(1 CHRONICLES 18:7)

“Moreover, David took the circular shields of gold from the servants of Had•ad•eʹzer and brought them to Jerusalem.”

*** it-1 p. 1015 Hadadezer ***
David also took much copper from Betah (apparently also called Tibhath) and Berothai (perhaps the same as Cun), two cities of Hadadezer’s realm, and brought the gold shields belonging to Hadadezer’s servants, probably the vassal kings, to Jerusalem. (2Sa 8:7, 8; 1Ch 18:7, 8; compare 2Sa 10:19.)

(1 CHRONICLES 18:8)

“From Tibʹhath and Cun, cities of Had•ad•eʹzer, David took a great quantity of copper. With it Solʹo•mon made the copper Sea, the pillars, and the copper utensils.”

*** it-1 p. 292 Betah ***
BETAH
(Beʹtah).
A town mentioned along with Berothai in connection with David’s defeat of Hadadezer, king of Zobah. (2Sa 8:8) The site is unknown, although the Aramaean kingdom of Zobah is considered to have been to the N of Damascus. In a parallel account of David’s victory, 1 Chronicles 18:8 refers to “Tibhath,” and some lexicographers consider Tibhath to be the more correct rendering. The Syriac Peshitta reads “Tebah” instead of Betah at 2 Samuel 8:8. It is to be noted that simply by an inversion of the first two Hebrew consonants Betah becomes Tebah. Since Betah (or Tibhath) was an Aramaean city, some scholars associate it with Tebah, the son of Nahor.—Ge 22:24; see TIBHATH.

*** it-1 p. 291 Berothah ***
BEROTHAH
(Be•roʹthah), Berothai (Be•roʹthai) [Wells].
In Ezekiel’s vision concerning the territorial inheritance of Israel, Berothah is listed as on the northern boundary in the area between Hamath and Damascus. (Eze 47:16) It appears to be the same as Berothai of 2 Samuel 8:8, a city belonging to Hadadezer king of Zobah, from which David carried away “copper in very great quantity.” In the parallel record at 1 Chronicles 18:8 the name Cun appears in its place. Berothah (or Berothai) is generally identified with present-day Britel (Bereitan), about 10 km (6 mi) SW of Baalbek in the valley known as the Beqaʽ, lying between the Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon mountains.

(1 CHRONICLES 18:12)

“A•bishʹai the son of Ze•ruʹiah struck down 18,000 Eʹdom•ites in the Valley of Salt.”

*** it-1 p. 680 Edom ***
At 1 Chronicles 18:12 and in the superscription of Psalm 60, Abishai and Joab respectively are described as effecting the conquest of the Edomites. Since David was commander in chief and Joab was his principal general, while Abishai was a divisional commander under Joab, it can be seen how the accounts could differ in crediting the victory, depending upon the viewpoint taken, even as is the case in modern times. Similarly the difference in figures in these texts is likely due to the narrator’s particular view of the different aspects or campaigns of the war. (Compare 1Ki 11:15, 16.)

(1 CHRONICLES 18:16)

“Zaʹdok the son of A•hiʹtub and A•himʹe•lech the son of A•biʹa•thar were priests, and Shavʹsha was secretary.”

*** it-1 p. 24 Abimelech ***
5. The Masoretic text, followed by the King James Version, reads “Abimelech” in 1 Chronicles 18:16. The Greek Septuagint, Latin Vulgate, Syriac Peshitta, and 12 Hebrew manuscripts read “Ahimelech,” which is in agreement with 2 Samuel 8:17.

(1 CHRONICLES 19:4)

“So Haʹnun took the servants of David and shaved them and cut their garments in half at their buttocks and sent them away.”

*** it-1 p. 266 Beard ***
when Hanun the king of Ammon grossly insulted David’s ambassadors by cutting off half their beards, David sympathetically told his men to stay in Jericho until their beards grew abundantly again. The Ammonites knew that it was a signal insult to David and that they had become foul-smelling in his eyes over the incident, and so they prepared for war.—2Sa 10:4-6; 1Ch 19:1-6.

(1 CHRONICLES 19:5)

“When David was told about the men, he at once sent others to meet them, because the men had been deeply humiliated; and the king told them: “Stay in Jerʹi•cho until your beards grow back, and then return.””

*** it-1 p. 266 Beard ***
when Hanun the king of Ammon grossly insulted David’s ambassadors by cutting off half their beards, David sympathetically told his men to stay in Jericho until their beards grew abundantly again. The Ammonites knew that it was a signal insult to David and that they had become foul-smelling in his eyes over the incident, and so they prepared for war.—2Sa 10:4-6; 1Ch 19:1-6.

(1 CHRONICLES 19:6)

“In time the Amʹmon•ites saw that they had become a stench to David, so Haʹnun and the Amʹmon•ites sent 1,000 silver talents to hire chariots and horsemen from Mes•o•po•taʹmi•a, Aʹram-maʹa•cah, and Zoʹbah.”

*** it-1 p. 143 Aram ***
Aram-maacah is mentioned along with Zobah, Rehob, and Ishtob as among the Aramaean kingdoms from which the Ammonites hired chariots and horsemen to war against David. The king of Aram-maacah joined these mercenary forces, which David’s army soon put to flight. (1Ch 19:6-15; 2Sa 10:6-14) The kingdom of Maacah probably lay E of the Jordan, with Mount Hermon on its N side.—Jos 12:5; 13:11.

*** it-2 p. 385 Mesopotamia ***
It was probably from northern Mesopotamia that Ammonite King Hanun hired chariots and horsemen for his fight against King David.—1Ch 19:6, 7.

(1 CHRONICLES 19:9)

“And the Amʹmon•ites went out and drew up in battle formation at the entrance of the city while the kings who had come were by themselves in the open field.”

*** it-2 p. 724 Rabbah ***
Captured by David. The city is mentioned again in connection with war resulting from the abuse of David’s messengers by King Hanun of Ammon. (2Sa 10:1-19; 1Ch 19:1-19) Joab and his troops fought Syrians hired by the Ammonites, while the Israelites under Abishai went up against the Ammonites “at the entrance of the city,” evidently Rabbah. (1Ch 19:9)

(1 CHRONICLES 19:16)

“When the Syrians saw that they had been defeated by Israel, they sent messengers to summon the Syrians in the region of the River, with Shoʹphach the chief of the army of Had•ad•eʹzer leading them.”

*** it-1 p. 1015 Hadadezer ***
After the Syrians who had been hired by the Ammonites to fight against David were defeated, Hadadezer strengthened his forces by enlisting additional Syrians from the region of the Euphrates. (2Sa 10:6, 15, 16; 1Ch 19:16) This may be alluded to at 2 Samuel 8:3 (compare 1Ch 18:3), where the reference seems to be to Hadadezer’s seeking to put his control back again at the river Euphrates. On this, Cook’s Commentary notes that the Hebrew literally means “to cause his hand to return” and states: “The exact force of the metaphor must . . . be decided by the context. If, as is most probable, this verse relates to the circumstances more fully detailed [at 2Sa 10:15-19], the meaning of the phrase here will be when he (Hadadezer) went to renew his attack (upon Israel), or to recruit his strength against Israel, at the river Euphrates.”

(1 CHRONICLES 19:18)

“But the Syrians fled from Israel; and David killed 7,000 charioteers and 40,000 foot soldiers of the Syrians, and he put Shoʹphach the chief of the army to death.”

*** it-1 p. 1015 Hadadezer ***
At Helam the forces of Hadadezer under the command of Shobach (Shophach) met those of David and were defeated. Immediately afterward, Hadadezer’s vassals made peace with Israel. (2Sa 10:17-19; 1Ch 19:17-19) In the conflict 40,000 Syrian horsemen were killed. Perhaps in order to escape through rough terrain, these horsemen dismounted and were slain as footmen. This could account for their being called “horsemen” at 2 Samuel 10:18 and “men on foot” at 1 Chronicles 19:18. The difference in the number of Syrian charioteers killed in battle is usually attributed to scribal error, the lower figure of 700 charioteers being considered the correct one.

(1 CHRONICLES 20:1)

“At the start of the year, at the time when kings go on campaigns, Joʹab led a military expedition and devastated the land of the Amʹmon•ites; he came and besieged Rabʹbah, while David stayed in Jerusalem. Joʹab attacked Rabʹbah and tore it down.”

*** it-1 pp. 93-94 Ammonites ***
The following spring Rabbah, the capital city of Ammon, came under siege by David’s forces. During one desperate sally by the besieged Ammonites, Uriah the Hittite died. (2Sa 11:1, 17, 24, 26, 27; see RABBAH No. 1.) The length of the siege is difficult to determine. The record of the birth of the adulterine child to Bath-sheba and the later birth of Solomon may fit chronologically within the period of the siege or may simply be given in complete form in order to terminate the account involving Bath-sheba, even though one or both of the births could have taken place after the siege. While the account at 1 Chronicles 20:1, 2 does not seem to indicate a protracted period, it would not be unusual if the siege had lasted into the following year. The full conquest of the Ammonite capital was finally effected by David.—2Sa 12:26-29.

(1 CHRONICLES 20:2)

“Then David took the crown of Malʹcam from its head, and found that it weighed a talent of gold, and in it there were precious stones; and it was placed on David’s head. He also took a vast amount of spoil from the city.”

*** it-1 p. 94 Ammonites ***
While the account at 1 Chronicles 20:1, 2 does not seem to indicate a protracted period, it would not be unusual if the siege had lasted into the following year. The full conquest of the Ammonite capital was finally effected by David.—2Sa 12:26-29.
“The crown of Malcam,” referred to in the capture of Rabbah, was evidently a crown placed on the head of the Ammonite idol god, elsewhere called Molech or Milcom. While the Revised Standard Version translates the Hebrew term Mal•kamʹ here as “their king,” it does not seem logical that a human king is referred to, inasmuch as the crown weighed “a talent of gold” (c. 34 kg; 92 lb t). It also seems likely that the crown’s being placed on David’s head was only a momentary act, perhaps to demonstrate the victory over this false god.—2Sa 12:30.

*** it-1 p. 552 Crown ***
The crown (ʽata•rahʹ) David took as a prize of war from the Ammonites at Rabbah originally was kept on the head of the idol Malcam. This crown’s form is not revealed, but it was “a talent of gold in weight [c. 34 kg; 92 lb t], and in it there were precious stones.” “It came to be on David’s head,” he possibly placing this heavy crown on his head only briefly, perhaps to signify his triumph over the false deity.—1Ch 20:2; see MOLECH.

*** it-2 p. 424 Molech ***
It is generally agreed that the Malcam referred to at 2 Samuel 12:30 and 1 Chronicles 20:2 is the idol image of the Ammonite god Milcom, or Molech, although the Hebrew term could be rendered “their king.” (Compare KJ; AS.) Earlier in the Biblical account the Ammonite king is referred to by his name Hanun (2Sa 10:1-4); hence, it is reasonable to conclude that the name Hanun rather than Malcam would have appeared in the Scriptural record if the king rather than the idol were intended. Also, it is thought unlikely that a king would have worn a crown weighing about 34 kg (92 lb t). For the same reason it has been suggested that David placed Malcam’s crown on his head only temporarily, perhaps to denote his victory over the false god. According to the reading of the Targum, which has been adopted by numerous translators, the crown had only one precious jewel. This has given rise to the view that it was the precious jewel, rather than the crown itself, that came to be on David’s head.

(1 CHRONICLES 20:3)

“And he brought out the people who were in it and put them to work at sawing stones and at working with sharp iron instruments and with axes. That was what David did to all the cities of the Amʹmon•ites. Finally David and all the troops returned to Jerusalem.”

*** w05 2/15 p. 27 Questions From Readers ***
Questions From Readers
Did David, a man agreeable to God’s own heart, treat his captives savagely, as some conclude from 2 Samuel 12:31 and 1 Chronicles 20:3?
No. David merely consigned the Ammonite captives to forced labor. David’s actions have been misunderstood because of the way some Bible translations render these verses.
Describing the treatment meted out to the Ammonites, those Bible versions portray David as barbaric and cruel. For example, 2 Samuel 12:31, according to the King James Version, reads: “He brought forth the people that were therein, and put them under saws, and under harrows of iron, and under axes of iron, and made them pass through the brickkiln: and thus did he unto all the cities of the children of Ammon.” The account at 1 Chronicles 20:3 is rendered similarly.
However, as noted by Bible scholar Samuel Rolles Driver, cruelty “is alien to all that we know of the personal character and temper of David.” Thus, a comment in The Anchor Bible states: “David is setting up work crews of captives for the economic exploitation of the conquered territory, evidently standard practice for victorious kings.” Along the same line, Adam Clarke comments: “The meaning therefore is, He made the people slaves, and employed them in sawing, making iron harrows, or mining, . . . and in hewing of wood, and making of brick. Sawing asunder, hacking, chopping, and hewing human beings, have no place in this text, no more than they had in David’s conduct towards the Ammonites.”
Reflecting this more accurate understanding, various modern translations make it clear that David should not be charged with inhumane treatment. Note the rendering of the New English Translation (2003): “He removed the people who were in it and made them do hard labor with saws, iron picks, and iron axes, putting them to work at the brick kiln. This was his policy with all the Ammonite cities.” (2 Samuel 12:31) “He took the city’s residents and made them work with saws, iron picks, and axes. David did this to all the cities of the Ammonites.” (1 Chronicles 20:3) The rendering of the New World Translation is also in keeping with the latest scholarship: “The people that were in it, he brought out that he might put them at sawing stones and at sharp instruments of iron and at axes of iron, and he made them serve at brickmaking.” (2 Samuel 12:31) “The people that were in it he brought out, and he kept them employed at sawing stones and at sharp instruments of iron and at axes; and that was the way David proceeded to do to all the cities of the sons of Ammon.”—1 Chronicles 20:3.
David did not subject the defeated Ammonites to barbarous torture and gruesome massacres. He did not copy the sadistic and brutal war customs of his day.
[Footnote]
By a difference of one letter, the Hebrew text can read “he put them into the saw” or “he cut (sawed) them in pieces.” Moreover, the word for “brick kiln” can also mean “brick mold.” Such a mold would be too narrow for anyone to pass through.

*** it-2 pp. 873-874 Saw ***
David put captive Ammonites to work at such tasks as sawing stones. (2Sa 12:29-31) Their tools included “axes,” or, literally, “stone saws,” according to the Masoretic text at 1 Chronicles 20:3. In some cases it appears that copper-bladed saws with stone teeth were used to cut stone. But apparently an abrasive such as emery powder was sometimes put under the cutting edge of a saw having a copper or a bronze blade so as to facilitate the cutting of stone.

(1 CHRONICLES 20:5)

“And there was war again with the Phi•lisʹtines, and El•haʹnan the son of Jaʹir struck down Lahʹmi the brother of Go•liʹath the Gitʹtite, whose spear had a shaft like the beam of loom workers.”

*** it-1 p. 706 Elhanan ***
1. The son of Jair who, in war with the Philistines, struck down Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite. (1Ch 20:5) In 2 Samuel 21:19 Elhanan is identified as “the son of Jaare-oregim the Bethlehemite,” and it is said that he struck down Goliath. However, many scholars think that the original reading of 2 Samuel 21:19 corresponded to 1 Chronicles 20:5, the differences in the two texts having arisen through scribal error.—See JAARE-OREGIM; LAHMI.

*** it-1 p. 984 Goliath ***
A passage that has caused some difficulty is found at 2 Samuel 21:19, where it is stated: “Elhanan the son of Jaare-oregim the Bethlehemite got to strike down Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear was like the beam of loom workers.” The parallel account at 1 Chronicles 20:5 reads: “Elhanan the son of Jair got to strike down Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear was like the beam of loom workers.”
Several suggestions have been made for an explanation of the problem. The Targum preserves a tradition that Elhanan is to be identified with David. The Soncino Books of the Bible, edited by A. Cohen (London, 1951, 1952), comment that there is no difficulty in the assumption that there were two Goliaths, commenting also that Goliath may have been a descriptive title like “Pharaoh,” “Rabshakeh,” “Sultan.” The fact that one text refers to “Jaare-oregim,” whereas the other reads “Jair,” and also that only the account in Second Samuel contains the term “Bethlehemite [Heb., behth hal•lach•miʹ],” while the Chronicles account alone contains the name “Lahmi [ʼeth-Lach•miʹ],” has been suggested by the majority of commentators to be the result of a copyist’s error.—See JAARE-OREGIM; LAHMI.

*** it-1 p. 1239 Jaare-oregim ***
JAARE-OREGIM
(Jaʹa•re-orʹe•gim).
A name appearing only at 2 Samuel 21:19. It is generally believed that scribal error has given rise to this name and that the correct reading is preserved in the parallel text at 1 Chronicles 20:5. “Jaare” is considered to be an alteration of “Jair,” and “oregim” (ʼo•reghimʹ, “weavers” or “loom workers”) is thought to have been copied inadvertently from a line below in the same verse.

*** it-2 p. 189 Lahmi ***
LAHMI
(Lahʹmi) [My Bread].
The brother of Goliath the Gittite. The account at 1 Chronicles 20:5 reads, in part, “Elhanan the son of Jair got to strike down Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite,” during a war with the Philistines. However, in a parallel text at 2 Samuel 21:19 the reading is: “Elhanan the son of Jaare-oregim the Bethlehemite got to strike down Goliath the Gittite.” In the latter text it appears that ʼeth-lach•miʹ (in English, “Lahmi,” the Hebrew term ʼeth merely denoting that Lahmi is the object of a verb) was misread by a copyist to be behth hal•lach•miʹ (“Bethlehemite”). Therefore the original probably read, “got to strike down Lahmi,” just as the parallel text at 1 Chronicles 20:5 reads. This would make the two texts harmonize on this point. Lahmi, then, was evidently the brother of the Goliath that David killed. On the other hand, it is possible that there were two Goliaths.—See GOLIATH.

(1 CHRONICLES 20:8)

“These were descendants of the Rephʹa•im in Gath, and they fell by the hand of David and by the hand of his servants.”

*** it-1 p. 746 Time of David ***
Gath 1Ch 18:1; 20:5-8

NOV. 9 BIBLE READING: 1 CHRONICLES 21-25


(1 CHRONICLES 21:1)

“Then Satan stood up against Israel and incited David to number Israel.”

*** w92 7/15 p. 5 Does the Bible Contradict Itself? ***
▪ Who caused David to take a count of the Israelites?
Second Samuel 24:1 states: “Again the anger of Jehovah came to be hot against Israel, when one incited David [or, “when David was incited,” footnote] against them, saying: ‘Go, take a count of Israel and Judah.’” But it was not Jehovah who moved King David to sin, for 1 Chronicles 21:1 says: “Satan [or, “a resister,” footnote] proceeded to stand up against Israel and to incite David to number Israel.” God was displeased with the Israelites and therefore allowed Satan the Devil to bring this sin upon them. For this reason, 2 Samuel 24:1 reads as though God did it himself. Interestingly, Joseph B. Rotherham’s translation reads: “The anger of Yahweh kindled against Israel, so that he suffered David to be moved against them saying, Go count Israel and Judah.”

*** it-2 p. 765 Registration ***
David’s Calamitous Registration. A registration taken toward the end of King David’s reign is also recorded, one that brought calamity. The account at 2 Samuel 24:1 reads: “And again the anger of Jehovah came to be hot against Israel, when one incited David against them, saying: ‘Go, take a count of Israel and Judah.’” The “one” who did the inciting is not there identified. Was it some human counselor? Was it Satan? Or even God? First Chronicles 21:1 helps to answer the question, saying: “Satan proceeded to stand up against Israel and to incite David to number Israel.” That rendering in the New World Translation agrees with the Hebrew text and with translations into Greek, Syriac, and Latin. It is also consistent with the renderings in other translations.—AT, NE, RS, JB, Mo.
However, as the footnote at 1 Chronicles 21:1 points out, the Hebrew word sa•tanʹ can also be rendered “a resister.” Byington translates it “a Satan”; Young’s translation reads, “an adversary.” So it is possible that the “one” moving David to decide on the calamitous course was a bad human counselor.
Interestingly, a footnote at 2 Samuel 24:1 shows that this text could be rendered: “And again the anger of Jehovah came to be hot against Israel, when he incited David against them.” The translation in The Bible in Basic English reads: “Again the wrath of the Lord was burning against Israel, and moving David against them, he said, Go, take the number of Israel and Judah.” Hence, some commentators consider that the “one” or “he” who incited David to take the census was Jehovah. His ‘anger against Israel,’ according to this view, predated the census and was due to their recent rebellions against Jehovah and his appointed king, David, when they followed first ambitious Absalom and then the good-for-nothing Sheba, the son of Bichri, in opposition to David. (2Sa 15:10-12; 20:1, 2) Such a viewpoint could be harmonized with the view that Satan or some bad human counselor incited David if the incitement is viewed as something that Jehovah purposely allowed, as by removing his protection or restraining hand.—Compare 1Ki 22:21-23; 1Sa 16:14; see FOREKNOWLEDGE, FOREORDINATION (Concerning individuals).
On David’s part, there may have been wrong motive due to pride and trust in the numbers of his army, hence a failing to manifest full reliance on Jehovah. In any case, it is clear that on this occasion David’s chief concern was not that of glorifying God.

(1 CHRONICLES 21:2)

“So David said to Joʹab and the chiefs of the people: “Go, count Israel from Beʹer-sheʹba to Dan; then report to me so that I may know their number.””

*** it-1 p. 277 Beer-sheba ***
Beer-sheba came to stand for the southernmost point in describing the length of the Promised Land, as expressed in the proverbial phrase “from Dan down to Beer-sheba” (Jg 20:1), or, in a converse direction, “from Beer-sheba to Dan.” (1Ch 21:2; 2Ch 30:5) After the division of the nation into two kingdoms, Beer-sheba continued to be used to indicate the southern extremity of the kingdom of Judah in the expressions “from Geba as far as Beer-sheba” (2Ki 23:8) and “from Beer-sheba to the mountainous region of Ephraim” (where the northern kingdom of Israel began). (2Ch 19:4) In postexilic times the expression was used in a yet more limited form to refer to the area occupied by the repatriated men of Judah, extending from Beer-sheba “clear to the valley of Hinnom.”—Ne 11:27, 30.
In reality, there were other towns of the Promised Land that lay to the S of Beer-sheba, even as there were Israelite towns N of Dan. However, both Dan and Beer-sheba were situated at natural frontiers of the land. In the case of Beer-sheba, its position was below the mountains of Judah on the edge of the desert. Additionally, it was one of the principal cities of Judah (along with Jerusalem and Hebron), and this was not only because it had an excellent supply of water as compared with the surrounding region, thus allowing for both farming and grazing of herds and flocks, but also because important roads converged on it from several directions. From Egypt an ancient route led up by the “Way of the Wells” through Kadesh-barnea to Beer-sheba, being joined by another road over which traveled the camel caravans from the “Spice Kingdoms” of the Arabian Peninsula, heading for Philistia or Judah. From Ezion-geber, at the head of the Gulf of ʽAqaba, another route led up through the Arabah and then turned W, climbing the Ascent of Akrabbim to Beer-sheba. At Gaza, in the Philistine Plain, a road branching from the highway led SE to Beer-sheba. And, connecting it with the rest of Judah, a road ran from Beer-sheba to the NE, climbing the plateau up into the mountains of Judah to Jerusalem and points farther N.—Ge 22:19.

(1 CHRONICLES 21:5)

“Joʹab now gave to David the number of the people who were registered. All Israel amounted to 1,100,000 men armed with swords, and Judah, 470,000 men armed with swords.”

*** w92 7/15 p. 5 Does the Bible Contradict Itself? ***
▪ How can one harmonize the different figures given for Israelites and Judeans in David’s count?
At 2 Samuel 24:9 the figures are 800,000 Israelites and 500,000 Judeans, whereas 1 Chronicles 21:5 numbers Israel’s fighting men at 1,100,000 and Judah’s at 470,000. Enlisted regularly in the royal service were 288,000 troops, divided into 12 groups of 24,000, each group serving one month during the year. There were an additional 12,000 attendant on the 12 princes of the tribes, making a total of 300,000. Apparently the 1,100,000 of 1 Chronicles 21:5 includes this 300,000 already enlisted, whereas 2 Samuel 24:9 does not. (Numbers 1:16; Deuteronomy 1:15; 1 Chronicles 27:1-22) As regards Judah, 2 Samuel 24:9 apparently included 30,000 men in an army of observation stationed on the Philistine frontiers but which were not included in the figure at 1 Chronicles 21:5. (2 Samuel 6:1) If we remember that 2 Samuel and 1 Chronicles were written by two men with different views and objectives, we can easily harmonize the figures.

*** it-2 p. 766 Registration ***
The count revealed that Israel had 1,100,000 men and Judah had 470,000, according to the record at 1 Chronicles 21:5. The report at 2 Samuel 24:9 says 800,000 men of Israel and 500,000 men of Judah. Some believe that a scribal error exists. But it is unwise to ascribe error to the record when the circumstances, methods of counting, and so forth, are not fully understood. The two accounts may have reckoned the number from different viewpoints. For example, it is possible that members of the standing army and/or their officers were counted or omitted. And different methods of reckoning may have caused a variation in the listing of certain men, as to whether they were under Judah or Israel. We find what may be such an instance at 1 Chronicles 27. Here 12 divisions in the king’s service are listed, naming all the tribes except Gad and Asher, and naming Levi and the two half tribes of Manasseh. This may have been because the men of Gad and Asher were combined under other heads at the time, or for other reasons not stated.

(1 CHRONICLES 21:6)

“But Leʹvi and Benjamin were not registered among them, because the king’s word was detestable to Joʹab.”

*** it-2 pp. 765-766 Registration ***
Joab, at David’s insistence, took the census, but unwillingly, the report stating: “Levi and Benjamin he did not register in among them, because the king’s word had been detestable to Joab” (Levi not being counted, in accord with the law at Numbers 1:47-49). Joab either stopped before registering Benjamin or delayed the progress of the registration, and David came to his senses and called a halt to it before Joab had completed it. (1Ch 21:6) Joab may have avoided Benjamin because he did not want to stir up this tribe that was the tribe of Saul, which had fought David’s army under Joab before uniting with the other tribes under David. (2Sa 2:12-17)

(1 CHRONICLES 21:9)

“Jehovah then spoke to Gad, David’s visionary, saying:”

*** it-2 p. 1160 Visionary ***
Not all of Jehovah’s prophets were visionaries. However, Gad was called both a “prophet” and “David’s visionary,” apparently because at least some of the messages he received from God came by means of visions containing divine instruction or counsel for King David.—2Sa 24:11; 1Ch 21:9.

(1 CHRONICLES 21:12)

“whether there should be three years of famine, or three months of being swept away by your adversaries while the sword of your enemies overtakes you, or three days of the sword of Jehovah—pestilence in the land—with Jehovah’s angel bringing destruction in all the territory of Israel.’ Now consider what I should reply to the One who sent me.””

*** it-2 p. 766 Registration ***
Jehovah’s judgment. Jehovah’s prophet Gad was sent to David, giving David, the authorizer of the census, a choice of one of three forms of punishment: a famine for three years, the sword of Israel’s enemies overtaking Israel for three months, or a pestilence for three days. David, leaning on God’s mercy rather than man’s, chose “to fall into the hand of Jehovah”; in the pestilence that followed, 70,000 persons died.—1Ch 21:10-14.
Here another variation is found between the Samuel and Chronicles accounts. Whereas 2 Samuel 24:13 says seven years of famine, 1 Chronicles 21:12 says three. (The Greek Septuagint reads “three” in the Samuel account.) One proffered explanation is that the seven years referred to at Second Samuel would, in part, be an extension of the three years of famine that came because of the sin of Saul and his house against the Gibeonites. (2Sa 21:1, 2) The current year (the registration took 9 months and 20 days [2Sa 24:8]) would be the fourth, and three years to come would make seven. Although the difference may have been due to a copyist’s error, it may be said again that a full knowledge of all the facts and circumstances should be had before one reaches such a conclusion.

(1 CHRONICLES 21:23)

“But Orʹnan said to David: “Take it as your own, and let my lord the king do what seems good to him. Here, I am providing the cattle for burnt offerings and the threshing sledge for the wood and the wheat as a grain offering. I give all of it.””

*** it-1 p. 811 Farming Implements ***
The threshing sledge was designed to separate the kernels from the ears of grain. The implement used in ancient times likely resembled the two types still employed in some parts of the Bible lands today. One consists of wooden planks joined together and bent back at the front. Its underside is equipped with sharp stones or knives. (Compare 1Ch 21:23; Job 41:30; Isa 41:15.) The driver stands on the sledge to weight it down. The other type has a seat for the driver and consists of a low-built, four-cornered wagon frame. Two or three parallel revolving rollers equipped with iron strips are fitted into this frame.—Compare Isa 28:27, 28.

(1 CHRONICLES 21:25)

“So David gave Orʹnan 600 gold shekels by weight for the site.”

*** it-1 p. 146 Araunah ***
ARAUNAH
(A•rauʹnah).
The Jebusite owner of the threshing floor purchased by King David for building an altar to Jehovah. This action resulted as the divinely indicated means of ending a scourge provoked by David’s numbering of the people.—2Sa 24:16-25; 1Ch 21:15-28.
Araunah apparently offered the place, along with cattle and wood implements for the sacrifice, without charge, but David insisted on paying a price. The record at 2 Samuel 24:24 shows that David purchased the threshing floor and the cattle for 50 silver shekels ($110). However, the account at 1 Chronicles 21:25 speaks of David’s paying 600 gold shekels (c. $77,000) for the site. The writer of Second Samuel deals only with the purchase as it relates to the altar location and the materials for the sacrifice then made, and it thus appears that the purchase price referred to by him was restricted to these things. On the other hand, the writer of First Chronicles discusses matters as relating to the temple later built on the site and associates the purchase with that construction. (1Ch 22:1-6; 2Ch 3:1) Since the entire temple area was very large, it appears that the sum of 600 gold shekels applies to the purchase of this large area rather than to the small portion needed for the altar first built by David.

*** it-1 p. 147 Araunah ***
In the Chronicles record Araunah is called Ornan.—1Ch 21:18-28; 2Ch 3:1.

*** it-2 p. 715 Purchase ***
Later, it appears, more of the surrounding property was added to include an area large enough for the whole temple site, the purchase price being 600 gold shekels by weight (c. $77,070). (2Sa 24:21-24; 1Ch 21:22-25)

(1 CHRONICLES 21:26)

“And David built an altar there to Jehovah and offered up burnt sacrifices and communion sacrifices, and he called on Jehovah, who now answered him with fire from the heavens on the altar of burnt offering.”

*** si p. 78 par. 17 Bible Book Number 13—1 Chronicles ***
After purchasing the location from Ornan, David obediently offers sacrifices there and calls upon Jehovah, who answers him “with fire from the heavens upon the altar of burnt offering.” (21:26)

(1 CHRONICLES 22:2)

“David then gave orders to bring together the foreign residents who were in the land of Israel, and he assigned them to be stonecutters to cut and shape stones for building the house of the true God.”

*** it-2 p. 42 Jerusalem ***
Toward the close of his rule, David began preparing construction materials for the temple. (1Ch 22:1, 2; compare 1Ki 6:7.) The hewn stones prepared may have been quarried in that area, for the bedrock of Jerusalem itself is easily cut and chiseled to size and shape, yet, upon exposure to the weather, hardens into durable and attractive building stones. There is evidence of an ancient quarry near the present Damascus Gate, vast quantities of rock having been cut out there in the course of time.

(1 CHRONICLES 22:8)

“But Jehovah’s word came to me, saying, ‘You have shed a great deal of blood, and you have fought great wars. You will not build a house for my name, for you have shed a great deal of blood on the earth before me.”

*** it-2 p. 987 Solomon ***
Undoubtedly the name Solomon (from a root meaning “peace”) applied in connection with the covenant that Jehovah made with David, in which he said that David, being a man who had shed much blood in warfare, would not build the house for Jehovah, as David had it in his heart to do. (1Ch 22:6-10) Not that David’s warfare was wrong. But Jehovah’s typical kingdom was essentially of a peaceful nature and objective; its wars were to clean out wickedness and those opposing Jehovah’s sovereignty, to extend Israel’s dominion to the boundaries that God had outlined, and to establish righteousness and peace. These objectives the wars of David accomplished for Israel. Solomon’s rule was essentially a reign of peace.

*** it-2 p. 1076 Temple ***
Solomon’s Temple. King David entertained a strong desire to build a house for Jehovah, to contain the ark of the covenant, which was “dwelling in the middle of tent cloths.” Jehovah was pleased with David’s proposal but told him that, because he had shed much blood in warfare, his son (Solomon) would be privileged to do the building. This was not to say that God did not approve David’s wars fought in behalf of Jehovah’s name and His people. But the temple was to be built in peace by a man of peace.—2Sa 7:1-16; 1Ki 5:3-5; 8:17; 1Ch 17:1-14; 22:6-10.

(1 CHRONICLES 22:14)

“Here I have taken great pains to prepare for Jehovah’s house 100,000 talents of gold and 1,000,000 talents of silver and such great quantities of copper and iron that they cannot be weighed, and I have prepared timbers and stones, but you will add to them.”

*** it-1 p. 590 David ***
David always had it in his heart to build that temple, and though not permitted to do so, he was allowed to set a great task force to hewing stones and gathering materials that included 100,000 talents of gold ($38,535,000,000) and 1,000,000 talents of silver ($6,606,000,000), and copper and iron without measure. (1Ch 22:2-16)

*** it-1 p. 982 Gold ***
David had set aside no less than 100,000 talents of gold for that temple, valued today in excess of $38,535,000,000. (1Ch 22:14)

(1 CHRONICLES 23:24)

“These were the sons of Leʹvi according to their paternal houses, the heads of the paternal houses, by those registered who were counted and listed by their names and who carried out the work for the service of the house of Jehovah, from 20 years old and up.”

*** it-1 p. 57 Age ***
Later, in David’s day, the age limit was dropped to 20 years for beginning tabernacle service, which was in time replaced by temple service.—1Ch 23:24-32; compare also Ezr 3:8.

(1 CHRONICLES 23:28)

“Their function was to assist the sons of Aaron for the service of the house of Jehovah, to be in charge of the courtyards, the dining rooms, the purification of every holy thing, and any work needed for the service of the house of the true God.”

*** nwt p. 1712 Glossary ***
Sons of Aaron. Descendants of Levi’s grandson Aaron, who was chosen as the first high priest under the Mosaic Law. The sons of Aaron performed the priestly duties at the tabernacle and at the temple.—1Ch 23:28.

(1 CHRONICLES 23:29)

“They assisted with the layer bread, the fine flour for the grain offering, the wafers of unleavened bread, the griddle cakes, the mixed dough, and all measures of quantity and size.”

*** it-1 p. 504 Cooking, Cooking Utensils ***
The Israelites also possessed deep-fat kettles or deep pans and also griddles. Grain offerings were frequently prepared in these. (Le 2:5, 7; 7:9; 1Ch 23:29) Examples of earthenware griddles have been discovered at Gezer. These had small depressions, comparable to the waffle iron of today. Iron griddles were also in use.—Eze 4:1-3.

(1 CHRONICLES 24:3)

“David, along with Zaʹdok from the sons of El•e•aʹzar and A•himʹe•lech from the sons of Ithʹa•mar, made divisions of them for the office of their service.”

*** it-1 p. 823 Festival of Booths ***
It is likely that the first of the 24 divisions of priests established by David began to serve at the temple after the Festival of Booths, inasmuch as the temple built by Solomon was inaugurated at the time of this festival in 1026 B.C.E.—1Ki 6:37, 38; 1Ch 24:1-18; 2Ch 5:3; 7:7-10.

(1 CHRONICLES 25:4)

“Of Heʹman, the sons of Heʹman: Buk•kiʹah, Mat•ta•niʹah, Uzʹzi•el, Shebʹu•el, Jerʹi•moth, Han•a•niʹah, Ha•naʹni, E•liʹa•thah, Gid•dalʹti, Ro•mamʹti-eʹzer, Josh•be•kashʹah, Mal•loʹthi, Hoʹthir, and Ma•haʹzi•oth.”

*** it-1 p. 224 Azarel ***
2. Head of the 11th of the 24 divisions of temple singers in David’s time; also called Uzziel.—1Ch 25:1, 4, 18.

(1 CHRONICLES 25:7)

“The number of them and their brothers who were trained in song to Jehovah, all experts, was 288.”

*** it-2 pp. 451-452 Music ***
In conjunction with the preparations for Jehovah’s temple, David set aside 4,000 Levites for musical service. (1Ch 23:4, 5) Of these, 288 were “trained in song to Jehovah, all experts.” (1Ch 25:7) The whole arrangement was under the direction of three accomplished musicians, Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun (apparently also named Ethan). Since each of these men was a descendant of one of Levi’s three sons, Gershom, Kohath, and Merari, respectively, the three chief Levite families were thus represented in the temple music organization. (1Ch 6:16, 31-33, 39-44; 25:1-6) The sons of these three men totaled 24, all of whom were among the aforementioned 288 skilled musicians. Each son was appointed by lot to be the head of one division of musicians. Under his direction were 11 more “experts,” selected from his own sons as well as other Levites. In this manner the 288 ([1 + 11] × 24 = 288) expert Levite musicians, like the priests, were separated into 24 courses. If all the remaining 3,712 ‘learners’ were thus divided, it would average about 155 more men to each of the 24 divisions, meaning there were about 13 Levites in various stages of musical education and training to each expert. (1Ch 25:1-31) Since the trumpeters were priests, they would be in addition to the Levite musicians.—2Ch 5:12; compare Nu 10:8.

(1 CHRONICLES 25:14)

“the seventh for Jesh•a•reʹlah, his sons and his brothers, 12;”

*** it-1 p. 189 Asharelah ***
ASHARELAH
(Ash•a•reʹlah).
A son of Asaph serving in the service groups of musicians and singers at the house of Jehovah in the time of David. (1Ch 25:1, 2) It is probable that Jesharelah of verse 14 is a variation of his name.

(1 CHRONICLES 25:18)

“the 11th for Azʹar•el, his sons and his brothers, 12;”

*** it-1 p. 224 Azarel ***
2. Head of the 11th of the 24 divisions of temple singers in David’s time; also called Uzziel.—1Ch 25:1, 4, 18.

NOV. 16 BIBLE READING: 1 CHRONICLES 26-29


(1 CHRONICLES 26:16)

“Shupʹpim and Hoʹsah had theirs to the west, near the Shalʹlech•eth Gate by the highway that goes up, guard group corresponding to guard group;”

*** it-2 p. 938 Shuppim ***
2. A gatekeeper appointed to the W of the sanctuary. (1Ch 26:16) Since the last three characters of his name in Hebrew (Shup•pimʹ) are identical to the last three characters of the previous term (behth ha•ʼasup•pimʹ), scholars suspect that it is a dittograph (an unintentional scribal repetition), therefore, in this verse, not the name of a person.—Compare 1Ch 26:10, 11.

(1 CHRONICLES 26:29)

“Of the Izʹhar•ites, Chen•a•niʹah and his sons were assigned outside administrative duties as officers and as judges over Israel.”

*** it-1 p. 430 Chenaniah ***
2. A Kohathite of the family of Izhar. Chenaniah and his sons had been designated for “the outside business,” evidently consisting of service as judges and officers, of whom there were 6,000 at the time of David’s numbering the Levites. (1Ch 26:29; 23:1-4, 12)

(1 CHRONICLES 26:30)

“Of the Hebʹron•ites, Hash•a•biʹah and his brothers, 1,700 capable men, were over the administration of Israel in the region west of the Jordan for all the work of Jehovah and for the king’s service.”

*** it-1 p. 48 Administration ***
The Hebrew word translated “administration” in 1 Chronicles 26:30 (pequd•dahʹ) comes from the root pa•qadhʹ, meaning “visit; turn attention to.” (Ru 1:6, ftn) It is also rendered “care; oversight.”—2Ch 24:11; Nu 3:32; compare 2Ki 11:18, ftn; see OVERSEER.

(1 CHRONICLES 27:1)

“This is the number of Israelites, the heads of the paternal houses, the chiefs of the thousands and of the hundreds, and their officers who ministered to the king in every matter of the divisions that would come in and go out month by month during all the months of the year; there were 24,000 in each division.”

*** it-1 p. 174 Army ***
However, David instituted some novel plans of his own. A system of monthly rotation provided 12 groups of 24,000 (a total of 288,000), so that a soldier normally served only one month a year. (1Ch 27:1-15) This does not mean that all 24,000 for one month came from the same tribe, but, rather, each tribe furnished its share of the monthly quota throughout the year.

(1 CHRONICLES 27:6)

“This Be•naiʹah was a mighty warrior of the thirty and in charge of the thirty, and over his division was his son Am•mizʹa•bad.”

*** it-1 p. 92 Ammizabad ***
AMMIZABAD
(Am•mizʹa•bad) [My People Have Endowed].
Son of Benaiah, who was King David’s mighty man over the 30 outstanding fighters. Ammizabad acted for his father, Benaiah, in overseeing the third royal service group, for the third month of the year.—1Ch 27:5, 6.

(1 CHRONICLES 27:7)

“The fourth for the fourth month was Asʹa•hel, Joʹab’s brother, and his son Zeb•a•diʹah after him, and 24,000 were in his division.”

*** it-1 p. 185 Asahel ***
At 1 Chronicles 27:7 Asahel is listed as a divisional commander of the month-by-month arrangement of troops. Since Asahel died before David became king over all Israel, his mention here may be rather with reference to his house, represented in his son Zebadiah, who is referred to in the text as Asahel’s successor. A further suggestion is that given by The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible (edited by G. A. Buttrick, 1962, Vol. 1, p. 244): “It is possible that we may have here the prototype of the Davidic militia, organized early in the Judean rule of the king, and that this original list has been brought up to date by the inclusion of Zebadiah, son and successor of Asahel in this command.”—Compare 1Ch 12.

(1 CHRONICLES 27:24)

“Joʹab the son of Ze•ruʹiah had started to take the count, but he did not finish; and God’s anger came against Israel because of this, and the number was not entered into the account of the history of the times of King David.”

*** it-2 p. 766 Registration ***
No doubt because the making of the count was wrong, it was not entered into “the account of the affairs of the days of King David.”—1Ch 27:24.

(1 CHRONICLES 27:32)

“Jonʹa•than, David’s nephew, was an adviser, a man of understanding and a secretary, and Je•hiʹel the son of Hachʹmo•ni looked after the king’s sons.”

*** it-2 p. 103 Jonathan ***
7. A man of understanding, a secretary and a counselor for King David. (1Ch 27:32) In the Masoretic text Jonathan’s relationship to David is indicated by the Hebrew word dohdh, which generally means “uncle.” But in view of two references in the Scriptures to a nephew of David named Jonathan, it is likely that the word is here used in the wider sense of “relative,” here being “brother’s son” or “nephew.” (Ro; AS, ftn; NW) He would thus be the same as No. 4.

(1 CHRONICLES 28:5)

“And of all my sons—for Jehovah has given me many sons—he chose my son Solʹo•mon to sit on the throne of the kingship of Jehovah over Israel.”

*** it-2 p. 157 King ***
Divinely appointed representatives. Jehovah appointed the kings of his people, and they were to act as his royal agents, sitting, not on their own thrones, but on “the throne of the kingship of Jehovah,” that is, as representatives of his theocratic rule. (1Ch 28:5; 29:23)

(1 CHRONICLES 28:9)

““And you, Solʹo•mon my son, know the God of your father and serve him with a complete heart and with a delightful soul, for Jehovah searches through all hearts, and he discerns every inclination of the thoughts. If you search for him, he will let himself be found by you, but if you leave him, he will reject you forever.”

*** cl chap. 24 p. 242 par. 7 Nothing Can “Separate Us From God’s Love” ***
King David told his son Solomon: “All hearts Jehovah is searching, and every inclination of the thoughts he is discerning.” (1 Chronicles 28:9) As God searches through billions of human hearts in this violent, hate-filled world, how delighted he must be when he comes upon a heart that loves peace, truth, and righteousness!

*** w10 11/1 p. 30 “He Will Let Himself Be Found by You” ***
Draw Close to God
“He Will Let Himself Be Found by You”
1 CHRONICLES 28:9
DO YOU know God? Answering that question is not as simple as it may seem. Truly knowing God involves becoming thoroughly familiar with his will and ways. We thereby develop a closeness with him that profoundly affects our entire way of life. Is such closeness really possible? If so, how do we find it? The answers can be discerned in King David’s advice to his son Solomon, found at 1 Chronicles 28:9.
Imagine the scene. David has ruled Israel for nearly 40 years, and the nation has prospered under his rule. Solomon, who will soon succeed him, is very young. (1 Chronicles 29:1) What parting counsel does David give his son?
Speaking from his own rich experience in serving God, David begins: “Solomon my son, know the God of your father.” David must mean something more than having head knowledge. Solomon is already a worshipper of David’s God, Jehovah. About a third of the Hebrew Scriptures have been completed, and Solomon is no doubt aware of what these sacred writings say about God. One scholar says that the Hebrew word rendered “know” can refer to “the most intimate acquaintance.” Yes, David wants his son to cultivate what David himself has treasured—a close personal relationship with God.
Such closeness should deeply affect Solomon’s outlook and way of life. David exhorts his son: “Serve him [God] with a complete heart and with a delightful soul.” Note that the charge to serve God comes after the admonition to know him. Truly knowing God leads to serving him. But he is not to be served with halfhearted hesitancy or doublehearted hypocrisy. (Psalm 12:2; 119:113) David implores his son to serve God wholeheartedly and willingly.
Why does David urge his son to worship with the right motive and thinking? David explains: “For all hearts Jehovah is searching, and every inclination of the thoughts he is discerning.” Solomon must not serve God just to please his father, David. God is looking for those whose hearts are sincerely inclined toward Him.
Will Solomon follow his father’s example and draw close to Jehovah? That is up to Solomon. David tells his son: “If you search for him, he will let himself be found by you; but if you leave him, he will cast you off forever.” To become a worshipper who is close to God, Solomon must put forth real effort to come to know Jehovah.
David’s fatherly advice assures us that Jehovah wants us to become close to him. But to develop that closeness, we need to “search for him,” digging into the Scriptures in an effort to come to know him intimately. Knowing him should move us to serve him wholeheartedly and willingly. Jehovah desires—and deserves—nothing less from his worshippers.—Matthew 22:37.
[Footnotes]
Some translations here read: “Serve him with a whole heart and with a willing mind.”
Sadly, although Solomon did start out serving with a complete heart, he did not remain faithful.—1 Kings 11:4.

*** w08 10/15 p. 7 Jehovah’s “Beaming Eyes” Examine All ***
Maintain a Complete Heart
18 To his son Solomon, King David said: “Know the God of your father and serve him with a complete heart and with a delightful soul; for all hearts Jehovah is searching, and every inclination of the thoughts he is discerning.” (1 Chron. 28:9) David wanted his son to do more than merely believe in God. He wanted Solomon to appreciate the depth of Jehovah’s interest in His servants. Do you appreciate Jehovah in that way?

*** w05 2/15 p. 19 par. 9 Safeguarding Our Christian Identity ***
Solomon’s own father, David, exhorted him to “know the God of your father and serve him with a complete heart.” (1 Chronicles 28:9) It would not be enough for young Solomon to watch how his own father built faith in Jehovah. He had to get to know Jehovah for himself, and he did. He beseeched God: “Give me now wisdom and knowledge that I may go out before this people and that I may come in.”—2 Chronicles 1:10.

*** g90 10/8 pp. 24-25 Why Should I Study the Bible? ***
Says 1 Chronicles 28:9: “If you search for him, he will let himself be found by you.” This implies digging into the Scriptures in an effort to know Jehovah intimately.
Have you done so? For example, can you explain why the Bible speaks of Jehovah as having “eyes,” “ears,” a “face,” and an “arm”? (1 Peter 3:12; Ezekiel 20:33) Does not the Bible say that “God is a Spirit”? (John 4:24) Or are you aware of the extent to which God has the ability to observe you, to know what you are about to say even before you say it? (Psalm 139:4) And what about Jehovah’s cardinal attributes of love, wisdom, justice, and power? Can you explain what the greatest manifestation of God’s love was? (John 3:16) Do you know the difference between God’s spirit and his power? (Micah 3:8) Can you prove that God has feelings—and that it is possible to hurt his feelings?—Psalm 78:40.
There is only one way to answer those questions—by studying the Bible. Young Luther has learned that “by studying His Word, I can ‘see’ Jehovah’s personality and the type of person he is.” (Compare Job 42:5.) Jaquella has similarly come to know God better. By a study of the Bible, she has come to appreciate “that Jehovah can back up what he says. When he promises something, he doesn’t break his promise; he doesn’t lie.”—Titus 1:2.

*** w89 5/1 p. 19 par. 6 Worship the Creator, Not The Creation ***
6 The willingness to search for Jehovah is what separates sheeplike people from goatlike ones. “If you search for him, he will let himself be found by you; but if you leave him, he will cast you off forever.” (1 Chronicles 28:9) Thus, no matter what a person’s race or nationality, whatever his education, whether rich or poor, if he sincerely searches for the truth about God, he will find it. From their heavenly vantage point, Christ and his angels will see to it that the searcher comes in contact with the truth, no matter where that person lives.

(1 CHRONICLES 28:11)

“David then gave to his son Solʹo•mon the architectural plan of the porch and of its houses, its storerooms, its roof chambers, its inner rooms, and the house of the propitiatory cover.”

*** it-1 p. 159 Architecture ***
He was also used to provide the divinely inspired “architectural plan” for the entire temple layout and equipment. (1Ch 28:11, 19) The Hebrew word for “architectural plan” (tav•nithʹ) comes from the root ba•nahʹ (“build”; 1Ch 22:11) and is elsewhere rendered “pattern” and “representation.”—Ex 25:9; 1Ch 28:18.

*** it-2 p. 699 Propitiatory Cover ***
In 1 Chronicles 28:11 the Most Holy, the innermost compartment of the temple, is referred to as “the house of the kap•poʹreth.” In this instance the Hebrew word is evidently not used simply as designating a lid, or cover, for a chest, but is employed with regard to the special function of the cover in the propitiation of sins. Accordingly, the expression is rendered “the house of the atonement” (Yg), “the house of propitiation” (AT), “the house of the propitiatory cover” (NW).

(1 CHRONICLES 28:12)

“He gave him the architectural plan of everything that had been conveyed to him through inspiration for the courtyards of Jehovah’s house, for all the dining rooms around it, for the treasuries of the house of the true God, and for the treasuries of the things made holy;”

*** it-2 p. 1021 Spirit ***
The spirit has qualifying force or capacity; it can qualify persons for a work or for an office. Though Bezalel and Oholiab may have had knowledge of crafts before their appointment in connection with the making of the tabernacle equipment and priestly garments, God’s spirit ‘filled them with wisdom, understanding, and knowledge’ so that the work could be done in the way purposed. It heightened whatever natural abilities and acquired knowledge they already had, and it enabled them to teach others. (Ex 31:1-11; 35:30-35) The architectural plans for the later temple were given to David by inspiration, that is, through the operation of God’s spirit, thus enabling David to undertake extensive preparatory work for the project.—1Ch 28:12.

(1 CHRONICLES 28:18)

“He also gave the weight for the refined gold for the incense altar and for the representation of the chariot, namely, the cherubs of gold that spread their wings out and overshadow the ark of the covenant of Jehovah.”

*** it-1 p. 432 Cherub ***
In symbol, the cherubs served as “the representation of the chariot” of Jehovah upon which he rode (1Ch 28:18), and the wings of the cherubs offered both guarding protection and swiftness in travel. So David, in poetic song, described the speed with which Jehovah came to his aid, like one who “came riding upon a cherub and came flying” even “upon the wings of a spirit.”—2Sa 22:11; Ps 18:10.

(1 CHRONICLES 28:19)

“David said: “The hand of Jehovah was upon me, and he gave me insight to put all the details of the architectural plan in writing.””

*** it-1 p. 159 Architecture ***
He was also used to provide the divinely inspired “architectural plan” for the entire temple layout and equipment. (1Ch 28:11, 19) The Hebrew word for “architectural plan” (tav•nithʹ) comes from the root ba•nahʹ (“build”; 1Ch 22:11) and is elsewhere rendered “pattern” and “representation.”—Ex 25:9; 1Ch 28:18.

(1 CHRONICLES 29:1)

“King David now said to all the congregation: “My son Solʹo•mon, the one whom God has chosen, is young and inexperienced, and the work is great, for it is not a temple for man but for Jehovah God.”

*** it-1 p. 422 Castle ***
Writing in the language of his day, Ezra records David’s calling Solomon’s temple a “castle” when he encouraged the people fully to support its construction.—1Ch 29:1, 19.

(1 CHRONICLES 29:4)

“including 3,000 talents of gold from Oʹphir and 7,000 talents of refined silver, for coating the walls of the houses,”

*** it-1 p. 502 Contribution ***
King David’s contributions for the construction of the prospective temple included his “special property” of gold and silver, to the amount of more than $1,202,000,000. In turn, the princes and the chiefs of the people happily contributed over $1,993,000,000, in gold and silver, besides copper, iron, and stones.—1Ch 29:1-9.

*** it-1 p. 590 David ***
Out of his personal fortune David contributed gold of Ophir and refined silver valued at more than $1,202,000,000. David also provided the architectural plans, received by inspiration, and organized the tens of thousands of Levites into their many divisions of service, including a great chorus of singers and musicians.—1Ch 23:1–29:19; 2Ch 8:14; 23:18; 29:25; Ezr 3:10.

*** it-2 p. 558 Ophir ***
David donated 3,000 talents of gold from Ophir for construction of the temple, gold valued at $1,156,050,000. (1Ch 29:1, 2, 4)

(1 CHRONICLES 29:5)

“the gold for the goldwork and the silver for the silverwork, and for all the work to be done by the craftsmen. Now who volunteers to come forward today with a gift in hand for Jehovah?””

*** w90 7/1 p. 31 Honor Jehovah With Your Riches ***
Anyone Can ‘Fill His Hand’ With a Gift
Is giving limited to the spiritual area? No. When King David of old was making preparations for building the temple, he asked: “Who is there volunteering to fill his hand today with a gift for Jehovah?” (1 Chronicles 29:5) Anyone could do so. Similarly today, young or old, in good health or not, many wish to make a voluntary material contribution to further the Kingdom interests. It may be done through the branch office of one’s country or through the local congregation. In this way anyone may, according to his ability, help bear the expense of seeing that the good news is preached in all the inhabited earth. It is a privilege.—2 Corinthians 9:8-12.

(1 CHRONICLES 29:7)

“And they gave to the service of the house of the true God: 5,000 talents of gold, 10,000 darics, 10,000 talents of silver, 18,000 talents of copper, and 100,000 talents of iron.”

*** nwt p. 1696 Glossary ***
Daric. A Persian gold coin weighing 8.4 g (0.27 oz t). (1Ch 29:7)—See App. B14.

*** nwt p. 1794 B14-B Currency and Weight ***
Daric (Persian, gold)
8.4 g / 0.27 oz t
Ezra 8:27

*** w09 8/1 p. 30 How Much Should I Donate? ***
For example, when King David planned to build a temple for Jehovah, his subjects donated “gold worth five thousand talents.” (1 Chronicles 29:7)

*** w09 8/1 p. 30 How Much Should I Donate? ***
In 2008, the average price of gold was $871 an ounce, making this contribution worth some $4,794,855,000.

*** it-1 p. 502 Contribution ***
King David’s contributions for the construction of the prospective temple included his “special property” of gold and silver, to the amount of more than $1,202,000,000. In turn, the princes and the chiefs of the people happily contributed over $1,993,000,000, in gold and silver, besides copper, iron, and stones.—1Ch 29:1-9.

*** it-1 p. 580 Daric ***
At 1 Chronicles 29:7 one of the figures for temple contributions during David’s reign is stated in terms of darics, although the Persian daric was unknown in David’s time. Evidently the writer of Chronicles converted the original figure into terms then current and familiar to his readers.—Ezr 8:27.

*** it-1 p. 1216 Iron ***
Later, however, King David gathered together huge quantities of iron for use in the temple construction. Under Solomon’s reign there was contributed “iron worth a hundred thousand talents,” or, according to many translations, “a hundred thousand talents of iron.” (1Ch 22:14, 16; 29:2, 7) If the reference is to the value of the iron and if the talents were silver, then the iron was worth $660,600,000. If the reference is to the weight of the iron, then it amounted to about 3,420 metric tons (3,770 tons).

(1 CHRONICLES 29:14)

““And yet, who am I and who are my people that we should be in a position to make voluntary offerings like this? For everything is from you, and we have given to you what comes from your own hand.”

*** it-1 p. 935 Gifts, Presents ***
By reason of his creatorship, Jehovah owns everything. Therefore, in giving material things for the furtherance of true worship, the giver is merely returning a portion of what he originally received from God.—Ps 50:10; 1Ch 29:14.

(1 CHRONICLES 29:19)

“And give a complete heart to my son Solʹo•mon, so that he may observe your commandments, your reminders, and your regulations and do all these things and build the temple for which I have made preparation.””

*** it-1 p. 422 Castle ***
Writing in the language of his day, Ezra records David’s calling Solomon’s temple a “castle” when he encouraged the people fully to support its construction.—1Ch 29:1, 19.

(1 CHRONICLES 29:23)

“And Solʹo•mon sat on Jehovah’s throne as king in place of David his father, and he was successful, and all the Israelites were obedient to him.”

*** g89 2/22 p. 18 Part 4—1513-607 B.C.E.—A Nation Set Apart, Unlike All Others ***
Not until almost 400 years later was a dynasty of human kings introduced. But even then, the nation was unique. Its king did not claim to be God or a descendant of God as, for example, the Pharaohs of Egypt did. Israel’s kings simply sat upon “Jehovah’s throne” in a representative way.—1 Chronicles 29:23.

*** it-1 p. 132 Appointed Times of the Nations ***
Jerusalem was the capital of the nation of Israel, whose kings of the line of David were said to “sit upon Jehovah’s throne.” (1Ch 29:23) As such, it represented the seat of the divinely constituted government or typical kingdom of God operating through the house of David.

*** it-2 p. 157 King ***
Divinely appointed representatives. Jehovah appointed the kings of his people, and they were to act as his royal agents, sitting, not on their own thrones, but on “the throne of the kingship of Jehovah,” that is, as representatives of his theocratic rule. (1Ch 28:5; 29:23)

*** it-2 p. 163 Kingdom of God ***
The kings thereafter appointed by Jehovah were to serve as God’s earthly agents, not diminishing in the least Jehovah’s own sovereignty over the nation. The throne was actually Jehovah’s, and they sat thereon as deputy kings. (1Ch 29:23) Jehovah commanded the anointing of the first king, Saul (1Sa 9:15-17), at the same time exposing the lack of faith the nation had displayed.—1Sa 10:17-25.
For the kingship to bring benefits, both king and nation must now respect God’s authority. If they unrealistically looked to other sources for direction and protection, they and their king would be swept away. (De 28:36; 1Sa 12:13-15, 20-25) The king was to avoid reliance on military strength, the multiplying of wives for himself, and being dominated by the lust for wealth. His kingship was to operate entirely within the framework of the Law covenant. He was under divine orders to write his own copy of that Law and read it daily, that he might keep a proper fear of the Sovereign Authority, stay humble, and hold to a righteous course. (De 17:16-20) To the extent that he did this, loving God wholeheartedly and loving his neighbor as himself, his rule would bring blessings, with no real cause for complaint due to oppression or hardship. But, as with the people, so now with their kings, Jehovah allowed the rulers to demonstrate what their hearts contained, their willingness or unwillingness to recognize God’s own authority and will.

*** it-2 p. 213 Law ***
Jehovah was identified in the Law as absolute Sovereign and also as King in a special way. Since Jehovah was both God and King of Israel, disobedience to the Law was both a religious offense and lèse-majesté, an offense against the Head of State, which in this case was against the King Jehovah. David, Solomon, and their successors on the throne of Judah were said to sit on “Jehovah’s throne.” (1Ch 29:23)

*** it-2 p. 826 Ruler ***
The kings of the line of David on the throne of Israel ruled as representatives of Jehovah, their real, invisible King. They were, therefore, said to be God’s anointed, sitting on “Jehovah’s throne.” (1Ch 29:23)

*** it-2 p. 1097 Throne ***
Jehovah extended his throne to earth in a typical, specific way in his dealings with the sons of Israel. Since the one ruling in Israel was to be “a king whom Jehovah your God will choose,” who would rule in Jehovah’s name over Jehovah’s people and according to Jehovah’s law, his throne was really “Jehovah’s throne.”—De 17:14-18; 1Ch 29:23.

(1 CHRONICLES 29:29)

“As for the history of King David, from beginning to end, it is written among the words of Samuel the seer, Nathan the prophet, and Gad the visionary,”

*** w09 3/15 p. 32 Questions From Readers ***
For example, 1 Chronicles 29:29 mentions “the words of Samuel the seer,” “the words of Nathan the prophet,” and “the words of Gad the visionary.” Those three could constitute a collective reference to books we know as 1 and 2 Samuel, or perhaps the book of Judges.

*** it-2 pp. 890-891 Seer ***
SEER
Evidently a man enabled by God to discern the divine will, one having such insight; one whose eyes had been unveiled, as it were, to see or understand things that were not open to men in general. The Hebrew word ro•ʼehʹ, translated “seer,” is drawn from a root word meaning “see,” literally or figuratively. The seer was a man consulted by others for wise counsel on problems encountered. (1Sa 9:5-10) The Bible names Samuel (1Sa 9:9, 11, 18, 19; 1Ch 9:22; 29:29), Zadok (2Sa 15:27), and Hanani (2Ch 16:7, 10) as seers.
The designations “seer,” “prophet,” and “visionary” are closely related in the Scriptures. The distinction between the terms may be that “seer” may relate to discernment, “visionary” to the manner in which the divine will was made known, and “prophet” more to the speaking forth or the proclamation of the divine will. Samuel, Nathan, and Gad are all called prophets (1Sa 3:20; 2Sa 7:2; 24:11), but 1 Chronicles 29:29 indicates a distinction between the three terms when it says, “among the words of Samuel the seer and among the words of Nathan the prophet and among the words of Gad the visionary.”
First Samuel 9:9 states: “The prophet of today used to be called a seer in former times.” This may have been because toward the close of the days of the Judges and during the reigns of the kings of Israel (which began in the days of Samuel) the prophet as a public proclaimer of God’s will came to be more prominent. Samuel is commonly called the first of the line of men called “the prophets.”—Ac 3:24; 13:20; see PROPHET.

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Highlights From the Book: First Chronicles

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